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1.
J Pathol Transl Med ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662934

RESUMO

Testicular carcinoid tumors are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all testicular tumors. We report a rare case of a testicular carcinoid tumor with extensive lymphatic invasion. A 42-year-old man presented with a painless, enlarged right testicular mass. There was no history of injury or discomfort in this region. Right radical orchiectomy was performed, which showed a well-defined, non-encapsulated solid white mass with calcification (7.0 × 4.5 × 3.5 cm) and absence of cystic components. Microscopic examination using hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor sections identified organoid, trabecular, and solid patterns with rosette formation. Extensive multifocal lymphatic invasion was observed. Immunohistochemistry was positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Testicular carcinoid tumors usually show good prognoses; however, there was extensive lymphovascular invasion in this case. Thus, in the case of unusual presentation of the disease, close follow-up is necessary.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19476, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593925

RESUMO

Variant prioritization of exome sequencing (ES) data for molecular diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with extreme etiologic heterogeneity poses a significant challenge. This study used an automated variant prioritization system ("EVIDENCE") to analyze SNHL patient data and assess its diagnostic accuracy. We performed ES of 263 probands manifesting mild to moderate or higher degrees of SNHL. Candidate variants were classified according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics guidelines, and we compared the accuracy, call rates, and efficiency of variant prioritizations performed manually by humans or using EVIDENCE. In our in silico panel, 21 synthetic cases were successfully analyzed by EVIDENCE. In our cohort, the ES diagnostic yield for SNHL by manual analysis was 50.19% (132/263) and 50.95% (134/263) by EVIDENCE. EVIDENCE processed ES data 24-fold faster than humans, and the concordant call rate between humans and EVIDENCE was 97.72% (257/263). Additionally, EVIDENCE outperformed human accuracy, especially at discovering causative variants of rare syndromic deafness, whereas flexible interpretations that required predefined specific genotype-phenotype correlations were possible only by manual prioritization. The automated variant prioritization system remarkably facilitated the molecular diagnosis of hearing loss with high accuracy and efficiency, fostering the popularization of molecular genetic diagnosis of SNHL.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639856

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to estimate the risk of dementia in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), using a population cohort. Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort for the population ≥60 years of age from 2002 to 2013 were collected. A total of 11,432 individuals with dementia were matched for age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia with 45,728 individuals comprising the control group. The crude (simple) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of dementia in BPPV patients were analyzed using non-conditional logistic regression analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. A history of BPPV characterized 5.3% (609/11,432) of the dementia group and 2.6% (1,194/45,728) of the control group (p < 0.001). The adjusted OR of dementia for BPPV was 1.14 (95% CI = 1.03-1.26, p = 0.009). In subgroup analyses according to age and sex, males had higher ORs of dementia for BPPV. BPPV increases the risk of dementia in the 60 years of age or older population.

4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578864

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) may aggravate dry eye disease (DED). Corni Fructus (CF), which is fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., has been reported to have various beneficial pharmacological effects, whereas the effect of CF on the eye is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of oral administration of water extract of CF (CFW) on the eye, hematology, and biochemistry in a DED model induced by topical exposure to PM2.5. Furthermore, the efficacy of CFW compared with cyclosporine (CsA), an anti-inflammatory agent, and lutein, the posterior eye-protective agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were topically administered 5 mg/mL PM2.5 in both eyes four times daily for 14 days. During the same period, CFW (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and lutein (4.1 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day. All eyes of rats in the 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated group were topically exposed to 20 µL of CsA, twice daily for 14 days. Oral administration of CFW attenuated the PM2.5-induced reduction of tear secretion and corneal epithelial damage. In addition, CFW protected against goblet cell loss in conjunctiva and overexpression of inflammatory factors in the lacrimal gland following topical exposure to PM2.5. Furthermore, CFW markedly prevented PM2.5-induced ganglion cell loss and recovered the thickness of inner plexiform layer. Meanwhile, CFW treatment decreased the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum induced by PM2.5. Importantly, the efficacy of CFW was superior or similar to that of CsA and lutein. Taken together, oral administration of CFW may have protective effects against PM2.5-induced DED symptoms via stabilization of the tear film and suppression of inflammation. Furthermore, CFW may in part contribute to improving retinal function and lipid metabolism disorder.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544865

