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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115538, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826503

RESUMO

In situ forming hydrogels generated upon spontaneous and biocompatible reaction under physiological conditions are widely investigated as injectable and implantable biomaterials. However, it is still a significant challenge to control their mechanics while maintaining their gelation behavior, due to the interdependency between gelation kinetics and mechanics. Herein, physicomechanical properties of in situ forming chitosan hydrogels via Schiff base formation are tuned in a wide range, while maintaining gelation kinetics, via polymer graft architecture. By introducing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafts with varying lengths and densities, the resulting PEG-grafted chitosan ('PEG-g-Cs') not only dissolve readily in neutral aqueous media, but also effectively control the mechanical properties of hydrogels, while maintaining facile gelation kinetics. These properties are further controlled by the chain length of polymeric crosslinker, PEG-dialdehyde. In addition, tissue adhesive properties of the hydrogels are further examined using ex vivo and in vivo models for their potential applications as tissue sealants.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805710

RESUMO

Advanced prostate cancer is a very heterogeneous disease reflecting in diverse regulations of oncogenic signaling pathways. Aberrant spatial dynamics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promote their dimerization and clustering, leading to constitutive activation in oncogenesis. The EphB2 and Src signaling pathways are associated with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton leading to malignancy, but their roles in regulating EGFR dynamics and activation are scarcely reported. Using single-particle tracking techniques, we found that highly phosphorylated EGFR in the advanced prostate cancer cell line, PC3, was associated with higher EGFR diffusivity, as compared with LNCaP and less aggressive DU145. The increased EGFR activation and biophysical dynamics were consistent with high proliferation, migration, and invasion. After performing single-cell RNA-seq on prostate cancer cell lines and circulating tumor cells from patients, we identified that upregulated gene expression in the EphB2 and Src pathways are associated with advanced malignancy. After dasatinib treatment or siRNA knockdowns of EphB2 or Src, the PC3 cells exhibited significantly lower EGFR dynamics, cell motility, and invasion. Partial inhibitory effects were also found in DU145 cells. The upregulation of parts of the EphB2 and Src pathways also predicts poor prognosis in the prostate cancer patient cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our results provide evidence that overexpression of the EphB2 and Src signaling pathways regulate EGFR dynamics and cellular aggressiveness in some advanced prostate cancer cells.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220807, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404090

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men worldwide. Most PCa cases are not fatal; however, the outlook is poor when PCa spreads to another organ. Bone is the target organ in about 80% of patients who experience metastasis from a primary PCa tumor. In the present study, we characterized the secretome of PC3/nKR cells, which are a new subline of PC3 cells that were originally isolated from nude mice that were implanted with PC3 cells without anti-natural killer (NK) cell treatment. Wound healing and Transwell assays revealed that PC3/nKR cells had increased migratory and invasive activities in addition to a higher resistance to NK cells-induced cytotoxicity as compared to PC3 cells. We quantitatively profiled the secreted proteins of PC3/nKR and PC3 cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis coupled with 2-plex tandem mass tag labeling. In total, 598 secretory proteins were identified, and 561 proteins were quantified, among which 45 proteins were secreted more and 40 proteins were secreted less by PC3/nKR cells than by PC3 cells. For validation, the adapter molecule crk, serpin B3, and cystatin-M were analyzed by western blotting. PC3/nKR cells showed the selective secretion of NKG2D ligand 2, HLA-A, and IL-6, which may contribute to their NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity resistance, and had a high secretion of crk protein, which may contribute to their high migration and invasion properties. Based on our secretome analysis, we propose that PC3/nKR cells represent a new cell system for studying the metastasis and progression of PCa.

