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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531902

RESUMO

Lipid homeostasis is an important component of brain function, and its disturbance causes several neurological disorders, such as Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases as well as mood disorders. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key modulatory molecule involved in lipid homeostasis in the central nervous system. However, little is known about the biological effects of SREBP-1c in the brain. Our previous study uncovered that mice deficient in SREBP-1c exhibit schizophrenia-like behaviors. To investigate whether there are novel molecular mechanisms involved in the neurological aberrations caused by SREBP-1c deficiency, we analyzed the transcriptomes of the hippocampus of SREBP-1c knockout (KO) mice and wild-type mice. We found seven differentially expressed genes (three up-regulated and four down-regulated genes) in the hippocampus of SREBP-1c KO mice. For further verification, we selected the three most significantly changed genes: glucagon-like peptide 2 receptors (GLP2R) involved in hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity as well as in cognitive impairments; necdin (NDN) which is related to neuronal death and neurodevelopmental disorders; and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) which is a receptor for schizophrenia-linked protein, neuregulin-1. The protein levels of GLP2R and NDN were considerably decreased, but the level of ERBB4 was significantly increased in the hippocampus of SREBP-1c KO mice. However, further confirmation is warranted to establish the translatability of these findings from this rodent model into human patients. We suggest that these data provide novel molecular evidence for the modulatory role of SREBP-1c in the mouse hippocampus.

2.
Exp Cell Res ; 389(2): 111897, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035951

RESUMO

Mucins are major macromolecular components of lung mucus that are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus. MUC5AC is a major mucin glycoprotein that is hypersecreted in asthmatic individuals. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Our previous studies indicate that VEGF upregulates MUC5AC expression by interacting with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). It has been shown that dexamethasone (Dex) downregulates MUC5AC expression; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of Dex on MUC5AC expression induced by VEGF and study the underlying mechanisms. We tested the effects of Dex on VEGFR2 and RhoA activation, caveolin-1 expression, and the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2 in primary bronchial epithelial cells. Dex downregulated MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and suppressed the activation of VEGFR2 and RhoA induced by VEGF. Additionally, Dex upregulated caveolin-1 protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, phospho-VEGFR2 expression was decreased through overexpression of caveolin-1 and increased after caveolin-1 knockdown. Dex treatment attenuated the VEGF-decreased association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Collectively, our findings suggest that Dex downregulates VEGF-induced MUC5AC expression by inactivating VEGFR2 and RhoA. Furthermore, decreased MUC5AC expression by Dex was related to the increased association of caveolin-1 with VEGFR2. Further studies characterizing these mechanisms are required to facilitate the development of improved treatment strategies for asthma.

3.
Intern Med ; 59(9): 1189-1194, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009092

RESUMO

Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis (ITBA) complicated by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is rare. An 88-year-old man was admitted for hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed bronchial ulcers, and a tissue biopsy showed Aspergillus fumigatus. He was diagnosed with ITBA, which improved with voriconazole. During treatment, infiltrative shadows appeared in his lungs, and bronchoscopy was performed once again. A non-necrotic epithelioid granuloma and Mycobacterium intracellulare were detected in the biopsy specimen. He was diagnosed with NTM disease. It is important to note that tracheobronchial ulcers may cause hemoptysis and to identify the etiology and treat it appropriately when multiple bacteria are found.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e030873, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunity against rubella using the serological status of rubella-specific IgG antibodies (antirubella IgG) in Korean women of childbearing age (15-49 years). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study in South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: Between January 2010 and December 2017, test results from Korean women aged 15-49 years who had visited an obstetric private clinic (nationwide institutions) and had requested rubella-specific IgG antibody tests from Green Cross Laboratories were obtained from the laboratory information system. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2017, antirubella IgG test results from 328 426 Korean women aged 15-49 years who had visited private obstetric clinics (1438 institutions nationwide) were retrospectively analysed by tested year, age, cohort and geographic regions. Over the 8-year study period, the rate of unimmunised women ranged from 7.8% to 9.7%. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models showed that the odds of being immune to rubella (positive and equivocal results of antirubella IgG test) were lower in 2017 compared with 2010, in women in their 40s, in a pre-catch-up cohort and in women living in Incheon, Busan, South Gyeongsang, North and South Jeolla and Jeju provinces (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In consideration of the factors associated with prevalence of women unimmunised to rubella, future public health efforts should be focused on catch-up activities. The results of this study could be used to strengthen disease control and prevent rubella, including a nationwide immunisation programme.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18749, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914095