RESUMO

Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral tolerance in bats. Here we report the establishment of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR libraries for the screening of the model megabat, Pteropus alecto. We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate P. alecto cells for infection with two different viruses: mumps virus and influenza A virus, respectively. Independent screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells and human cells. The MTHFD1 inhibitor, carolacton, potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We also discovered that bats have lower expression levels of MTHFD1 than humans. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Aminoidrolases/genética , COVID-19/genética , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Pandemias , Aminoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor , Complexos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Vírus de RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral/genética
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 1377195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527169

RESUMO

Although hippocampal changes due to noise-induced hearing loss have been suggested, little is known about the miRNA levels due to these hippocampal changes. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into noise and control groups (n = 20 per group). The noise group rats were exposed to white Gaussian noise (115 dB SPL, 4 hours per day) for three days. One day after noise exposure, the hippocampi of rats were harvested and miRNA expressions were analyzed using the Affymetrix miRNA 4.0 microarray (n = 6 per group). The predicted target genes of each miRNA were retrieved, and the pathways related to the predicted target genes were analyzed. miR-758-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-370-5p, miR-652-5p, miR-3544, miR-128-1-5p, miR-665, miR-188-5p, and miR-874-5p expression increased in the hippocampal tissue of the noise group compared to that in the control group. The overlapping predicted target genes included Bend4, Creb1, Adcy6, Creb5, Kcnj9, and Pten. The pathways related to these genes were the estrogen signaling pathway, vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, thyroid hormone synthesis, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, insulin secretion, circadian entrainment, insulin resistance, cholinergic synapse, dopaminergic synapse, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway. miR-448-3p, miR204-5p, and miR-204-3p expression decreased in the hippocampal tissue of the noise group compared to that in the control group. The overlapping predicted target genes of these three miRNAs were Rps6kas, Nfactc3, Rictor, Spred1, Cdh4, Cdh6, Dvl3, and Rcyt1b. Pathway analysis suggested that the Wnt signaling pathway is related to Dvl3 and Nfactc3. Noise-induced hearing loss dysregulates miR-758-5p, miR210-5p, miR370-5p, miR-652-5p, miR-3544, miR-128-1-5p, miR-665, miR-188-5p, miR-874-5p, miR-448-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-204-3p, and miR-140-5p expression in the hippocampus. These miRNAs have been predicted to be associated with hormonal, inflammatory, and synaptic pathways.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444440

RESUMO

The protective effects of statins against inner ear diseases have been suggested. This study investigated the relationship between previous statin use and the occurrence of Meniere's disease (MD). Participants ≥40 years old in the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort 2002-2015 were enrolled. A total of 7734 MD participants were matched with 38,670 comparison participants. The dates of statin prescriptions for the 2 years before the onset of MD were examined. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of statin use for MD. Regarding the different types of statins, lipophilic statins, but not hydrophilic statins, were associated with lower odds of MD in the <65 year-old group (adjusted OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68-0.97, p = 0.023). Prior statin use did not show association with MD in the adult population. Regarding the different types of statins, lipophilic statin use was related to a lower rate of MD in a middle-aged population.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Doença de Meniere , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doença de Meniere/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16997, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417533

