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1.
J Clin Neurol ; 15(4): 502-510, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common pediatric epilepsies, and it generally has a good prognosis. However, recent research has indicated that the epileptic activity of BECTS can cause cognitive defects such as language, visuospatial, and auditory verbal memory deficits. This study assessed language-delivery deficits in BECTS patients using diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). METHODS: T1-weighted MRI, DTI, and language tests were conducted in 16 BECTS patients and 16 age-matched controls. DTI data were analyzed using the TRActs Constrained by Underlying Anatomy tool in FreeSurfer 5.3, and 18 major white-matter tracts were extracted, which included 4 language-related tracts: the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus-parietal terminations, superior longitudinal fasciculus-temporal terminations, and uncinate fasciculus (UNC). Language tests included the Korean version of the Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Test of Problem-Solving Abilities (TOPS), and the mean length of utterance in words. RESULTS: The BECTS group exhibited decreased mean fractional anisotropy and increased mean radial diffusivity, with significant differences in both the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the left UNC (p<0.05), which are the language-related white-matter tracts in the dual-loop model. The TOPS language test scores were significantly lower in the BECTS group than in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It appears that BECTS patients can exhibit language deficits. Seizure activities of BECTS could alter DTI scalar values in the language-related white-matter tracts.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567993

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) due to cardiac myxoma primarily occurs in elderly individuals. Early detection and surgical resection of myxoma are extremely important because CRAO causes complete blindness in most cases. However, due to the extremely low incidence of CRAO caused by cardiac myxoma in the pediatric age group, such condition is rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old female patient visited our hospital due to sudden onset of vision loss in the left eye, dysarthria, and right-sided hemiplegia. DIAGNOSES: She was diagnosed with CRAO via fundoscopy. Results showed a cherry-red spot, indicating CRAO. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal diffusion-restricted foci, particularly in the left frontal lobe. Echocardiography revealed a left atrial mass measuring 4.21 cm × 2.25 cm. The mass was attached to the interseptum and moved along the inflow of the mitral valve. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced mass measuring 3 cm × 2.2 cm × 3 cm and with irregular margin on the anterior wall of the left atrium and the border of the fossa ovalis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent surgical excision under general anesthesia. Intraoperative finding showed a huge, jelly-like, and extremely friable mass. Pathological examination confirmed myxoma. OUTCOMES: During a follow-up of 2 years after diagnosis, she did not present with other neurological deficits and no residual mass was observed on echocardiography. However, visual impairment of the left eye persisted. LESSONS: Most patients with CRAO may present with other mild symptoms that are often be neglected before CRAO development. We recommend that patients who present with frequent syncopal attack or symptoms of transient ischemic attack should undergo echocardiography.


Assuntos
Cegueira/etiologia , Átrios do Coração , Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Mixoma/complicações , Adolescente , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Mixoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Mixoma/patologia , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/complicações , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
J Clin Neurol ; 15(3): 347-352, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The susceptibility-weighted imaging form of brain MRI using minimum intensity projection (mIP) is useful for assessing traumatic brain injuries because it readily reveals deoxyhemoglobin or paramagnetic compounds. We investigated the efficacy of using this methodology in nontraumatic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the asymmetric mIP findings in nontraumatic patients. Asymmetric mIP images were first verified visually and then using ImageJ software. We enrolled patients with a difference of >5% between hemispheres in ImageJ analysis. All patients underwent detailed history-taking and EEG, and asymmetric mIP findings were compared. RESULTS: The visual analysis identified 54 pediatric patients (37 males and 17 females) with asymmetric mIP findings. Ten patients were excluded because they did not meet the ImageJ verification criteria. The 44 patients with asymmetry comprised 36 with epilepsy, 6 with headache, and 2 with cerebral infarction. Thirty-one of the 36 epileptic patients showed definite partial seizure activities in semiology, while the remaining patients did not demonstrate a history of partial seizure manifestations. The MRI findings were normal in all patients except for five with periventricular leukomalacia unrelated to seizure symptoms. There was agreement between mIP images and semiology in 29 (93.5%) of the 31 epileptic patients with focal signs, while the other 2 demonstrated discordance. Twenty (64.5%) of the 31 patients showed consistent EEG abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that asymmetric mIP findings are an excellent lateralizing indicator in pediatric patients with partial epilepsy.

