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1.
Cancer ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643945

RESUMO

Uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting can reduce patients' quality of life and may result in premature discontinuation of chemotherapy. Although nausea and vomiting are commonly grouped together, research has shown that antiemetics are clinically effective against chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) but less so against chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). Nausea remains a problem for up to 68% of patients who are prescribed guideline-consistent antiemetics. Despite the high prevalence of CIN, relatively little is known regarding its etiology independent of CIV. This review summarizes a metagenomics approach to the study and treatment of CIN with the goal of encouraging future research. Metagenomics focuses on genetic risk factors and encompasses both human (ie, host) and gut microbial genetic variation. Little work to date has focused on metagenomics as a putative biological mechanism of CIN. Metagenomics has the potential to be a powerful tool in advancing scientific understanding of CIN by identifying new biological pathways and intervention targets. The investigation of metagenomics in the context of well-established demographic, clinical, and patient-reported risk factors may help to identify patients at risk and facilitate the prevention and management of CIN.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112195, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current use of ribavirin in difficult-to-cure chronic hepatitis C patients (HCV) and patients with severe respiratory infections is constrained by the issue of ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia that affects 30% of treated patients, requiring dosage modification or discontinuation. Though some genetic variants have been identified predicting this adverse effect, known clinical and genetic factors do not entirely explain the risk of ribavirin-induced anemia. METHODS: We assessed the associations of previously identified variants in inosine triphosphatase (ITPA), solute carrier 28A2 (SLC28A2) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with ribavirin-induced anemia defined as hemoglobin decline of ≥30 g/L on treatment, followed by a staged discovery (n = 114), replication (n = 74), and combined (n = 188) genome-wide association study to uncover potential new predictive variants. RESULTS: We identified a novel association in the gene coding glycophorin C (rs6741425; OR:0.12, 95%CI:0.04-0.34, P = 2.94 × 10-6) that predicts protection against ribavirin-induced anemia. We also replicated the associations of ITPA and VDR genetic variants with the development of ribavirin-induced anemia (rs1127354; OR:0.13, 95%CI:0.04-0.41, P = 8.66 ×10-5; and rs1544410; OR:1.65, 95%CI:1.01-2.70, P = 0.0437). CONCLUSIONS: GYPC variation affecting erythrocyte membrane strength is important in predicting risk for developing ribavirin-induced anemia. ITPA and VDR genetic variants are also important predictors of this adverse reaction.

3.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103000, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397123

RESUMO

The competing and non-equilibrium phase transitions, involving dynamic tunability of cooperative electronic and magnetic states in strongly correlated materials, show great promise in quantum sensing and information technology. To date, the stabilization of transient states is still in the preliminary stage, particularly with respect to molecular electronic solids. Here, a dynamic and cooperative phase in potassium-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (K-TCNQ) with the control of pulsed electromagnetic excitation is demonstrated. Simultaneous dynamic and coherent lattice perturbation with 8 ns pulsed laser (532 nm, 15 MW cm-2 , 10 Hz) in such a molecular electronic crystal initiates a stable long-lived (over 400 days) conducting paramagnetic state (≈42 Ωcm), showing the charge-spin bistability over a broad temperature range from 2 to 360 K. Comprehensive noise spectroscopy, in situ high-pressure measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), theoretical model, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) studies provide further evidence that such a transition is cooperative, requiring a dedicated charge-spin-lattice decoupling to activate and subsequently stabilize nonequilibrium phase. The cooperativity triggered by ultrahigh-strain-rate (above 106 s- 1 ) pulsed excitation offers a collective control toward the generation and stabilization of strongly correlated electronic and magnetic orders in molecular electronic solids and offers unique electro-magnetic phases with technological promises.

