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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451680

RESUMO

Weigela subsessilis is used in folk medicine to treat pain and allergic syndromes in Korea. However, the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of W. subsessilis callus extract remain unexplored. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the W. subsessilis callus of pharmacological activity. Therefore, we first established in vitro calluses of W.subsessilis via plant tissue culture methods. We then evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of W. subsessilis callus extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The W. subsessilis callus extract showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. These effects were regulated via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling through LPS-induced translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. W. subsessilis callus extract also showed antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in Propionibacterium acnes-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. These results indicate that W. subsessilis callus extract has antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting its possible application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445689

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TdSCs) under hyperglycemic conditions. In the in vivo experiment, rats were classified into diabetic (DM) and non-DM groups depending on the intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) or saline injection. Twelve-week after STZ injection, the supraspinatus tendon was harvested and prepared for histological evaluation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for osteochondrogenic (aggrecan, BMP-2, and Sox9) and tenogenic (Egr1, Mkx, scleraxis, type 1 collagen, and Tnmd) markers. For the in vitro experiment, TdSCs were isolated from healthy rat Achilles tendons. Cultured TdSCs were treated with methylglyoxal and recombinant MIF or MIF gene knockdown to determine the effect of hyperglycemic conditions and MIF on the differentiation function of TdSCs. These conditions were classified into four groups: hyperglycemic-control group, hyperglycemic-recombinant-MIF group, hyperglycemic-knockdown-MIF group, and normal-control group. The mRNA expression of osteochondrogenic and tenogenic markers was compared among the groups. In the in vivo experiment, the mRNA expression of all osteochondrogenic and tenogenic differentiation markers in the DM group was significantly higher and lower than that in the non-DM group, respectively. Similarly, in the in vitro experiments, the expression of all osteochondrogenic and tenogenic differentiation markers was significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in the hyperglycemic-control group compared to that in the normal-control group. The hyperglycemic-knockdown-MIF group demonstrated significantly decreased expression of all osteochondrogenic differentiation markers and increased expression of only some tenogenic differentiation markers compared with the hyperglycemic-control group. In contrast, the hyperglycemic-recombinant-MIF group showed significantly increased expression of all osteochondrogenic differentiation markers, but no significant difference in any tenogenic marker level, compared to the hyperglycemic-control group. These results suggest that tendon homeostasis could be affected by hyperglycemic conditions, and MIF appears to alter the differentiation of TdSCs via enhancement of the osteochondrogenic differentiation in hyperglycemic conditions. These are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a further study.


Assuntos
Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tendões/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/farmacologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Tendões/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6150, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262344

RESUMO

Optical activation of material properties illustrates the potentials held by tuning light-matter interactions with impacts ranging from basic science to technological applications. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that composite nanostructures providing nonlocal environments can be engineered to optically trigger photoinduced charge-transfer-dynamic modulations in the solid state. The nanostructures explored herein lead to out-of-phase behavior between charge separation and recombination dynamics, along with linear charge-transfer-dynamic variations with the optical-field intensity. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, up to 270% increase in charge separation rate is obtained in organic semiconductor thin films. We provide evidence that composite nanostructures allow for surface photovoltages to be created, which kinetics vary with the composite architecture and last beyond optical pulse temporal characteristics. Furthermore, by generalizing Marcus theory framework, we explain why charge-transfer-dynamic modulations can only be unveiled when optic-field effects are enhanced by nonlocal image-dipole interactions. Our demonstration, that composite nanostructures can be designed to take advantage of optical fields for tuneable charge-transfer-dynamic remote actuators, opens the path for their use in practical applications ranging from photochemistry to optoelectronics.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287317

RESUMO

Toona sinensis has been traditionally used to treat dysentery, enteritis, flatulence, and itchiness. However, the existence of anti-inflammatory effects of T. sinensis on Propionibacterium acnes-induced skin disease is unknown. In vitro cultures of plant cells and tissues produced under controlled conditions offer a continuous production platform for plant natural products including pigments and anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we determine the anti-inflammatory activities of an extract of in vitro grown adventitious shoots of T. sinensis on P. acnes, the etiologic agent of skin inflammation. The extract of T. sinensis showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also had antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects on P. acnes-treated HaCaT cells. In addition, these effects were regulated by suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. These results suggesting the potential application of adventitious shoots of T. sinensis grown with an in vitro proliferation system as a medicine for treating P. acnes-induced inflammatory skin disease.