5.
Biol Reprod ; 101(1): 63-75, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004472

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) family and has been identified as a strong physiological regulator of muscle differentiation. Recently, the functional role of GDF8 in reproductive organs has received increased interest following its detection in the human placenta and uterus. To investigate the effects of GDF8 during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), we assessed the quality of matured oocytes. Furthermore, we investigated the specific gene transcription and protein activation levels in oocytes and cumulus cells after IVM and subsequent embryonic development after in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation. Prior to these experiments, the concentration of GDF8 in porcine follicular fluid was determined. During the entire IVM period, 1.3 ng/mL GDF8 and its signaling inhibitor SB431542 (SB) at 5 µM were added as control, SB, SB + GDF8, and GDF8 groups, respectively. Our results demonstrate that supplementation with GDF8 during porcine oocyte IVM enhanced both meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation, with altered transcriptional patterns, via activation of Sma- and Mad-related protein 2/3 (SMAD2/3). Using the pharmacological inhibitor SB431542, we demonstrated that inhibition of GDF8-induced Smad2/3 signaling reduces matured oocyte quality. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated paracrine factor GDF8 in porcine follicular fluid in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that GDF8 supplementation improved mature oocyte quality by regulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and intracellular glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels during porcine IVM.

6.
Theriogenology ; 129: 70-76, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825707

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß family and a physiological regulator. According to recent studies, GDF8 can be detected in follicular fluid and the uterus, suggesting that GDF8 may affect preimplantation embryonic development and act in a paracrine manner to improve the success of late-blastocyst implantation in vivo. We investigated the effect of GDF8 supplementation during in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) on cleavage, blastocyst formation rate, and total cell number and analysed gene transcription levels and cell linage specification in the resulting blastocysts. First, the concentration of GDF8 in porcine oviductal fluid was determined to be 139.8 pg/mL. Then, 0, 0.2, 2, or 20 ng/mL GDF8 was added to embryos throughout the entire IVC period. Our results showed that supplementation with GDF8 during porcine preimplantation embryo IVC enhanced blastocyst formation and total cell number and altered the transcriptional patterns of genes that regulate pluripotency and cavitation. Furthermore, using differential immunostaining, we demonstrated that supplementation with GDF8 enhanced the expression of the genuine inner cell mass (ICM) marker SOX2 and the ICM/trophectoderm ratio, improving IVF blastocyst quality. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated the presence of the in vivo oviductal factor GDF8 in oviductal fluid. Furthermore, we found that GDF8 supplementation at 0.2 ng/mL increased the blastocyst total cell number and ICM/trophectoderm ratio by inducing the transcription of genes involved in developmental competence and the expression of genuine ICM marker SOX2 during porcine IVF embryo development in vitro.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Miostatina/farmacologia , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Suínos/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3395, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833579

RESUMO

Derailed transmembrane receptor trafficking could be a hallmark of tumorigenesis and increased tumor invasiveness, but receptor dynamics have not been used to differentiate metastatic cancer cells from less invasive ones. Using single-particle tracking techniques, we  developed a phenotyping asssay named Transmembrane Receptor Dynamics (TReD), studied the dynamics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in seven breast epithelial cell lines and developed a phenotyping assay named Transmembrane Receptor Dynamics (TReD). Here we show a clear evidence that increased EGFR diffusivity and enlarged EGFR confinement size in the plasma membrane (PM) are correlated with the enhanced metastatic potential in these cell lines. By comparing the TReD results with the gene expression profiles, we found a clear negative correlation between the EGFR diffusivities and the breast cancer luminal differentiation scores (r = -0.75). Upon the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), EGFR diffusivity significantly increased for the non-tumorigenic MCF10A (99%) and the non-invasive MCF7 (56%) cells, but not for the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cell. We believe that the reorganization of actin filaments during EMT modified the PM structures, causing the receptor dynamics to change. TReD can thus serve as a new biophysical marker to probe the metastatic potential of cancer cells and even to monitor the transition of metastasis.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(12): 11841-11848, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810305