RESUMO

A multicenter cohort study.The DialysisNet was previously developed for the management of hemodialysis (HD) patients based on the American Society for Testing and Materials Continuity of Care Records by metadata transformation. DialysisNet is a dialysis patient management program created by using the personal health record care platform to overcome the problems of registry studies, in real-time.Here, we aimed to investigate the pattern of treatment for renal anemia in HD patients using DialysisNet.We performed a multicenter cohort study among HD patients who were treated at one of the three Korean university-affiliated hospitals from January 2016 to December 2016. Subjects were divided into 4 hemoglobin variability groups by quartiles. The variable anemia treatment pattern was reviewed. To determine renal anemia treatment patterns, we automatically collected information on the practice of anemia treatment patterns such as erythropoietin stimulating agent (ESA) doses and administration frequencies, and targeted hemoglobin maintenance rate. Individual hemoglobin variabilities were expressed as (standard deviations)/(√(n/[n-1]).The records of 159 patients were analyzed (Hospital A: 35, Hospital B: 21, Hospital C: 103). Mean patients' age was 65.6 ±â€Š12.8 years, and 61.6% were men. Overall, hemoglobin level was 10.5[7.43;13.93] g/dL. 158 (99.3%) patients were using ESA; and overall, the epoetin alfa dose was 33,000[4000;136,800] U per week. Hemoglobin levels (P = .206) and epoetin alfa doses were similar (P = .924) for patients with different hemoglobin variabilities. The hemoglobin target maintenance rate was lower in the highest hemoglobin variability group than in the lowest variability group (P = .045).In this study, detailed information on the actual anemia treatment patterns were obtained using the DialysisNet. We expect that DialysisNet will simplify and improve the renal anemia management for both dialysis patients and health care providers.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Epoetina alfa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963703

RESUMO

Morinda citrifolia, a fruit generally known as "Noni", has been traditionally used in parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although several studies using noni have been reported, the effect of fermented Morinda citrifolia (F.NONI) on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been investigated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the improving effect of F.NONI treatment on AD-like skin lesions and elucidate molecular mechanisms. F.NONI was prepared by the fermentation of noni fruit with probiotics and then extracted. F.NONI was orally administrated to NC/Nga mice to evaluate its therapeutic effect on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD. Oral administration of F.NONI significantly alleviated AD lesions and symptoms such as dermatitis scores, ear thickness, scratching behavior, epidermal thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells (e.g., mast cells and eosinophils). In addition, F.NONI treatment reduced the levels of histamine, IgE and IgG1/IgG2a ratio, thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in serum and beneficially modulated the expressions of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22-mediated cytokines in lesioned skin and splenocytes. Furthermore, the expressions of the skin barrier-related proteins including filaggrin (FLG), loricrin (LOR), involucrin (IVL), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin (OCC) were restored by F.NONI treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that F.NONI could be a therapeutic agent to attenuate AD-like skin lesions through modulating the immune balance and skin barrier function.

7.
Ther Apher Dial ; 24(1): 4-16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090188

RESUMO

Hepcidin's relationships with other variables are unclear. We evaluated associations of serum hepcidin with clinical parameters in ESRD patients. Ninety-nine incident dialysis patients, including 57 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 42 on HD, were prospectively followed for 6 months. Serum hepcidin levels significantly increased during initial 6 months of dialysis. In the multivariate regression model, independent predictors of serum hepcidin levels in ESRD patients before maintenance dialysis were interleukin-6, ferritin, phosphate, iron, and aspartate transaminase. Six months after initiating dialysis, serum hepcidin levels were independently predicted by ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and aspartate transaminase in all patients, whereas by ferritin and TIBC in PD patients, and ferritin, TIBC, and 24-h urine volume in HD patients. Serum hepcidin levels are differentially associated with anemia parameters in PD compared with HD patients. Urine volume was an independent predictor of hepcidin levels in early HD patients.

8.
Cognition ; 195: 104132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726323

RESUMO

Visual holes (cutouts in a surface) have recently intrigued vision scientists as interesting and useful stimuli in the studies of shape perception and as a perceptual conundrum regarding figure/ground organization. Adopting the Bouba/Kiki paradigm, this study addressed a controversial issue of whether the perceived shape of a closed region alters when the region changes from a solid object to an empty hole, in a more direct manner than previous studies did. Observers were presented with two doughnut-like cardboard cutouts, one with a flower-shaped hole and the other with a star-shaped hole, and then matched them with two nonsense words. The curvature profile of the hole boundary was manipulated so that the shape of the interior region (i.e., a hole) and that of the exterior region (i.e., material edges) give rise to opposite shape impressions (i.e., one rounded and the other spiky). The results of Experiment 1 revealed that shape-name matching for holed objects is based on the interior shapes of holes, but not those of materially defined inner edges. The following three experiments replicated the same pattern of results even when holes appeared like oral apertures in animal character faces (Experiments 2-3) and when they were irregular, non-symmetric, and low in semantic association with familiar real-world objects (Experiment 4). Lastly, Experiment 5 showed that shape-name matching for "C"-shaped, negative-part stimuli is also interior-shape-based if the opening of the interior region is relatively small. These findings suggest that the interior shapes of holes are automatically accessible. I conclude with a discussion of my hypothesis that the only global-level, unitary shape representation of a bounded region of a single connected surface is that of the interior region for both objects and holes, imposing an important constraint in visual shape processing.