5.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825401

RESUMO

Environmental factors can influence the composition of gut microbiota, but understanding the combined effect of lifestyle factors on adult gut microbiota is limited. Here, we investigated whether changes in the modifiable lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, physical exercise, and body mass index affected the gut microbiota of Korean navy trainees. The navy trainees were instructed to stop smoking and alcohol consumption and follow a sleep schedule and physical exercise regime for eight weeks. For comparison, healthy Korean civilians, who had no significant change in lifestyles for eight weeks were included in this study. A total of 208 fecal samples were collected from navy trainees (n = 66) and civilians (n = 38) at baseline and week eight. Gut flora was assessed by sequencing the highly variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The α-and ß -diversity of gut flora of both the test and control groups were not significantly changed after eight weeks. However, there was a significant difference among individuals. Smoking had a significant impact in altering α-diversity. Our study showed that a healthy lifestyle, particularly cessation of smoking, even in short periods, can affect the gut microbiome by enhancing the abundance of beneficial taxa and reducing that of harmful taxa.

6.
Nat Mater ; 19(11): 1175-1181, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839590

RESUMO

Metallic alloys containing multiple principal alloying elements have created a growing interest in exploring the property limits of metals and understanding the underlying physical mechanisms. Refractory high-entropy alloys have drawn particular attention due to their high melting points and excellent softening resistance, which are the two key requirements for high-temperature applications. Their compositional space is immense even after considering cost and recyclability restrictions, providing abundant design opportunities. However, refractory high-entropy alloys often exhibit apparent brittleness and oxidation susceptibility, which remain important challenges for their processing and application. Here, utilizing natural-mixing characteristics among refractory elements, we designed a Ti38V15Nb23Hf24 refractory high-entropy alloy that exhibits >20% tensile ductility in the as-cast state, and physicochemical stability at high temperatures. Exploring the underlying deformation mechanisms across multiple length scales, we observe that a rare ß'-phase plays an intriguing role in the mechanical response of this alloy. These results reveal the effectiveness of natural-mixing tendencies in expediting high-entropy alloy discovery.

7.
Arthroscopy ; 36(9): 2513-2522, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes and failure rates of revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) between young and middle-aged surgery patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent revision ACLRs between January 2008 and June 2017 with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age: ≥40 years (group A) and <40 years (group B). Detailed patient demographic data, preoperative radiographic data, and concurrent meniscal and chondral lesion were reviewed. Clinical scores, laxity tests results, and graft failures were compared between groups at the final follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients (group A, n = 24, 46.6 ± 4.5 years; group B, n = 62, 26.2 ± 6.3 years) were included in this study. Demographic data showed that the time interval from primary to revision ACLR was longer in group A than in group B (96.2 ± 80.9 vs. 52.0 ± 42.1 months, P = .011). Group A had a higher prevalence of chondral defects of the trochlea (P = .016). No significant differences were identified in the prevalence and severity of meniscal lesions. At the final follow-up, all clinical scores were improved postoperatively but did not differ significantly between the groups. No significant differences were identified in side-to-side difference on Telos stress radiographs (group A, 6.3 ± 5.0 mm; group B, 5.6 ± 3.8 mm; P = .403) and graft failure rate (group A, 33.3%; group B, 30.6%; P = .358) at the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that the clinical outcomes of revision ACLRs in patients improved significantly in patients younger than 40 years and were comparable to those observed in patients older than 40 years at a minimum 2-year follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Doenças das Cartilagens/cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arthroscopy ; 36(10): 2718-2727, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of medial and lateral posterior tibial slope (PTS) on long-term clinical outcomes and survivorship after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autografts. METHODS: A total of 232 patients (mean age, 28.2 ± 8.9 years) who underwent primary ACL reconstruction from October 2002 to July 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with multiple ligament reconstruction, total meniscectomy, contralateral knee surgery before ACL reconstruction, open growth plate, and less than 10-year follow-up were excluded in the study. The medial and lateral PTS were measured from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Based on Li et al.'s previous study, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to their medial PTS (≤5.6° vs >5.6°) and lateral PTS (≤3.8° vs >3.8°), respectively. Clinical outcomes (clinical scores, stability tests and failure rate) were compared between the groups at the last follow-up. Furthermore, survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: All clinical scores (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective, Lysholm, and Tegner activity scores) and stability tests (physical examinations and side-to-side difference in Telos stress radiographs) were insignificantly different between the 2 groups classified based on medial or lateral PTS. However, the failure rate was significantly higher in patients with medial PTS >5.6° (16.1% vs 5.1%, P = .01) or lateral PTS >3.8° (14.5% vs 4.7%; P = .01). The odds ratios of graft failure due to increased medial and lateral PTS were 3.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-8.28; P = .02) and 3.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-9.09; P = .01), respectively. In addition, the 10-year survivorship was significantly lower in patients with medial PTS >5.6° (83.9% vs 94.9%, P = .01) or lateral PTS >3.8° (85.5% vs 96.0%; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Increased medial (>5.6°) and lateral (>3.8°) PTS were associated with higher failure rate and lower survivorship at a minimum of 10-year follow-up after primary ACL reconstruction using hamstring autografts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective comparative trial.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Autoenxertos , Músculos Isquiossurais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Escore de Lysholm para Joelho , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meniscectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Ther Med ; 19(4): 2783-2791, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256761