4.
Transpl Int ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318518

RESUMO

Patient ethnicity may influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of tacrolimus. Because the Canadian First Nations (FN) constitute a large and increasing segment of the liver transplant population, we undertook to determine whether PK differences exist for a once-daily, extended release formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf) in FN compared to Caucasian (CAUC) liver transplant recipients. Following achievement of a steady state with Advagraf, blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours for whole blood tacrolimus levels by commercial immunoassay and CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 allele analyses were performed by polymerase chain reactions. Nineteen subjects participated in the study (7 FN and 12 CAUC). The FN cohort had significantly higher AUC (214 ± 48 versus 168 ± 25, P < 0.05), Cmax (16.7 ± 4.4 ng/ml versus 11.3 ± 1.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05), Cmin (6.1 ± 1.0 ng/ml versus 4.7 ± 0.5 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and shorter Tmax (1.6 ± 0.2 hours versus 2.8 ± 0.3 hours, P < 0.05) values than CAUCs. CYP3A4 genotypes were C/C in both cohorts, while the CYP3A5 *1/*3 allele was present in 2/5 FN and 0/9 CAUC. The results of this study indicate that once-daily, extended release Advagraf results in higher blood tacrolimus levels and shorter times to Cmax in FN compared to CAUC liver transplant recipients.

5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex and gender refer to biological and social differences between men and women. While well-evaluated in other disciplines, their roles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not well-defined. This study aimed to characterize differences in healthcare outcomes in men and women with IBD. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre cohort study was conducted to evaluate differences between men and women receiving care for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) at the Western University Personalized Medicine Clinic from March 2012 to September 2019. The primary endpoint was the proportion of IBD drugs used for all drug classes. Additional outcomes in healthcare utilization and disease phenotype were assessed. Student's t test and Fisher's exact test were used to assess differences RESULTS: A total of 1015 participants were included (CD = 656; UC = 359). In UC and CD, 47.9% and 59.0% were women, respectively. Overall, women were more likely prescribed budesonide than men (23.6% vs. 13.4%; p < 0.0001), while more men were exposed to prednisone for IBD management (73.5% vs. 67.4%; p = 0.04). Immunomodulator use was higher in men with CD versus women (86.6% vs. 78.3%; p = 0.008) and of those exposed, women more commonly experienced ADRs (29.5% vs. 21.2%; p = 0.01). Though no sex-related difference was identified, age was a predictor of biologic exposure in women with CD and men with UC, with those > 55 being less likely to receive biologics. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight differences in disease course and treatment approaches between men and women with IBD and support the consideration of sex and gender when researching disease outcomes.

7.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(5): 1077-1087, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083747

RESUMO

CD4+ T-helper 22 (Th22) cells are a phenotypically distinct lymphocyte subset that produces high levels of interleukin (IL)-22 without co-production of IL-17A. However, the developmental origin and lineage classification of Th22 cells, their interrelationship to Th17 cells, and potential for plasticity at sites of infection and inflammation remain largely undefined. An improved understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the outgrowth of Th22 cells will provide insights into their regulation during homeostasis, infection, and disease. To address this knowledge gap we generated 'IL-17A-fate-mapping IL-17A/IL-22 reporter transgenic mice' and show that Th22 cells develop in the gastrointestinal tract and lung during bacterial infection without transitioning via an Il17a-expressing intermediate, although in some compartments alternative transition pathways exist. Th22-cell development was not dependent on T-bet; however, this transcription factor functioned as a promiscuous T-cell-intrinsic regulator of IL-17A and IL-22 production, in addition to regulating the outgrowth, phenotypic stability, and plasticity of Th22 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that at sites of mucosal bacterial infection Th22 cells develop as a distinct lineage independently of Th17 cells; though both lineages exhibit bidirectional phenotypic flexibility within infected tissues and their draining lymph nodes, and that T-bet plays a critical regulatory role in Th22-cell function and identity.