4.
Mol Cells ; 42(1): 45-55, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665288

RESUMO

The liver is involved in a wide range of activities in vertebrates and some other animals, including metabolism, protein synthesis, detoxification, and the immune system. Until now, various methods have been devised to study liver diseases; however, each method has its own limitations. In situ liver perfusion machinery, originally developed in rats, has been successfully adapted to mice, enabling the study of liver diseases. Here we describe the protocol, which is a simple but widely applicable method for investigating the liver diseases. The liver is perfused in situ by cannulation of the portal vein and suprahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC), with antegrade closed circuit circulation completed by clamping the infrahepatic IVC. In situ liver perfusion can be utilized to evaluate immune cell migration and function, hemodynamics and related cellular reactions in each type of hepatic cells, and the metabolism of toxic or other compounds by changing the composition of the circulating media. In situ liver perfusion method maintains liver function and cell viability for up to 2 h. This study also describes an optional protocol using density-gradient centrifugation for the separation of different types of hepatic cells, allowing the determination of changes in each cell type. In summary, this method of in situ liver perfusion will be useful for studying liver diseases as a complement to other established methods.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Perfusão/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ligantes , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Mecânico
5.
Ann Lab Med ; 39(2): 133-140, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is highly prevalent in Southeast Asia but is rare in Korea; however, Southeast Asian immigrant population is recently rising in Korea. We investigated the prevalence of thalassemia in Korea in the context of increasing immigration. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted between September 2015 and August 2017. A total of 669 subjects <30 years living in Korea were grouped into the multiethnic (N=314) and Korean (N=355) groups. Hb electrophoresis and complete blood count (CBC) were performed. If low mean corpuscular volume with high red blood cell distribution width coefficient of variation or a high fetal Hb (HbF) or Hb alpha 2 (HbA2) level was observed, genetic testing of the α- and ß-globin genes was performed. In addition, the number of potential thalassemia carriers in Korea was estimated by multiplying the prevalence of thalassemia in a specific ethnicity by the number of immigrants of that ethnicity. RESULTS: Twenty-six multiethnic and 10 Korean subjects showed abnormal results for Hb electrophoresis and CBC. Eighteen multiethnic subjects and four Korean subjects were tested for α-globin and ß-globin gene mutations. Within the multiethnic group, five subjects (1.5%) were α-thalassemia carriers, and six (1.9%) were ß-thalassemia minor. The SEA deletion in HBA1 and HBA2, and c. 126_129delCTTT (p.Phe42Leufs*19) mutation of HBB were the dominant inherited mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of thalassemia in young people in Korea is increasing due to the increasing number of Southeast Asian immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Talassemia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese , Feminino , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Deleção de Genes , Testes Genéticos , Hemoglobina A2/análise , Hemoglobina A2/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Korean J Pediatr ; 61(12): 387-391, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Subgaleal hemorrhage (SGH) is a rare but potentially fatal condition in newborns; however, few studies have reported on this condition. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of SGH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 20 neonates diagnosed with SGH between January 2000 and June 2017. Enrolled neonates were clinically diagnosed when they had tender fluctuant scalp swelling that crossed the suture lines. RESULTS: Among 20 neonates with SGH, 12 were boys and 7 were girls; median hospitalization duration was 9.7±6.9 days. Fourteen neonates (70%) were born via vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, and 4 via vacuum-assisted cesarean section. Of the neonates enrolled, half of them initially showed unstable vital signs, including apnea, desaturation, and cyanosis. Ten neonates had acidosis and 3 had asphyxia (pH<7.0). Intracranial lesions associated with SGH were observed in 15 neonates (75%), including subdural hemorrhage (50%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (15%), intraventricular hemorrhage (5%), cerebral infarct (15%), skull fracture (30%), and cephalohematoma (20%). Twelve neonates (60%) required transfusion, 5 (25%) had seizures, and 3 (15%) died. Eight neonates (40%) had hyperbilirubinemia (mean total bilirubin, 13.1±7.4). The mean follow-up period was 8.4±7.5 months. At follow-up, 10 neonates (58.8%) were healthy with normal development, whereas 7 (41.2%) had neurological deficits. CONCLUSION: The morbidity rate was 41.2% due to severe metabolic acidosis. Anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, low Apgar scores, and subdural hemorrhage did not affect the prognosis. The long-term outcomes of neonates with SGH are generally good. Only arterial blood pH was significantly associated with death.

