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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 196-202, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635613

RESUMO

Background: Identifying the causal pathogen of encephalitis remains a clinical challenge. A 50-year-old man without a history of neurological disease was referred to our department for the evaluation of an intracranial lesion observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and the pathology results suggested protozoal infection. We identified the species responsible for encephalitis using thymine-adenine (TA) cloning, suitable for routine clinical practice. Methods: We extracted DNA from a paraffin-embedded brain biopsy sample and performed TA cloning using two universal eukaryotic primers targeting the V4-5 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene. The recombinant plasmids were extracted, and the inserted amplicons were identified by Sanger sequencing and a homology search of sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Results: The infection was confirmed to be caused by the free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris. Two of 41 colonies recombinant with 18S V4-5 primers and 35 of 63 colonies recombinant with the 18S V9 primer contained B. mandrillaris genes; all other colonies contained human genes. Pathogen-specific PCR ruled out Entamoeba histolytica, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Toxoplasma gondii infections. Conclusions: This is the first report of B. mandrillaris-induced encephalitis in Korea based on molecular identification. TA cloning with the 18S rRNA gene is a feasible and affordable diagnostic tool for the detection of infectious agents of unknown etiology.


Assuntos
Balamuthia mandrillaris , Encefalite , Adenina , Balamuthia mandrillaris/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Eucariotos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Timina
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445559

RESUMO

Scutellarein (SCU) is a well-known flavone with a broad range of biological activities against several cancers. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major cancer type due to its poor prognosis even after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, which causes a variety of side effects in patients. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop effective biomarkers in the treatment of HCC in order to improve therapeutic outcomes using natural based agents. The current study used SCU as a treatment approach against HCC using the HepG2 cell line. Based on the cell viability assessment up to a 200 µM concentration of SCU, three low-toxic concentrations of (25, 50, and 100) µM were adopted for further investigation. SCU induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and inhibited cell migration and proliferation in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased PTEN expression by SCU led to the subsequent downregulation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins. In addition, SCU regulated the metastasis with EMT and migration-related proteins in HepG2 cells. In summary, SCU inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in HepG2 cells through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling by upregulation of PTEN, suggesting that SCU might be used as a potential agent for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445416

RESUMO

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of polyphenols contained in Gynura procumbens (GP) extract were systematically analyzed. Polyphenols in GP were analyzed for nine peaks using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), and quantitatively determined through each standard. A total of nine polyphenolic compounds were identified in the samples and their MS data were tabulated. To determine the potential of bioactive ingredients targeting DPPH and COX-2, we analyzed them by ultrafiltration combined with LC. The results identified the major compounds exhibiting binding affinity for DPPH and COX-2. Caffeic acid, kynurenic acid, and chlorogenic acid showed excellent binding affinity to DPPH and COX-2, suggesting that they can be considered as major active compounds. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effect of GP was confirmed in vitro. This study will not only be used to provide basic data for the application of GP to the food and pharmaceutical industries, but will also provide information on effective screening methods for other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068568

RESUMO

Iridin is a natural flavonoid found in Belamcanda chinensis documented for its broad spectrum of biological activities like antioxidant, antitumor, and antiproliferative effects. In the present study, we have investigated the antitumor potential of iridin in AGS gastric cancer cells. Iridin treatment decreases AGS cell growth and promotes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by attenuating the expression of Cdc25C, CDK1, and Cyclin B1 proteins. Iridin-treatment also triggered apoptotic cell death in AGS cells, which was verified by cleaved Caspase-3 (Cl- Caspase-3) and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein expression. Further apoptotic cell death was confirmed by increased apoptotic cell death fraction shown in allophycocyanin (APC)/Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Iridin also increased the expression of extrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins like Fas, FasL, and cleaved Caspase-8 in AGS cells. On the contrary, iridin-treated AGS cells did not show variations in proteins related to an intrinsic apoptotic pathway such as Bax and Bcl-xL. Besides, Iridin showed inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathways by downregulation of (p-PI3K, p-AKT) proteins in AGS cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that iridin has anticancer potential by inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway. It could be a basis for further drug design in gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155514

RESUMO

Trichomes are hair-like structures that are essential for abiotic and biotic stress responses. Tomato Hair (H) encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein (ZFP) was found to regulate the multicellular trichomes on stems. Here, we characterized Solyc10g078990 (hereafter Hair2, H2), its closest homolog, to examine whether it was involved in trichome development. The H2 gene was highly expressed in the leaves, and its protein contained a single C2H2 domain and was localized to the nucleus. The number and length of type I trichomes on the leaves and stems of knock-out h2 plants was reduced when compared to the wild-type, while overexpression increased their number and length. An auto-activation test with various truncated forms of H2 using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) suggested that H2 acts as a transcriptional regulator or co-activator, and that its N-terminal region is important for auto-activation. Y2H and pull-down analyses showed that H2 interacts with Woolly (Wo), which regulates the development of type I trichomes in tomato. Luciferase complementation imaging assays confirmed that they had direct interactions, implying that H2 and Wo function together to regulate the development of trichomes. These results suggest that H2 has a role in the initiation and elongation of type I trichomes in tomato.