RESUMO

The advent of 3D printing has had a disruptive impact in manufacturing and can potentially revolutionize industrial fields. Thermoplastic materials printable into complex structures are widely employed for 3D printing. Polylactic acid (PLA) is among the most promising polymers used for 3D printing, owing to its low cost, biodegradability, and nontoxicity. However, PLA is electrically insulating and mechanically weak; this limits its use in a variety of 3D printing applications. This study demonstrates a straightforward and environment-friendly method to fabricate conductive and mechanically reinforced PLA composites by incorporating graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). To fully utilize the superior electrical and mechanical properties of graphene, liquid-exfoliated GNPs are dispersed in isopropyl alcohol without the addition of any surfactant and combined with PLA dissolved in chloroform. The GNP-PLA composites exhibit improved mechanical properties (improvement in tensile strength by 44% and maximum strain by 57%) even at a low GNP threshold concentration of 2 wt %. The GNP-PLA composites also exhibit an electrical conductivity of over 1 mS/cm at >1.2 wt %. The GNP-PLA composites can be 3D-printed into various features with electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. This work presents a new direction toward advanced 3D printing technology by providing higher flexibility in designing multifunctional 3D printed features.

9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(3): 2052-2063, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609263

RESUMO

Prior to transplantation, preclinical study of safety and efficacy of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is needed. Therefore, it is important to generate an efficient in vitro platform for neural cell differentiation in large animal models such as pigs. In this study, porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were seeded at high cell density to a neural induction medium containing the dual Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD) inhibitors, a TGF-ß inhibitor and BMP4 inhibitor. The dSMADi-derived NPCs showed NPC markers such as PLAG1, NESTIN and VIMENTIN and higher mRNA expression of Sox1 compared to the control. The mRNA expression of HOXB4 was found to significantly increase in the retinoic acid-treated group. NPCs propagated in vitro and generated neurospheres that are capable of further differentiation in neurons and glial cells. Gliobalstoma-cultured medium including injury-related cytokines treated porcine iPSC-NPCs survive well in vitro and showed more neuronal marker expression compared to standard control medium. Collectively, the present study developed an efficient method for production of neural commitment of porcine iPSCs into NPCs.

10.
J AAPOS ; 23(1): 20.e1-20.e5, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate changes in refractive error following horizontal muscle surgery and to analyze the relationship between these changes and axial length. METHODS: Patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (LR group) or unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection (RR group) were investigated prospectively. The patients were followed for at least 3 months postoperatively; refractive error, axial length, mean corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure were evaluated at each examination. Postoperative changes in both groups were compared. RESULTS: A total of 64 eyes of 47 patients were included-34 eyes in the LR group and 30 eyes in the RR group. In both groups refractive error, axial length, and mean corneal astigmatism significantly increased 1 day postoperatively, although the changes in all three parameters returned to their preoperative values within 1 month of surgery and remained stable thereafter for the duration of the follow-up period. There was a negative correlation between changes in axial length and refractive error toward myopia in the 64 eyes on postoperative day 1 (partial correlation coefficient r = -0.637; P < 0.001). Changes in refractive error and axial length were significantly larger in the RR than in the LR group 1 day postoperatively (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, resp.). CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal muscle surgery induces a transient myopic shift. This is thought to be due to axial length elongation as well as changes in corneal astigmatism.

11.
Theriogenology ; 120: 147-156, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121547

RESUMO

Current research suggests that supplementing in vitro culture (IVC) media with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have beneficial effects on the development of porcine embryos in vitro. However, the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF on molecular signaling events during in vitro embryonic development of porcine embryos. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were fertilized, and the resultant zygotes were cultured with 5 ng/mL of VEGF supplemented with or without fetal bovine serum from day 4 till day 7. Without VEGF and/or FBS served as the control group. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect expression patterns of apoptosis- and oxidative stress-related genes in day 7 blastocysts (BLs). Early-stage apoptosis was detected by annexin-V assays in day 2 and day 7 embryos. We found that the addition of VEGF throughout the culture period with or without FBS supplementation significantly improved embryo survival and development. Supplementation with VEGF in the IVC medium significantly increased early BL formation (p < 0.05), although addition of FBS on day 4 significantly increased hatched BL formation (p < 0.05) regardless of VEGF supplementation. However, supplementation of media with both VEGF and FBS increased the formation of expanded BLs synergistically. The average total cell numbers per BL were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in embryos supplemented with VEGF and FBS than in those supplemented with either VEGF or FBS alone. We also found that accumulation of reactive oxygen species in VEGF-treated embryos was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in untreated embryos. The mRNA levels of caspase-3 were significantly lower (p < 0.05), and those of Bcl-2 and Nrf-2 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in embryos grown in VEGF-supplemented media than in embryos grown in non-supplemented media. Furthermore, on day 2, the numbers of viable embryos (44.06 ±â€¯3.94%) and blastomeres (67.18 ±â€¯3.60%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05), and the numbers of early apoptotic embryos (55.94 ±â€¯3.94) and blastomeres (23.23 ±â€¯4.22) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in VEGF-treated BLs than in controls. Furthermore, the numbers of early apoptotic cells in BLs on day 7 were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) in VEGF-treated BLs than in controls. Overall, our results indicate that supplementing IVC media with VEGF during in vitro culture of porcine embryos increases their developmental potential.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Suínos/embriologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Theriogenology ; 113: 197-207, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554602