7.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 265, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182283

RESUMO

Over the past few years, two-dimensional materials have gained immense attention for next-generation electric sensing devices because of their unique properties. Here, we report the carrier transport properties of MoS2 Schottky diodes under ambient as well as gas exposure conditions. MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using Pt and Al electrodes. The work function of Pt is higher than that of MoS2, while that of Al is lower than that of MoS2. The MoS2 device with Al contacts showed much higher current than that with Pt contacts because of its lower Schottky barrier height (SBH). The electrical characteristics and gas responses of the MoS2 Schottky diodes with Al and Pt contacts were measured electrically and were simulated by density functional theory calculations. The theoretically calculated SBH of the diode (under gas absorption) showed that NOx molecules had strong interaction with the diode and induced a negative charge transfer. However, an opposite trend was observed in the case of NH3 molecules. We also investigated the effect of metal contacts on the gas sensing performance of MoS2 FETs both experimentally and theoretically.

8.
J Clin Neurol ; 14(4): 523-529, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study is to assess the responsiveness of electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and their effects on language ability after initiating different types of antiepileptic therapy in children with newly diagnosed benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). METHODS: The records of patients newly diagnosed with BECTS (n=120; 69 males) were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were randomly treated with lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or topiramate monotherapy, and underwent at least two EEG and standardized language tests. Effects were compared using Pearson's chi-square tests and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The recurrence rates for seizures in the lamotrigine, topiramate, and oxcarbazepine groups were 19.4%, 21.7%, and 11.4%, respectively, while complete or partial recovery (as indicated by EEG) occurred in 32%, 39%, and 16% of the patients. Patients in the lamotrigine group showed significant improvements in all parameters assessed by the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, except for 'determining cause.' Patients in the oxcarbazepine group also showed improvements, except for 'making inferences' (p<0.05). Most linguistic index scores were worse in the topiramate group except for Mean Length of Utterance in Words. Patients in the lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine groups showed significant improvements in the receptive language test (p<0.05). EEG improvements were not related to language ability. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements in language and problem-solving performance in children with BECTS were greater for lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine than for topiramate. However, EEG remission did not imply that language function would be improved after the treatments.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 78: 68-72, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175693

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to assess the influences of valproate (VPA) on the language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric patients with epilepsy. We reviewed medical records of 53 newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy, who were being treated with VPA monotherapy (n=53; 22 male patients and 31 female patients). The subjects underwent standardized language tests, at least twice, before and after the initiation of VPA. The standardized language tests used were The Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of The Expressive/Receptive Language Function Test, and the Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology. Since all the patients analyzed spoke Korean as their first language, we used Korean language tests to reduce the bias within the data. All the language parameters of the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities slightly improved after the initiation of VPA in the 53 pediatric patients with epilepsy (mean age: 11.6±3.2years), but only "prediction" was statistically significant (determining cause, 14.9±5.1 to 15.5±4.3; making inference, 16.1±5.8 to 16.9±5.6; prediction, 11.1±4.9 to 11.9±4.2; total score of TOPS, 42.0±14.4 to 44.2±12.5). The patients treated with VPA also exhibited a small extension in mean length of utterance in words (MLU-w) when responding, but this was not statistically significant (determining cause, 5.4±2.0 to 5.7±1.6; making inference, 5.8±2.2 to 6.0±1.8; prediction, 5.9±2.5 to 5.9±2.1; total, 5.7±2.1 to 5.9±1.7). The administration of VPA led to a slight, but not statistically significant, improvement in the receptive language function (range: 144.7±41.1 to 148.2±39.7). Finally, there were no statistically significant changes in the percentage of articulation performance after taking VPA. Therefore, our data suggested that VPA did not have negative impact on the language function, but rather slightly improved problem-solving abilities.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/psicologia , Linguagem , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Resolução de Problemas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(49): e9176, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245364