RESUMO

The anti-obesity effect of a combination of extracts made of Platycodon grandiflorum (PGE), Apium graveolens (AGE) and green tea (GTE) extracts was investigated in a high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6N mouse model. Body weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, liver weight, adipocytes size and serum lipid profile, insulin, leptin and glucose levels were investigated. Additionally, hepatic steatosis, injury and oxidative burden were evaluated in the present study. The current study demonstrated that the PGE, AGE, and GTE (PAG) mixture were most effective in preventing obesity and its associated complications compared with the single extracts used alone. This was evidenced by the PAG's prevention of weight gain, reduction of adipocyte size, beneficial effects in serum lipid profile, levels of insulin, leptin and glucose, and the prevention of liver injury by reducing fat accumulation in the liver, decreased GOT and GPT enzymes and the upregulation of liver antioxidant enzymes. These results suggested that PAG may provide insights into functional food ingredients for use in the prevention of obesity.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294907

RESUMO

The inhibition of the aberrant differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) is a major target for the regeneration of damaged tendon tissues, as tendinopathy can be caused by the aberrant differentiation of TDSCs. We investigated whether the possible aberrant differentiation of TDSCs can be prevented by using adequate inhibitors. TDSCs extracted from chemically induced tendinopathy and injury-with-overuse tendinopathy models were cultured with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA) and T0070907 to block osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation, respectively. The optimal dose of AGA decreased the osteogenic-specific marker Runx2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2), and T0070907 blocked the adipogenic-specific marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in mRNA levels. We also found that AGA induced tenogenic differentiation in mRNA levels. However, T0070907 did not affect the tenogenic differentiation and regenerative capacity of TDSCs. We expect that optimal doses of AGA and T0070907 can prevent tendinopathy by inhibiting osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively. In addition, AGA and T0070907 may play important roles in the treatment of tendinopathy.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tendinopatia/patologia , Tendinopatia/terapia , Tendões/citologia , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tendinopatia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 826, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047160

RESUMO

Strategies involving metastable phases have been the basis of the design of numerous alloys, yet research on metastable high-entropy alloys is still in its infancy. In dual-phase high-entropy alloys, the combination of local chemical environments and loading-induced crystal structure changes suggests a relationship between deformation mechanisms and chemical atomic distribution, which we examine in here in a Cantor-like Cr20Mn6Fe34Co34Ni6 alloy, comprising both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal closed packed (hcp) phases. We observe that partial dislocation activities result in stable three-dimensional stacking-fault networks. Additionally, the fraction of the stronger hcp phase progressively increases during plastic deformation by forming at the stacking-fault network boundaries in the fcc phase, serving as the major source of strain hardening. In this context, variations in local chemical composition promote a high density of Lomer-Cottrell locks, which facilitate the construction of the stacking-fault networks to provide nucleation sites for the hcp phase transformation.