9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080317

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics (PGx)-based personalized medicine (PM) is increasingly utilized to guide treatment decisions for many drug-disease combinations. Notably, London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) has pioneered a PGx program that has become a staple for London-based specialists. Although implementational studies have been conducted in other jurisdictions, the Canadian healthcare system is understudied. Herein, the multistakeholder perspectives on implementational drivers and barriers are elucidated. Using a mixed-method qualitative model, key stakeholders, and patients from LHSC's PGx-based PM clinic were interviewed and surveyed, respectively. Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed in a stepwise process of customer profiling, value mapping, and business model canvasing. Value for LHSC located specialist users of PGx was driven by the quick turnaround time, independence of the PGx clinic, and the quality of information. Engagement of external specialists was only limited by access and awareness, whereas other healthcare nonusers were limited by education and applicability. The major determinant of successful adoption at novel sites were institutional champions. Patients valued and approved of the service, expressed a general willingness to pay, but often traveled far to receive genotyping. This paper discusses the critical pillars of education, awareness, advocacy, and efficiency required to address implementation barriers to healthcare service innovation in Canada. Further adoption of PGx practices into Canadian hospitals is an important factor for advancing system-level changes in care delivery, patient experiences, and outcomes. The findings in this paper can help inform efforts to advance clinical PGx practices, but also the potential adoption and implementation of other innovative healthcare service solutions.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116779

RESUMO

Genetic diagnosis is becoming increasingly sophisticated, with the ability to identify even fine differences in patients with a wide variety of congenital heart lesions. Although we have an incomplete understanding of the clinical consequences of most genetic findings, some categories of mutations can have important implications for disease recurrence and prognosis. Consideration of the biology underlying a genetic deficiency, when known, can be useful in the clinical management of some patients.

11.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(4): e00332, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821842

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Azathioprine-induced pancreatitis is an idiosyncratic and unpredictable response, occurring in up to 7% of azathioprine-exposed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The haplotype HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C is strongly associated with azathioprine-induced pancreatitis in IBD. We aimed to evaluate whether pretreatment HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C screening will reduce the risk of azathioprine-induced pancreatitis. METHODS: Participants with IBD were screened for HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C, and participants with a variant genotype were excluded from azathioprine treatment. Wild-type participants were started on azathioprine and followed for 3 months. The incidence of pancreatitis was compared with unscreened historical controls. RESULTS: HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C screening resulted in an 11-fold reduction in the incidence of azathioprine-induced pancreatitis (n = 1/328 or 0.30% vs n = 13/373 or 3.4%). In propensity score-matched cohorts (age and sex), HLA DQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C screening was significantly associated with a reduction in the incidence of AZA-induced pancreatitis independent of weight, glucocorticoid exposure, and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio = 0.075, 95% confidence interval = 0.01-0.58, P = 0.01). Up to 45% (n = 271/599) of participants were excluded from azathioprine therapy based on the haplotype in the HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C-screened cohort. DISCUSSION: HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C screening reduced the risk of azathioprine-induced pancreatitis; however, using this strategy to guide the use of azathioprine therapy in IBD may eliminate a large proportion of patients from being eligible for treatment with azathioprine. In regions where there is access to other IBD therapies, and given the short-term and long-term toxicities associated with azathioprine, HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C-screening may be a clinically relevant strategy for enhancing the safe use of azathioprine in IBD. In addition, cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to further solidify the utility of HLADQA1-HLADRB1*07:01A>C screening in IBD populations.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Pancreatite/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo Genético , Haplótipos , Humanos , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Br J Cancer ; 124(11): 1803-1808, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MMR proficient (pMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) is usually unresponsive to immunotherapy. Recent data suggest that ibrutinib may enhance the anti-tumour activity of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib plus pembrolizumab in refractory metastatic CRC. METHODS: This was a phase 1/2 study in patients with refractory metastatic pMMR CRC. The primary endpoints for phases 1 and 2 were maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and disease control rate, respectively. The secondary endpoints were safety, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and MTD was not identified. The highest tested dose of ibrutinib, 560 mg once daily, was combined with a fixed dose of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for the phase 2 portion. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were anaemia (21%), fatigue (8%) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (8%). Among 31 evaluable patients, 8 (26%) achieved stable disease, and no objective response was observed. The median PFS and OS were 1.4 and 6.6 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ibrutinib 560 mg daily plus pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks appears to be well tolerated with limited anti-cancer activity in metastatic CRC. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03332498.