6.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 815-829, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941899

RESUMO

The rapid repurposing of antivirals is particularly pressing during pandemics. However, rapid assays for assessing candidate drugs typically involve in vitro screens and cell lines that do not recapitulate human physiology at the tissue and organ levels. Here we show that a microfluidic bronchial-airway-on-a-chip lined by highly differentiated human bronchial-airway epithelium and pulmonary endothelium can model viral infection, strain-dependent virulence, cytokine production and the recruitment of circulating immune cells. In airway chips infected with influenza A, the co-administration of nafamostat with oseltamivir doubled the treatment-time window for oseltamivir. In chips infected with pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), clinically relevant doses of the antimalarial drug amodiaquine inhibited infection but clinical doses of hydroxychloroquine and other antiviral drugs that inhibit the entry of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 in cell lines under static conditions did not. We also show that amodiaquine showed substantial prophylactic and therapeutic activities in hamsters challenged with native SARS-CoV-2. The human airway-on-a-chip may accelerate the identification of therapeutics and prophylactics with repurposing potential.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(6): 563-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027644

RESUMO

Central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoeba are very rare, but often fatal. The typical image findings of amebic meningoencephalitis are non-specific, showing ring-like enhancement. We report the first case of fulminant disseminating fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an immunocompetent patient in South Korea. Our case exhibited two interesting features: one was the unusual clinical course and the other was additional image findings. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a rim-enhancing lesion with intralesional blooming dark signal intensity on susceptibility weighted imaging and low signal intensity on diffusion weighted images and on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Differential diagnosis was started from a tumor or non-tumorous lesion, and diagnosis was difficult due to the rarity of the disease. Following the clinical and diagnostic courses of our case, we recommend inspecting image findings of granulomatous amebic encephalitis for early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Amoeba , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Encefalite , Amebíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , República da Coreia
8.
Aging Cell ; 20(3): e13332, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709472

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that ibrutinib modulates LPS-induced neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo, but its effects on the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive function have not been investigated. Here, we investigated the effects of ibrutinib in two mouse models of AD. In 5xFAD mice, ibrutinib injection significantly reduced Aß plaque levels by promoting the non-amyloidogenic pathway of APP cleavage, decreased Aß-induced neuroinflammatory responses, and significantly downregulated phosphorylation of tau by reducing levels of phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (p-CDK5). Importantly, tau-mediated neuroinflammation and tau phosphorylation were also alleviated by ibrutinib injection in PS19 mice. In 5xFAD mice, ibrutinib improved long-term memory and dendritic spine number, whereas in PS19 mice, ibrutinib did not alter short- and long-term memory but promoted dendritic spinogenesis. Interestingly, the induction of dendritic spinogenesis by ibrutinib was dependent on the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Overall, our results suggest that ibrutinib modulates AD-associated pathology and cognitive function and may be a potential therapy for AD.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Inflamação/patologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gliose/complicações , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Memória de Longo Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide/patologia
9.
Obes Surg ; 31(7): 2878-2886, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is now frequently performed as a definitive bariatric procedure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the detailed morphology of remnant stomachs after SG with respect to volume and sleeve migration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a review of prospectively collected data on patients that completed a 12-month postop examination, which included CT volumetry of the sleeve, and a questionnaire that addressed postop food tolerance. CT volumetry study included total sleeve volume (TSV), tube volume (TV), antral volume (AV), tube/antral volume ratio (TAVR), and the presence of intrathoracic sleeve migration (ITSM). RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in this study. Mean %TWL (total weight loss) at 12 months postop was 31.1% (14.3~55.5), and mean TSV, TV, AV, and TAVR were 188.3 ± 67.3 ml, 81.3 ± 38.5 ml. 107.0 ± 45.1 ml, and 0.846 ± 0.514 respectively. TSV was not correlated significantly with %TWL at 12 months postop (r=-0.140, p=0.164). Thirty patients (30/100, 30%) showed ITSM. Patients with ITSM had a significantly lower mean GER score (5.9 ± 2.3 vs. 7.5±1.9, p=0.001), and a higher proportion showed suboptimal weight loss (43.3% vs. 15.7%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Mean TSV was not found to be significantly correlated with %TWL at 12 months postop. The presence of ITSM indicated more frequent GER symptoms and a higher probability of suboptimal weight loss.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida , Gastrectomia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
10.
Clin Endosc ; 54(1): 85-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Small bowel malignancies often present a diagnostic challenge due to their relative rarity and nonspecific clinical symptoms. However, technical developments in endoscopic instruments, including video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and enteroscopy, have allowed for the visualization of the entire small bowel. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of small bowel malignant tumors diagnosed by VCE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in a single tertiary center. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed VCE and DBE findings from Korea University Guro Hospital from January 2010 through September 2018. RESULTS: A total of 510 VCE and 126 DBE examinations were performed in 438 patients. Small bowel malignancies were diagnosed in 28 patients (15 males; mean age, 61.0 years; range, 42 to 81 years). Among them, 8 had lymphoma, 8 had primary adenocarcinoma, 7 had gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and 5 had metastatic cancer. Abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms were the most common findings in metastatic cancers (4/5, 80%). On the other hand, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common symptom of GIST (6/7, 85.7%) and adenocarcinoma (3/8, 37.5%). CONCLUSION: Approximately 6% of the patients who underwent either VCE or DBE were diagnosed with small bowel malignancy. These findings demonstrated the different clinical characteristics among small bowel malignancies and merit further study.