12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 40, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guettarda speciosa is mainly found in tropical areas in Asia. Although G. speciosa is traditionally used to treat some of the inflammatory disorders, the experimental evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory effect of G. speciosa is limited. Here, we sought to obtain evidence that G. speciosa has anti-inflammatory activity using an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model and to explore possible underlying mechanisms for the activity. METHODS: The methanol extract of G. speciosa Linn. (MGS) was fingerprinted by HPLC. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT and flow cytometer. As for an ALI mouse model, C57BL/6 mice received an intratracheal (i.t.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of MGS on lung inflammation in the ALI mice were assessed by differential cell counting and FACS of inflammatory cells and hematoxylin and eosin staining of lung tissue. Proteins were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and gene expression was by real-time qPCR. Neutrophil elastase activity was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: MGS did not cause metabolic disarray or produce reactive oxygen species that could induce cytotoxicity. Similar to ALI patients, C57BL/6 mice that received an i.t. LPS developed a high level of neutrophils, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflicted tissue damage in the lung, which was suppressed by i.t. MGS administered at 2 h after LPS. Mechanistically, MGS activated Nrf2, which was related to MGS interrupting the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Nrf2. MGS suppressed the nuclear localization of NF-κB induced by LPS, suggesting the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Furthermore, MGS inhibited the enzymatic activity of neutrophil elastase. CONCLUSION: MGS could suppress lung inflammation in an ALI mouse model, the effect of which could be attributed to multiple mechanisms, including the activation of Nrf2 and the suppression of NF-κB and neutrophil elastase enzymatic activity by MGS.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanol , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Rubiaceae/química
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18682, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914065

RESUMO

Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is the greatest challenge after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous cement injection (PCI) for PJF after PLIF patients requiring surgical revision.In this retrospective clinical study, we reviewed 7 patients requiring surgical revision for PJF after PLIF with 18 months follow-up. They received PCI at the collapsed vertebral body and supra-adjacent vertebra, with or without intervertebral disc intervention. The outcome measures were radiographic findings and revision surgery. Two different radiographic parameters (wedging rate (%) of the fractured vertebral body and local kyphosis angle) were used, and were performed before and immediately after PCI, and 18 month after the PCI.In our study, we showed that 5 of 7 patients who experienced PJF after PLIF did not receive any revision surgery after PCI. Immediately after cement injection, the anterior wedging rate (%) and the local kyphosis angle were significantly improved (P = .018, P = .028). The anterior wedging rates (%) and local kyphosis angle, at pre-PCI, immediate after PCI, and at final follow-up, were not significantly different between the non-revision surgery and revision surgery groups.Five of 7 patients who experienced PJF after PLIF did not receive revision surgery after PCI. Considering that general anesthesia and open surgery are high-risk procedures for geriatric patients, our results suggest that non-surgical PCI could be a viable alternative treatment option for PJF.SMC2017-01-011-001. Retrospectively registered 18 January 2017.


Assuntos
Cimentos Ósseos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Polimetil Metacrilato/administração & dosagem , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 14(1): 408, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are controversies about platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an established treatment option for rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy. The purpose of the study was to find the relation of cellular component with clinical efficacy in RC tendinopathy and to find the composition of PRP in treating RC tendinopathy. METHODS: A total 30 patients were recruited and divided into PRP and control groups. In the PRP group, 2 ml of PRP solution was injected to the hypoechoic lesion of degenerative supraspinatus via 22-gauge syringe with peppering technique. Patients in the control group were taught rotator cuff strengthening exercises. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Constant-Murley score, and numeric rating scale (NRS) were measured before, 6 weeks after, 12 weeks after, and 24 weeks after the procedure. PRP compositions were analyzed using the 1 ml of PRP solution. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis showed no significant difference of ASES and Constant-Murley scores between the groups at 6 weeks (P = 0.582 and 0.258) and at 12 weeks (P = 0.969 and 0.795) but showed a significant difference at 24 weeks (P = 0.050 and 0.048). Independent t test showed significant group difference of NRS at 6 weeks (P = 0.031) but not at 12 and 24 weeks (P = 0.147 and 0.935). 5.19 pg/ml in IL-1ß and 61.79 µg/ml in TGF-ß1 were acquired as cutoff values to predict meaningful improvement. The PRP subgroup above IL-1ß or TGF-ß1 cutoff value showed significant differences in all clinical outcomes compared with the exercise group while the PRP subgroup below the cutoff value showed no significant differences in linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study can help to find the optimal PRP condition and to enhance the effect of PRP on RC tendinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: All the patients were registered in our Institutional Ethics Committee (approval number 2014-05-009).