RESUMO

Nanoparticulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in the respiratory system in a process involving the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and cytochrome P450 family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1). We examined changes in AhR-related pathways following intranasal instillation of nanoparticulate matter in the olfactory bulb and cerebral cortex. Twice a day for 5 days per week for 1 week or 2 weeks, 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were intranasally instilled with 10 µL nanoparticulate matter (nano group; n = 36). An equal volume of saline was intranasally instilled in control rats (n = 36). One week after intranasal instillation, olfactory function and Y-maze tests were performed. The expression levels of AhR in the olfactory bulb and temporal cortex were analyzed using western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and five genes encoding cation transporters (ARNT, ATP7B, ATPB1, OCT1, and OCT2) in the olfactory bulb were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription. The olfactory discrimination capability was reduced in the nano group compared with the control group. Proportional changes in the Y-maze test were not significantly different between the nano and control groups. AhR mRNA and protein expression in the olfactory bulb increased 1.71-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.60-fold (P = 0.008), respectively. However, no significant changes were observed in the temporal cortex. In the olfactory bulb, the expression of ARNT, ATP7B, ATPB1, and OCT2 was downregulated. CYP1A1 and iNOS expression in the olfactory bulb was upregulated compared with that in the temporal cortex. The intranasal instillation of nanoparticulate matter decreased the olfactory discrimination ability, which was accompanied by upregulation of AhR expression and downregulation of cation transporters in the olfactory bulb.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444347

RESUMO

An association between anemia and an increased risk of osteoporosis has been suggested. The goal of this study was to estimate the association of hemoglobin (Hb) level with osteoporosis. A total of 69,760 osteoporosis patients aged ≥ 40 years old from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Health Screening Cohort were enrolled. From an identical cohort database, 69,760 comparison participants were randomly selected. Hb levels before the onset of osteoporosis were evaluated. The association of Hb level with osteoporosis was analyzed using a conditional logistic regression model adjusted for obesity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and the Charlson comorbidity index score. Fifteen percent of the osteoporosis group and 14.17% of the comparison group had anemia. The Hb level was associated with 0.98-fold lower odds for osteoporosis (95% confidence intervals = 0.97-0.99, p < 0.001). A low Hb level was associated with a high risk of osteoporosis in the adult population. There was a consistent association between a low Hb level and osteoporosis in patients with comorbidities.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356969

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Morbidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16063, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373509

RESUMO

The association between air pollutants and Meniere's disease has not been explored. The present study investigated the relationship between meteorological factors and air pollutants on Meniere's disease. Participants, aged ≥ 40 years, of the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort were included in this study. The 7725 patients with Meniere's disease were matched with 30,900 control participants. The moving average meteorological and air pollution data of the previous 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months before the onset of Meniere's disease were compared between the Meniere's disease and control groups using conditional logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses were conducted according to age, sex, income, and residential area. Temperature range; ambient atmospheric pressure; sunshine duration; and levels of SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10 for 1 month and 6 months were associated with Meniere's disease. Adjusted ORs (odds ratios with 95% confidence interval [CI]) for 1 and 6 months of O3 concentration were 1.29 (95% CI 1.23-1.35) and 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.42), respectively; that for the 1 and 6 months of CO concentration were 3.34 (95% CI 2.39-4.68) and 4.19 (95% CI 2.79-6.30), respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated a steady relationship of O3 and CO concentrations with Meniere's disease. Meteorological factors and air pollutants were associated with the rate of Meniere's disease. In particular, CO and O3 concentrations were positively related to the occurrence of Meniere's disease.

13.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy followed by intracavitary brachytherapy is the standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. This study examined the brachytherapy utilization rate and evaluated the effect of brachytherapy on survival in cervical cancer patients in Korea. METHODS: In this study, data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and Korean National Health Insurance Service and data on mortality from Statistics Korea were linked and used. Patients with other cancers, distant metastasis at diagnosis, or unknown stage or who underwent hysterectomy were excluded. A total of 12,721 cervical cancer patients were analyzed in this study. RESULTS: The brachytherapy utilization rate (%) was calculated as the proportion of patients who received brachytherapy among those who received curative EBRT. The brachytherapy utilization rate decreased from 84% in 2005 to 78% in 2013 (p<0.001). Brachytherapy utilization rates varied by region, ranging from 72% to 100% except for in Jeju Island, where the rate was 56%. The brachytherapy utilization rate was lower in patients older than 80 years; patients with localized disease, non-squamous cell carcinoma, or Charlson comorbidity index 3 or more; patients diagnosed after 2010; patients from certain regions; patients receiving medical aid; and patients who underwent gynecologic procedures. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that brachytherapy when added to curative EBRT was independently associated with better cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) than curative EBRT only. CONCLUSION: The brachytherapy utilization rate decreased from 2005 to 2013 and varied by region in Korea. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS in cervical cancer.