11.
Exp Gerontol ; 143: 111153, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189833

RESUMO

We previously reported that 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl-benzo[d]thiazole (MHY553) is a PPARα agonist, which has been shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in murine melanocyte and alleviate hepatic steatosis in aged rats. This study investigated the effects of MHY553 on the age-related occurrence of inflammatory responses via the molecular modulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in the skin of aged rats and skin fibroblast cells. Moreover, we investigated the antioxidant effect of MHY553 via in vitro assays of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) scavenging activities. We also scrutinized the ability of MHY553 as a PPARα activator in aged rat skin and H2O2-induced Hs27 fibroblast cells. In vivo experiments were performed in young, aged, and MHY553-fed aged rats (3 mg or 5 mg∙kg -1∙day -1 for 4 weeks). MHY553 dose-dependently scavenged ROS and ONOO-. Furthermore, we found that MHY553 suppressed the NF-κB transcription factor and downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling. MHY553 also inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß, and IL-6. Our findings indicate the MHY553 scavenges ROS/reactive nitrogen species and inhibits inflammatory cytokines through PPARα activation in the skin. Thus, these results suggest that MHY553 may be of therapeutic interest for protecting skin from oxidative stress-induced damage and intrinsic aging.


Assuntos
PPAR alfa , Tiazóis , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , NF-kappa B , Ratos , Pele , Tiazóis/farmacologia
12.
West J Nurs Res ; 43(10): 972-983, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353509

RESUMO

The involvement of patients and families is essential for improving patient safety. However, the role of patients and caregivers in patient safety has recently been receiving attention, and programs and interventions have been implemented for patients and caregivers. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the types of interventions to improve patient safety that focused on engaging patients and their families, and the effectiveness of these interventions. Searching four electronic databases, 2019 articles were obtained; of these, 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies used intervention strategies at the "information" and "involvement" engagement levels. Interventions with strategies only at the information level mostly measured safety perception and were mostly found to be effective. Interventions with both information and involvement strategies measured more diverse outcomes, but their effectiveness was inconsistent. Further studies using a range of intervention strategies and outcomes with more rigorous methodologies are needed.PROSPERO registration number CRD42018096162.

13.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255372

RESUMO

Although a variety of beneficial health effects of natural flavonoids, including chrysin, has been suggested, poor solubility and bioavailability limit their practical use. As a promising delivery system, chrysin-loaded phytosomes (CPs) were prepared using egg phospholipid (EPL) at a 1:3 molar ratio and its antidiabetic effects were assessed in db/db diabetic mice. Male C57BLKS/J-db/db mice were fed a normal diet (control), chrysin diet (100 mg chrysin/kg), CP diet (100 mg chrysin equivalent/kg), metformin diet (200 mg/kg) or EPL diet (vehicle, the same amount of EPL used for CP preparation) for 9 weeks. Administration of CP significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in db/db mice compared with the control. An oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were significantly improved in the CP group (p < 0.05). CP treatment suppressed gluconeogenesis via downregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase while it promoted glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle and liver of db/db mice (p < 0.05). The CP-mediated improved glucose utilization in the muscle was confirmed by upregulation of glucose transporter type 4, hexokinase2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ during treatment (p < 0.05). The CP-induced promotion of GLUT4 plasma translocation was confirmed in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice (p < 0.05). Based on the results, CP showed greater antidiabetic performance compared to the control by ameliorating insulin resistance in db/db mice and phytosome can be used as an effective antidiabetic agent.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Expressão Gênica , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
14.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 54(5): 224-232, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088351