16.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(4): 451-461, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660569

RESUMO

Introduction: Alterations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes are observed in up to 60% of biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients. Patients with advanced/metastatic BTC have few therapeutic options, so there is a demand for the development of new and innovative treatment approaches. The use of poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPis), either as a monotherapy or in combination, is being extensively studied in clinical trials.Areas Covered: This review examines the targeting of the DDR pathway with PARPis as a potential novel treatment option for the management of BTCs. The rationale behind the use of PARPis and current clinical experience is discussed. Moreover, further insights into potential future directions concerning the applicability of PARPis in the treatment of BTCs are proposed.Expert Opinion: Prospective clinical data with PARPis in the treatment of BTCs are limited. The potential combination of PARPis and IDH1 inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials is interesting because of the potential synergistic preclinical data. There are other possible combinations including those drugs that target the angiogenesis or STAT3 pathways. An enhanced understanding of acquired resistance to PARPis is necessary to progress the use of these agents in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem
18.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(4): 1338-1348, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620159

RESUMO

Consensus guidelines exist for genotype-guided fluoropyrimidine dosing based on variation in the gene dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD). However, these guidelines have not been widely implemented in North America and most studies of pretreatment DPYD screening have been conducted in Europe. Given regional differences in treatment practices and rates of adverse events (AEs), we investigated the impact of pretreatment DPYD genotyping on AEs in a Canadian context. Patients referred for DPYD genotyping prior to fluoropyrimidine treatment were enrolled from December 2013 through November 2019 and followed until completion of fluoropyrimidine treatment. Patients were genotyped for DPYD c.1905+1G>A, c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, and c.1236G>A. Genotype-guided dosing recommendations were informed by Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related AE (grade ≥3, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0). Secondary outcomes included early severe AEs, severe AEs by toxicity category, discontinuation of fluoropyrimidine treatment due to AEs, and fluoropyrimidine-related death. Among 1394 patients, mean (SD) age was 64 (12) years, 764 (54.8%) were men, and 47 (3.4%) were DPYD variant carriers treated with dose reduction. Eleven variant carriers (23%) and 418 (31.0%) noncarriers experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related AE (p = 0.265). Six carriers (15%) and 284 noncarriers (21.1%) experienced early severe fluoropyrimidine-related AEs (p = 0.167). DPYD variant carriers treated with genotype-guided dosing did not experience an increased risk for severe AEs. Our data support a role for DPYD genotyping in the use of fluoropyrimidines in North America.

20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 77, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The threshold concentration of infliximab during maintenance therapy has not been well-defined in relation to histologic remission. The aim of the study is to dentify the maintenance-phase infliximab concentration associated with histologic remission in inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 104 IBD patients seen at a tertiary care centre in London, Canada. Infliximab trough concentrations were collected during the maintenance phase of treatment and compared between participants with and without evidence of histologic remission. Participants were additionally evaluated for sustained histologic remission, and relapse to active disease. RESULTS: Participants in histologic remission attained higher mean concentrations of infliximab during the maintenance phase (10.34 ± 0.69 µg/ml) compared to those with persistent disease activity (6.23 ± 0.67 µg/ml, p-value < 0.0001). Additionally, during the maintenance phase, sustained histologic remission was also associated with a higher mean concentration of infliximab (10.81 ± 5.46 µg/ml) compared to those who relapsed to active disease (5.68 ± 3.70, p < 0.001). Overall, participants with a mean infliximab trough concentration greater than 8ug/ml were more likely to have histologic remission (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUROC = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.65-0.84, p < 0.0001) and sustained histologic remission (AUC = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.63-0.91, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Maintenance-phase infliximab trough concentrations greater than 8 µg/ml, which is higher than the currently recommended target concentration, are highly associated with histologic remission and sustained histologic remission.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Canadá , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
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