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is typically an autosomal dominant, inherited neuropathy, although there is a rare male X-linked CMT. Such patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, we encountered a patient who presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms, but was later diagnosed as having X-linked CMT (CMTX) due to a mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted for a sudden transient weakness of his left side extremities. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with left side hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ADEM-like demyelinating lesions on both centrum semiovale. A diagnosis of probable ADEM was made, and the patient soon recovered. After 4 months, a second MRI showed complete resolution of the brain lesions. However, the symptoms recurred 2 years later. A third MRI revealed white matter abnormalities, and a physical examination demonstrated pes cavus deformities and peripheral muscle wasting of both lower extremities. INTERVENTIONS: On the basis of the brain MRI lesions and physical findings, we suspected CMTX. Genotyping confirmed a mutation in the GJB1 gene. OUTCOMES: When the symptoms recurred 2 years later, dysarthria and demyelinating MRI lesions were present. We could not identify any triggering factors. LESSONS: Differential diagnosis of recurrent ADEM-like lesions in the cerebral white matter and peripheral neuropathy should include the possibility of CMTX disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/diagnóstico , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Conexinas/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/fisiopatologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação
12.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(8): 266-271, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed. Finally, 17 patients were enrolled and divided into a renal-origin hypertension group and a non-renal-origin hypertension group according to the underlying cause. We compared the clinical features and brain MRI findings between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The renal group included renal artery stenosis (4), acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (2), lupus nephritis (2), and acute renal failure (1); the nonrenal group included essential hypertension (4), pheochromocytoma (2), thyrotoxicosis (1), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (1). The mean systolic blood pressure of the renal group (172.5±36.9 mmHg) was higher than that of the nonrenal group (137.1±11.1 mmHg, P<0.05). Seizure was the most common neurologic symptom, especially in the renal group (P<0.05). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), which is the most typical finding of hypertensive encephalopathy, was found predominantly in the renal group as compared with the nonrenal group (66.6% vs. 12.5%, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the patients with renal-origin hypertension had a more severe clinical course than those with non-renal-origin hypertension. Furthermore, the renal-origin group was highly associated with PRES on brain MRI.

13.
Nanoscale ; 9(41): 15934-15944, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019503

RESUMO

Graphene, a two-dimensional material with a honeycomb lattice, has been promoted as a next generation material because of its ultrafast charge carriers and superior electrical properties. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an insulator explored as an ideal substrate for graphene with lattice-matching. Using raido-frequency (RF) transmission measurement which provides specific characteristics of carrier scattering in a device, we profoundly investigated the electrical properties of quasi-free standing graphene on h-BN. RF devices with graphene supported and encapsulated with h-BN were fabricated to analyze the RF signal at low temperatures from 100 to 300 K. We demonstrated the carrier behavior in graphene with thermally excited carriers and acoustic photon scattering according to heat energy. Both h-BN supported and encapsulated graphene showed a significant enhancement in RF transmission, which is close to a gold interconnector. Our device with graphene on h-BN exhibited concealed nonlinear characteristics at a specific temperature of 180 K due to the internal effects of acoustic phonon scattering, while a usual device with graphene on SiO2/Si provided a linear variation. To anticipate the potential for electronic applications, the electrical circuit properties such as impedance, resistance, and inductance were extracted from the results of RF measurement.