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to construct a database of the effective doses (ED) from F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) torso positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in Korea to provide data that supports the reduction of the CT dose of PET/CT and optimization of PET/CT protocols in Korea. Methods: We investigated data of ED and CT parameters of FDG PET/CT. The data were analyzed by body weight groups. Results: A total of 31 hospitals participated in the survey (99 adults). The mean total EDs (± SD) were 8.77 ± 2.76, 10.93 ± 3.14, and 12.57 ± 3.79 mSv for the 55-, 70-, and 85-kg groups, respectively. The FDG EDs were 4.80 ± 0.98, 6.05 ± 1.15, and 6.89 ± 1.52 mSv, and the CT EDs were 4.00 ± 2.12, 4.88 ± 2.51, and 5.68 ± 2.89 mSv, respectively. Of the enrolled hospitals, 54.5% used ultra-low-dose CT protocols, and their CT ED was significantly lower than low-dose CT group in all groups (2.9 ± 1.0, 3.2 ± 1.1, and 3.3 ± 1.0 mSv vs. 6.6 ± 1.6, 7.2 ± 2.1, and 7.9 ± 2.2 mSv, all p < 0.001, respectively). In the ultra-low-dose CT group, the CT ED with the iterative reconstruction was significantly lower than that of CT without iterative reconstruction in the 55-kg group (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9, p = 0.04). Conclusions: These results and current recommendations can be helpful for optimizing PET/CT diagnostic reference level (DRL) and reducing unnecessary PET/CT radiation exposure.

15.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108854

RESUMO

Background: Several noninvasive tools are available for the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including clinical and blood biomarkers, transient elastography (TE), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR)-based examinations better discriminate the pathophysiologic features and fibrosis progression in NAFLD than other noninvasive methods. Methods: A total of 133 subjects (31 healthy volunteers and 102 patients with NAFLD) were subjected to clinical and noninvasive NAFLD evaluation, with additional liver biopsy in some patients (n=54). Results: MRI-PDFF correlated far better with hepatic fat measured by MR spectroscopy (r=0.978, P<0.001) than with the TE controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) (r=0.727, P<0.001). In addition, MRI-PDFF showed stronger correlations with various pathophysiologic parameters for cellular injury, glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammation, than the TE-CAP. The MRI-PDFF and TE-CAP cutoff levels associated with abnormal elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase were 9.9% and 270 dB/m, respectively. The MRE liver stiffness measurement (LSM) showed stronger correlations with liver enzymes, platelets, complement component 3, several clinical fibrosis scores, and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score than the TE-LSM. In an analysis of only biopsied patients, MRE performed better in discriminating advanced fibrosis with a cutoff value of 3.9 kPa than the TE (cutoff 8.1 kPa) and ELF test (cutoff 9.2 kPa). Conclusion: Our results suggest that MRI-based assessment of NAFLD is the best non-invasive tool that captures the histologic, pathophysiologic and metabolic features of the disease.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114438

RESUMO

Inflammation of the skin is the most common dermatological problem in human. The anti-inflammatory mediated responses of the skin cells provide a mechanism for combating these conditions. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is one of the proteins that has been shown to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects and mechanisms of AnxA1 in skin keratinocyte and fibroblast have not been reported yet. In the current study, we hypothesized that Ac2-26, AnxA1 mimetic peptide, ameliorates inflammation and wrinkle formation in human skin cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether Ac2-26 has anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle effects in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and fibroblast (Detroit 551) cells, respectively. Human HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ with or without Ac2-26, to identify the anti-inflammatory effect. Human Detroit 551 cells were treated with Ac2-26 to verify the anti-wrinkle effect. Initially, cell cytotoxicity was carried out in each cell line treated using Ac2-26 by MTT assay. Human MDA, IL-8, and procollagen secretion were detected by ELISA assay. The inflammatory chemokines were measured by qRT-PCR analysis. To demonstrate the mechanism, MAPK, NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and MMPs were analyzed by Western blotting. As a result, we identified that Ac2-26 significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated pro-inflammatory chemokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MDC, TARC, and TNF-α, by inhibiting the activation of MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT pathway in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. In addition, we also identified that Ac2-26 significantly induced collagen synthesis by generating pro-collagen, and suppressed collagen degradation by inhibiting the collagenase MMP-1 and MMP-8 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Ac2-26 shows anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkling effect. These effects may lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic application for inflammation-related skin disease and wrinkle formation.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Pró-Colágeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Biomedicines ; 8(11)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121085