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule with biological activities, such as stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPA on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). During IVM, the maturation medium was supplemented with various concentrations of LPA (0, 10, 30, and 60 µM). After 42 h of IVM, the 30 µM LPA-treated group showed a significant (P <0.05) increase in nuclear maturation and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels compared with the other groups. The 30 µM LPA-treated group exhibited a significant decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels compared with the other groups. In PA, the 30 µM LPA-treated group had significantly higher cleavage (CL) and blastocyst (BL) rates compared with those of the other LPA-treated groups. In IVF, the 30 µM LPA-treated group had significantly higher CL and BL rates than the other LPA-treated groups. The expression of the developmental competence gene (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) in the oocytes and cumulus cells of the individuals in the 30 µM LPA-treated group was significantly increased compared with the control group. In addition, the specific expression of urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) and uPA Receptor (uPAR) in cumulus cells was significantly increased in the 30 µM LPA-treated group. The western blotting results revealed that LPA improves the activities of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) by enhanced phosphorylation. In conclusion, treatment with 30 µM LPA during IVM promotes enhances the EGF-EGFR signaling pathway, resulting in cumulus cell expansion. And then, this treatment improves the developmental potential of PA and IVF porcine embryos by enhancing nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation and reducing ROS.


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Suínos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Animais , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa , Partenogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4315, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531294

RESUMO

Hydrogels are highly attractive delivery vehicles for therapeutic proteins. Their innate biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and aqueous permeability allow stable encapsulation and release of proteins. The release rates also can be controlled simply by altering the crosslinking density of the polymeric network. However, the crosslinking density also influences the mechanical properties of hydrogels, generally opposite to the permeability. In addition, the release of larger proteins may be hindered below critically diminished porosity determined by the crosslinking density. Herein, the physical properties of the hydrogels are tuned by presenting functional pendant chains, independent of crosslinking density. Heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (PEGMA) with various end functional groups is synthesized and copolymerized with PEG dimethacrylate (PEGDA) to engineer PEG hydrogels with pendant PEG chains. The pendant chains of the PEG hydrogels consisting of sulfonate, trimethylammonium chloride, and phenyl groups are utilized to provide negative charge, positive charge and hydrophobicity, respectively, to the hydrogels. The release rates of proteins with different isoelectric points are controlled in a wide range by the type and the density of functional pendant chains via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Hidrogéis/química , Metacrilatos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/síntese química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Ponto Isoelétrico , Metacrilatos/síntese química , Polietilenoglicóis/síntese química , Polimerização , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/síntese química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Albumina Sérica/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Sulfônicos/síntese química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Tripsina/administração & dosagem
14.
Drug Discov Today ; 22(9): 1430-1437, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533188