14.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(7): 227-231, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the safety of low-dose topiramate on language development in pediatric patients with migraine. METHODS: Thirty newly diagnosed pediatric patients with migraine who needed topiramate were enrolled and assessed twice with standard language tests, including the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities (TOPs), Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology, and computerized speech laboratory analysis. Data were collected before treatment, and topiramate as monotherapy was sustained for at least 3 months. The mean follow-up period was 4.3±2.7 months. The mean topiramate dosage was 0.9 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: The patient's mean age was 144.1±42.3 months (male-to-female ratio, 9:21). The values of all the language parameters of the TOPs were not changed significantly after the topiramate treatment as follows: Determine cause, from 15.0±4.4 to 15.4±4.8 (P>0.05); making inference, from 17.6±5.6 to 17.5±6.6 (P>0.05); predicting, from 11.5±4.5 to 12.3±4.0 (P>0.05); and total TOPs score, from 44.1± 13.4 to 45.3±13.6 (P>0.05). The total mean length of utterance in words during the test decreased from 44.1±13.4 to 45.3±13.6 (P<0.05). The Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test results decreased from 97.7±22.1 to 96.3±19.9 months, and from 81.8±23.4 to 82.3±25.4 months, respectively (P>0.05). In the articulation and phonology validation in both groups, speech pitch and energy were not significant, and all the vowel test results showed no other significant values. CONCLUSION: No significant difference was found in the language-speaking ability between the patients; however, the number of vocabularies used decreased. Therefore, topiramate should be used cautiously for children with migraine.

15.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(6): 189-195, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lamotrigine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Pediatric patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy (n=90 [61 boys and 29 girls]; mean age, 9.1±3.4 years) were enrolled. All patients were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS)-IV before treatment with lamotrigine and after doses had been administered. The mean interval of ADHD testing was approximately 12.3 months. The initial dosage of lamotrigine was 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 25 mg/day for the first 2 weeks), and increased by 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks until titrated up to 7 mg/kg/day (or maximum 200 mg/day). RESULTS: The mean ADHD test score of the 90 subjects was 17.0±1.8 at baseline. It was slightly reduced to 15.6±1.7 after lamotrigine monotherapy (P >0.01). Prior to treatment, a total of 31 patients (34.4%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, Of these 31 patients, 27 (87.1%) had significantly improved ADHD scores with lamotrigine monotherapy (28.0±1.6 reduced to 18.1±2.6, P<0.001). Among these 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) showed normalized electroencephalogram (EEG) and 26 (96.3%) achieved total freedom from seizures within 12 months of the initiation of lamotrigine monotherapy. CONCLUSION: The results from our study show that lamotrigine had a positive effect in pediatric epilepsy patients by reducing ADHD symptoms, preventing seizures, and normalizing EEG. However, further research is required to determine whether lamotrigine is efficacious against ADHD symptoms independent of its effects on epileptic seizures.

16.
Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr ; 20(1): 27-33, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401053

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gastrostomy is commonly used procedures to provide enteral nutrition support for severely handicapped patients. This study aimed to identify and compare outcomes and complications associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and surgical gastrostomy (SG). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 51 patients who received gastrostomy in a single tertiary hospital from January 2000 to May 2016 was performed. We analyzed the patients and the complications caused by the procedures. RESULTS: Among the 51 patients, 26 had PEG and 25 had SG. Four cases in the SG group had fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. PEG and SG groups were followed up for an average of 29 months and 44 months. Major complications occurred in 19.2% of patients in the PEG group and 20.0% in the SG group, but significant differences between the groups were not observed. Minor complications occurred in 15.4% of patients in the PEG group and 52.0% in the SG group. Minor complications were significantly lower in the PEG group than in the SG group (p=0.006). The average use of antibiotics in the PEG and SG groups was 6.2 days and 15.7 days (p=0.002). Thirteen patients died of underlying disease but not related to gastrostomy, and only one patient died due to complications associated with general anesthesia. CONCLUSION: The duration of antibiotics use and incidence of minor complications were significantly lower in the PEG group than those in the SG group. Early PEG could be recommended for nutritional supports.