Assuntos
Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Tendinopatia/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2090, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064988

RESUMO

Quantitative and well-targeted design of modern alloys is extremely challenging due to their immense compositional space. When considering only 50 elements for compositional blending the number of possible alloys is practically infinite, as is the associated unexplored property realm. In this paper, we present a simple property-targeted quantitative design approach for atomic-level complexity in complex concentrated and high-entropy alloys, based on quantum-mechanically derived atomic-level pressure approximation. It allows identification of the best suited element mix for high solid-solution strengthening using the simple electronegativity difference among the constituent elements. This approach can be used for designing alloys with customized properties, such as a simple binary NiV solid solution whose yield strength exceeds that of the Cantor high-entropy alloy by nearly a factor of two. This study provides general design rules that enable effective utilization of atomic level information to reduce the immense degrees of freedom in compositional space without sacrificing physics-related plausibility.

16.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 27(2): 2309499019840827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the long term outcomes of transtibial nonanatomic single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: Between January 2008 and September 2010, we retrospectively evaluated 377 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction and who were available at 8 years of follow-up. Patients who received transtibial nonanatomic SB ACL reconstruction ( n = 263) were assigned to group SB and DB ACL reconstruction ( n = 114) to group DB. The patients were assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Lysholm scores, Tegner activity score, knee joint stability tests, and patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) findings using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) classification. Contralateral ACL (CACL) injury was also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent revision ACL surgery during the follow-up. Ultimately, 256 patients in group SB and 108 patients in group DB were available at the 8-year follow-up. At final follow-up, the IKDC subjective score ( p = 0.04) and Lysholm score ( p = 0.02) showed significantly superior results in group DB compared to group SB. However, there was no significant difference of Tegner activity score ( p = 0.30), range of motion ( p = 0.81), and knee joint stability tests. There was significant progression of patellofemoral OA between preoperative and final follow-up in ipsilateral knee of both groups but not significant progression in contralateral knee. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the follow-up. There were 2.7% ipsilateral ACL graft failure in group SB, compared with 5.2% in group DB ( p = 0.12) and 6.4% CACL tear in group SB, compared with 5.2% in group DB ( p = 0.65). The mean survivorship of ACL graft was 9.47 ± 0.05 years (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.36-9.58) in group SB and 9.87 ± 0.16 years (95% CI, 9.54-10.20) in group DB, and there was no significant difference ( p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: DB ACL reconstruction resulted in significantly better clinical IKDC subjective scores and Lysholm scores. However, most of the differences in clinical scores were small, and the clinical relevance of this difference is unknown. In addition, there was no significant difference in Tegner activity score, knee joint stability tests, patellofemoral OA, and survivor rate of the ACL graft and CACL after reconstruction after a minimum of 8-year follow-up. Level of Evidence: Cohort study; level of evidence, 3.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura/instrumentação , Suturas , Tíbia/cirurgia , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 105-111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757935

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) (EP) has been widely used for the treatment of skin disease in Asian traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the potency of EP in promoting hair growth in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were divided into four groups (n = 4) as follows: control (topical treatment of normal saline), topical 3% minoxidil to the dorsal skin of mice for 14 days, and low (1 mg/day) and high (10 mg/day) doses of EP orally administered once a day for 14 days. Dorsal hairs of C57BL/6N mice were depilated to synchronize anagen induction. Hair growth activity was evaluated by gross and microscopic observations. Sections of dorsal skin were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. We also treated the various concentrations of EP (5, 10 and 50 µg/mL) for 24 h on the human dermal papilla cells (HDPs) and examined the effects of EP on the expression of FGF-7 and mTOR signalling. RESULTS: EP enhanced the induction of anagen in the dorsal skin of mice, characterized by the appearance of inner root sheath along with hair shaft, the emergence of hair shaft through the epidermis. EP increased the expression of FGF-7, while decreased the level of FGF-5 in C57/BL6 mice. EP also increased the expression of FGF-7, activated the mTOR signalling in HDPs. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that EP has a potency to enhance the growth of hair follicle, promoting hair growth through regulation of FGF-7 and FGF-5.