14.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211042118, 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many epidemiological studies have observed the association of air pollutant exposure with the onset, progression, and mortality of stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of air pollutants, including SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10, with stroke according to exposure duration. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2015 were obtained. The 21,240 patients who were admitted for or died due to stroke were 1:4 matched for age, sex, income, and region of residence with 84,960 control participants. The meteorological factors of mean, highest, and lowest temperatures; relative humidity; ambient atmospheric pressure; and air pollutant concentrations (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10) were analyzed to determine their associations with stroke. The odds ratios for stroke after exposure to each meteorological factor and air pollutant at 7 and 30 days were calculated in the stroke and control groups. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. RESULTS: The odds ratio associated with seven days of exposure to CO was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.04-1.31) in stroke patients. For 30 days of exposure, the odds ratio associated with CO was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.02-1.32) in stroke patients. Seven and 30 days of NO2 exposure were inversely associated with stroke. The odds ratio associated with seven days of exposure to O3 was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.01-1.32) in ischemic stroke patients. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had negative associations with 7 and 30 days of NO2 exposure. CONCLUSION: Both short- and long-term exposure to CO were related to stroke.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436304

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is a crucial process in cancer cell metastasis. An Aquimarina sp. MC085 extract was found to inhibit A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, and caprolactin C (1), a new natural product, α-amino-ε-caprolactam linked to 3-methyl butanoic acid, was purified through bioactivity-guided isolation of the extract. Furthermore, its enantiomeric compound, ent-caprolactin C (2), was synthesized. Both 1 and 2 inhibited the invasion and γ-irradiation-induced migration of A549 cells. In transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)-treated A549 cells, 2 inhibited the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and suppressed the EMT cell marker proteins (N-cadherin, ß-catenin, and vimentin), as well as the related messenger ribonucleic acid expression (N-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Snail, and vimentin), while compound 1 did not suppress Smad2/3 phosphorylation and the expression of EMT cell markers. Therefore, compound 2 could be a potential candidate for antimetastatic agent development, because it suppresses TGF-ß-induced EMT.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14388, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257355

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association of previous stain use with hearing impairment in an adult population. Data from the ≥ 40-year-old population in the Korean National Health Insurance Service Health Screening Cohort were used. The hearing impairment group was classified based on the national registry of hearing-impaired persons. Control participants were randomly selected and matched for age, sex, income, and region of residence. The number of days of statin prescription during the 2 years before the diagnosis of hearing impairment was compared between the hearing impairment group and the control group using conditional logistic regression analysis. Additional analyses were conducted according to age and sex. The number of days of previous statin use was not different between the hearing impairment group and the control group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.118). According to age, in the ≥ 70-year-old group, those with hearing impairment had 11% lower rates of previous statin use than those in the control group (aOR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99, P = 0.039). According to sex, in the male group, 12% lower rates of previous statin use were observed among those with hearing impairment than among those in the control group (aOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.037). Previous statin use might have an effect on reducing the prevalence of hearing impairment in elderly individuals and men.

18.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072916

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation, which is promoted by the production and secretion of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in activated macrophages, is responsible for the development of many diseases. Auranofin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved gold-based compound for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and evidence suggests that auranofin could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammation. In this study, to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of auranofin on chronic inflammation, a saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA), and a low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. The results show that PA amplified LPS signals to produce nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokines. However, auranofin significantly inhibited the levels of NO, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6, which had been increased by co-treatment with PA and LPS. Moreover, the expression of inducible NO synthase, IL-1ß, and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels increased by PA and LPS were reduced by auranofin. In particular, the upregulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 4 and the translocation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) induced by PA and LPS were suppressed by auranofin. The binding between the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and auranofin was also predicted, and the release of NO and cytokines was reduced more by simultaneous treatment with auranofin and TLR4 inhibitor than by auranofin alone. In conclusion, all these findings suggested that auranofin had anti-inflammatory effects in PA and LPS-induced macrophages by interacting with TLR4 and downregulating the NOX4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Auranofina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7
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