17.
Infect Chemother ; 49(4): 262-267, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined vancomycin and steroid therapy for the treatment of culture-proven bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a total of 86 pediatric patients with culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid who were treated at our facility between 2005 and 2015. Ten of these patients (5 boys and 5 girls) received first-line treatment with vancomycin as the initial form of therapy. All cultured bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin. We retrospectively analyzed these cases to examine the relationship between concomitant steroid dosage and antibiotic treatment effectiveness. RESULTS: Nine of the 10 patients included in our analysis received steroid treatment. Of these, 3 received high-dose steroid therapy and 6 received low-dose steroid therapy. Five patients did not respond to vancomycin, including all 3 patients in the high-dose steroid group and 2 patients in the low-dose steroid group. Our analysis confirmed that the response rate to vancomycin treatment was significantly reduced in accordance with steroid dosage (P = 0.035). Patients who did not to respond to vancomycin with concomitant high-dose steroid administration improved clinically after the substitution of vancomycin with teicoplanin. CONCLUSION: The use of steroids, especially in high doses, may impair the effectiveness of vancomycin for treating bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients. Physicians should be cautious when administering concomitant steroid therapy and should carefully monitor the steroid dosage.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(36): e4393, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603336

RESUMO

RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack. He had been neglected and refused to take food for a long time (body weight < 3rd percentile). During admission, the patient showed low serum osmolality, high urine osmolality, dehydration state, increased urine output, and negative water balance, a diagnosis of CSWS was made. DIAGNOSES, INTERVENTIONS, AND OUTCOMES: Brain MRI displayed symmetrical lesions of T2WI and FLAIR high signal intensity in the peri-aqueductal and hypothalamic areas, which suggests Wernicke encephalopathy. For the early diagnosis of WE, neuroimaging studies can be an important marker. Thiamine hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 100 mg/day for 3 weeks. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed due to persistent hyponatremia, dehydrated state, and high urine sodium with massive urination. MAIN LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS CASE: Wernicke encephalopathy is a very rare cause of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in pediatrics patients. The patient had a good outcome after hypertonic solution and fludrocortisone therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Fludrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/tratamento farmacológico
20.
JMIR Med Inform ; 4(3): e26, 2016 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of neonatal and pediatric patients is limited to certain medical institutions depending on treatment difficulty. Effective patient transfers are necessary in situations where there are limited medical resources. In South Korea, the government has made a considerable effort to establish patient transfer systems using various means, such as websites, telephone, and so forth. However, in reality, the effort has not yet been effective. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we ran a patient transfer information system using a social app for effective patient transfer. We analyzed the results, satisfaction levels, and the factors influencing satisfaction. METHODS: Naver Band is a social app and mobile community application which in Korea is more popular than Facebook. It facilitates group communication. Using Naver Band, two systems were created: one by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the other by the Department of Pediatrics at Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, South Korea. The information necessary for patient transfers was provided to participating obstetricians (n=51) and pediatricians (n=90). We conducted a survey to evaluate the systems and reviewed the results retrospectively. RESULTS: The number of patients transferred was reported to increase by 65% (26/40) obstetricians and 40% (23/57) pediatricians. The time taken for transfers was reported to decrease by 72% (29/40) obstetricians and 59% (34/57) pediatricians. Satisfaction was indicated by 83% (33/40) obstetricians and 89% (51/57) pediatricians. Regarding factors influencing satisfaction, the obstetricians reported communication with doctors in charge (P=.03) and time reduction during transfers (P=.02), whereas the pediatricians indicated review of the diagnosis and treatment of transferred patients (P=.01) and the time reduction during transfers (P=.007). CONCLUSIONS: The users were highly satisfied and different users indicated different factors of satisfaction. This finding implies that users' requirements should be accommodated in future developments of patient transfer information systems.

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