Assuntos
Eclipta/química , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minoxidil/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
18.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 15, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asian traditional herbal remedies are typically a concoction of a major and several complementary herbs. While balancing out any adverse effect of the major herb, the complementary herbs could dilute the efficacy of the major herb, resulting in a suboptimal therapeutic effect of an herbal remedy. Here, we formulated Chung-Sang (CS) by collating five major herbs, which are used against inflammatory diseases, and tested whether an experimental formula composed of only major herbs is effective in suppressing inflammation without significant side effects. METHODS: The 50% ethanol extract of CS (eCS) was fingerprinted by HPLC. Cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells was determined by an MTT assay and a flow cytometer. Nuclear NF-κB and Nrf2 were analyzed by western blot. Ubiquitinated Nrf2 was similarly analyzed following immunoprecipitation of Nrf2. Acute lung inflammation and sepsis were induced in C57BL/6 mice. The effects of eCS on lung disease were measured by HE staining of lung sections, a differential cell counting of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, a real-time qPCR, and Kaplan-Meier survival of mice. RESULTS: eCS neither elicited cytotoxicity nor reactive oxygen species. While not suppressing NF-κB, eCS activated Nrf2, reduced the ubiquitination of Nrf2, and consequently induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes. In an acute lung inflammation mouse model, an intratracheal (i.t.) eCS suppressed neutrophil infiltration, the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes, and MPO activity. In a sepsis mouse model, a single i.t. eCS was sufficient to significantly decrease mouse mortality. CONCLUSIONS: eCS could suppress severe lung inflammation in mice. This effect seemed to associate with eCS activating Nrf2. Our findings suggest that herbal remedies consisting of only major herbs are worth considering.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ; 14(5): 526-531, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318956

RESUMO

Aim: To design and manufacture a patient-specific assistive device optimized for patient function after estimating the disability status of a patient with brain injury through 3D printing technique Materials and methods: The left hand of a man with right-side hemiparesis was scanned with a three-dimensional scanner, and the left-hand image was flipped over to the right side to design the orthosis. To change devices easily, a connector was designed to connect the devices and was easily detachable with the orthosis by using the magnetics. To enable the writing, a round-shaped ring was attached to the orthosis to fix a pen. The Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT) and Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST) were evaluated one month after the application. Results: The JHFT score improved after application 3D printed devices. In most QUEST items, 3D printed devices showed better results than ready-made assistive devices. The typing speed became faster in 3D printed devices than in ready-made assistive devices. The patient was satisfied with the orthosis in writing a pen, eating food and typing keyboard because of its fitness to his hand and easy-to-use. Conclusion: We designed and manufactured a patient-specific assistive device optimized for patient function after estimating the disability status of a patient with brain injury through 3D printing techniques. We hope to provide low-cost, customized devices to disabled patients through 3D printing techniques. Implications for Rehabilitation We designed and manufactured a patient-specific assistive device optimized for patient function through 3D printing technique. We hope to provide low-cost, customized devices to disabled patients through 3D printing techniques.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Impressão Tridimensional , Desenho de Prótese , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 46(4): 559-564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and carotid arterial calcification by quantitative analysis using airway computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This study included a total of 180 consecutive OSA patients aged 45-80years underwent polysomnography and airway CT between March 2014 and October 2016. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the results of the respiratory disturbance index (RDI): mild (RDI 5-14, n=29), moderate (RDI 15-29, n=50), and severe (RDI≥30, n=101). The extent of carotid arterial calcification on each airway CT scan was quantified according to the modified Agatston scoring method. Differences among the three groups in clinical characteristics including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbid disease, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and carotid arterial calcification score (CarACS) were analyzed. RESULTS: The severe OSA group showed significantly stronger predominance for male and smoker, higher prevalence of diabetes, and larger BMI than those of mild and moderate OSA groups. The mean CarACS was significantly different among the three groups (mild RDI: 4.3±13.4, moderate RDI: 7.4±28.8, severe RDI: 48.6±121.6, P=0.011). Univariate linear regression showed that RDI, age, hypertension, male sex and diabetes significantly influenced on the CarACS. In a multivariate linear regression model, the CarACS was related to age, male sex, and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with severe OSA showed larger CarACS and a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors. The CarACS was correlated with severity of OSA, which might be more dependent on the conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
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