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in clinical stem cell therapy applications based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), potential teratoma formation due to the presence of residual undifferentiated hPSCs remains a serious risk factor that challenges widespread clinical application. To overcome this risk, a variety of approaches have been developed to eliminate the remaining undifferentiated hPSCs via selective cell death induction. Our study seeks to identify natural flavonoids that are more potent than quercetin (QC), to selectively induce hPSC death. Upon screening in-house flavonoids, luteolin (LUT) is found to be more potent than QC to eliminate hPSCs in a p53-dependent manner, but not hPSC-derived smooth muscle cells or perivascular progenitor cells. Particularly, treating human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes with LUT efficiently eliminates the residual hESCs and only results in marginal effects on cardiomyocyte (CM) functions, as determined by calcium influx. Considering the technical limitations of isolating CMs due to a lack of exclusive surface markers at the end of differentiation, LUT treatment is a promising approach to minimize teratoma formation risk.

18.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 21(1): 683-688, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061840

RESUMO

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) that enable the conversion of a given mechanical energy into electrical energy at high efficiency have been very important in practice. Since the given mechanical energy is involuntarily converted to secondary energy sources (light, heat, and sound during triboelectrification), the significant amount of energy being converted is lost. Various studies have thus been continuously carried out to overcome this issue. Since the first TENGs found in 2012, various developments in TENGs have been made: (1) the mechanical-electrical energy conversion characteristics of potential organic/inorganic material groups have been introduced, (2) the integration into the device structure considering the diversity of mechanical energy, and (3) user friendly and industrial application platforms have been aggressively studied. Despite the remarkable progress and improvement of TENGs, their mechanical-electrical conversion efficiency is still quite low. We therefore need to discover and develop materials that can be converted to improve efficiency. Here, we outline the recent progress made in a group of high polarity triboelectric materials that exploit surface charge density and charge transfer properties. We also review the recent boosting powering TENGs. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the future direction and strategies for highly enhanced powering TENGs through material research.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(18): 7723-7729, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870687

RESUMO

Cesium copper halides (CCHs) show promise for optoelectronic applications, and their syntheses usually involve high-temperatures and hazard solvents. Herein, the synthesis of highly luminescent and phase-pure Cs3Cu2X5 (X = Cl, Br, and I) and CsCu2I3 via a solvent-free mechanochemical approach through manual grinding is demonstrated. This cost-effective approach can produce CCHs on a scale of tens to hundreds of grams. Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized CCHs reveals their structural details. Notably, the emission characteristics of green-emitting, chloride-based CCHs remain stable even at elevated temperatures-maintaining 80% of initial PL efficiency at 150 °C. Lastly, a postsynthetic reversible transformation between zero- and one-dimensional CCH materials is demonstrated, indicating the labile nature of their crystal structure. The proposed study suggests that mechanochemistry can be an alternative and promising synthetic tool for fabricating high-quality lead-free metal halides.

20.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 40(5): 734-745, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968726

RESUMO

Commercially sterilized ultra high temperature (UHT) milk was manufactured at different homogenization pressures (20, 25, and 30 MPa), and changes in fat particle size, mechanical stress-induced fat aggregation, plasmin activity, and lipid oxidation were monitored during ambient storage of the UHT milk for up to 16 wk. The particle sizes of milk fat globules were significantly decreased as homogenization pressure increased from 20 to 30 MPa (p<0.05). The presence of mechanical stress-induced fat aggregates in milk produced at 20 MPa was significantly higher than for UHT milk produced at either 25 or 30 MPa. This difference was maintained all throughout the storage. There were no significant differences in plasmin activity, trichloroacetic acid (12%, w/v) soluble peptides, and the extent of lipid oxidation. Based on these results, an increase of homogenization pressure from 20 (the typical homogenization pressure employed in the Korea dairy industry) to 25-30 MPa significantly decreased mechanical stress-induced fat aggregation without affecting susceptibility to lipid oxidation during storage.

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