RESUMO

Theranostic nanomedicine, utilizing state-of-the-art, multifaceted nanomaterials and devices with therapeutic and diagnostic dual functions, has emerged as a highly attractive and promising new field of medicine. The theory behind the use of nanomaterials for theranostic applications is to impart multifunctionality by applying various engineering strategies to combine different modalities on a nanoscale. Carbon nanomaterials, which have been a subject of intense scientific research and industrial applications in recent years, have also found their way into theranostic nanomedicine owing to their innate multifunctionality. In this review, we outline recent research progress and trends in utilizing various types of carbon nanomaterial for theranostic applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
15.
Retina ; 37(3): 515-521, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness of healthy subjects and patients with unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and to determine possible correlations between the LC thickness and the BRVO subtypes. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study included a total of 46 patients with naive, untreated, unilateral BRVO and 31 healthy control subjects. The occlusion site was divided into two BRVO types: arteriovenous crossing BRVO (AV-BRVO) and optic nerve BRVO (ON-BRVO). The optic nerve head was scanned using enhanced-depth imaging with the Spectralis optical coherence tomography system. RESULTS: The mean LC thickness of both eyes in patients with BRVO was thinner than that of eyes (274.0 µm) of the healthy subjects (both, P < 0.001). Although the LC thickness of the BRVO-affected eyes was slightly thinner than that of the fellow eyes (237.0 µm vs. 241.4 µm, respectively), there was no statistically significant difference. In addition, there were no significant differences in the LC thicknesses of both eyes according to the site of occlusion. CONCLUSION: A thinner LC was observed in both eyes of unilateral BRVO patients compared with those of healthy subjects. This finding suggests that thin LC may contribute to the pathogenesis of BRVO as a local mechanical factor in addition to systemic factors.


Assuntos
Disco Óptico/patologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Disco Óptico/anatomia & histologia , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Estatística como Assunto , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tonometria Ocular , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Testes de Campo Visual
16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 255(4): 691-697, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796671

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical features and bevacizumab efficacy for macular edema (ME) following branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) stratified by baseline visual acuity. METHODS: This retrospective study included a total 117 eyes from 117 consecutive patients with ME following BRVO, who received PRN intravitreal bevacizumab injection and were followed for more than 6 months. The eyes were categorized into three groups according to baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (group A, BCVA <20/200; group B, BCVA ≥20/200 and ≤20/40; group C, BCVA >20/40). Baseline demographics, clinical features, BCVA, and central retinal thickness (CRT) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injection and the number of injections were compared. RESULTS: Groups A-C included 11, 83, and 23 eyes, respectively. The mean baseline CRT was thickest in group A (810.1, 580.8, and 473.5 µm in groups A-C, respectively; p < 0.001) and the percentage of eyes with macular ischemia increased in the worst BCVA group (45.5, 25.0, and 4.3 % in groups A-C, respectively; p = 0.005). The mean BCVA and CRT improved at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment compared to baseline values in all groups (all, p < 0.001). The number of injections for 6 months was greater in the worst BCVA group (3.2, 2.3, and 1.9 injections in groups A-C, respectively; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: In ME following BRVO, baseline visual acuity correlates with macular ischemia and baseline CRT. Intravitreal bevacizumab treatment results in significant anatomical and functional improvement regardless of baseline visual acuity.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/complicações , Acuidade Visual , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Macula Lutea/patologia , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382402

RESUMO

Ganghwaljetongyeum (GHJTY) has been used as a standard treatment for arthritis for approximately 15 years at the Korean Medicine Hospital of Dongshin University. GHJTY is composed of 18 medicinal herbs, of which five primary herbs were selected and named new Ganghwaljetongyeum (N-GHJTY). The purpose of the present study was to observe the effect of N-GHJTY on arthritis and to determine its mechanism of action. After confirming arthritis induction using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats, N-GHJTY (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day) was administered once a day for 10 days. In order to determine pathological changes, edema of the paws and weight were measured before and for 10 days after N-GHJTY administration. Cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) levels and histopathological lesions in the knee joint were also examined. Edema in the paw and knee joint of N-GHJTY-treated rats was significantly decreased at 6, 8, and 10 days after administration, compared to that in the CFA-control group, while weight consistently increased. Rats in N-GHJTY-treated groups also recovered from the CFA-induced pathological changes and showed a significant decline in cytokine levels. Taken together, our results showed that N-GHJTY administration was effective in inhibiting CFA-induced arthritis via anti-inflammatory effects while promoting cartilage recovery by controlling cytokine levels.

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