9.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 282, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important pathophysiological feature in asthma. Mucins are glycoproteins that are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, and MUC5AC is a major mucin glycoprotein that is overproduced in asthma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression and study the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In order to elucidate the precise mechanism underlying the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression, we tested the effects of VEGF on RhoA activation and the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2 in Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells. RESULTS: VEGF up-regulated MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and activated RhoA. Additionally, VEGF-induced MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation were enhanced by disrupting caveolae with cholesterol depletion and reversed by cholesterol repletion, and inhibited by a selective VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor SU1498. Furthermore, phospho-VEGFR2 expression was decreased via overexpression of caveolin-1. VEGF treatment reduced the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF up-regulates MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation by interaction with VEGFR2, and this phenomenon was related with the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Further studies on these mechanisms are needed to facilitate the development of treatments for asthma.

10.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489941

RESUMO

Liver damage upon exposure to ionizing radiation, whether accidental or because of therapy can contribute to liver dysfunction. Currently, radiation therapy is used for various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the treatment dose is limited by poor liver tolerance to radiation. Furthermore, reliable biomarkers to predict liver damage and associated side-effects are unavailable. Here, we investigated fibrinogen-like 1 (FGL1)-expression in the liver and plasma after radiation exposure. We found that 30 Gy of liver irradiation (IR) induced cell death including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with fibrotic changes in the liver occurring during the acute and subacute phase in mice. Moreover, FGL1 expression pattern in the liver following IR was associated with liver damage represented by injury-related proteins and oxidative stress markers. We confirmed the association between FGL1 expression and hepatocellular injury by exposing human hepatocytes to radiation. To determine its suitability, as a potential biomarker for radiation-induced liver injury, we measured FGL1 in the liver tissue and the plasma of mice following total body irradiation (TBI) or liver IR. In TBI, FGL1 showed the highest elevation in the liver compared to other major internal organs including the heart, lung, kidney, and intestine. Notably, plasma FGL1 showed good correlation with radiation dose by liver IR. Our data revealed that FGL1 upregulation indicates hepatocellular injury in response to IR. These results suggest that plasma FGL1 may represent a potential biomarker for acute and subacute radiation exposure to the liver.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/sangue , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Radiação Ionizante
11.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(9): 1530-1535, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089051

RESUMO

Sodium butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that affects various types of brain damages. To investigate the effects of sodium butyrate on hippocampal dysfunction that occurs after whole-brain irradiation in animal models and the effect of sodium butyrate on radiation exposure-induced cognitive impairments, adult C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with 0.6 g/kg sodium butyrate before exposure to 10 Gy cranial irradiation. Cognitive impairment in adult C57BL/6 mice was evaluated via an object recognition test 30 days after irradiation. We also detected the expression levels of neurogenic cell markers (doublecortin) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Radiation-exposed mice had decreased cognitive function and hippocampal doublecortin and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Sodium butyrate pretreatment reversed these changes. These findings suggest that sodium butyrate can improve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction through inhibiting the decrease in hippocampal phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. The study procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences (approval No. KIRAMS16-0002) on December 30, 2016.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 201-210, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039387

RESUMO

This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against cisplatin (CP)-induced acute kidney injury in rats as well as its possible mechanism of action associated with anti-aging protein Klotho. The following four experimental groups were evaluated: vehicle control, CP (7 mg/kg), CP&MT20 (20 mg/kg/day), and CP&MT40 (40 mg/kg/day). The concomitant administration of MT significantly ameliorated CP-induced acute kidney injury in rats, as evidenced by increased kidney weight, increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and increased incidence of histopathological alterations with renal tubular cell apoptosis. In addition, MT treatment protected kidney tissue against oxidative damages and significantly upregulated the expression level of Klotho decreased by CP treatment, resulting in reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and forkhead box O (FOXO) as well as reduced expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3. MT not only partially regulated oxidative stress via AKT/FOXO signaling, but also reduced apoptosis caused by CP by inhibiting the Bax/caspase-3 pathway. Our results indicated that MT could prevent acute kidney injury induced by CP in rats, presumably through upregulating the expression of Klotho, resulting in elevated anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Anesth ; 33(2): 238-249, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is widely performed outside of the operating theater, often in emergency departments (EDs). The practice and safety of PSA in the ED in an aging society such as in Japan have not been well described. We aimed to characterize the practice pattern of PSA including indications, pharmacology and incidence of adverse events (AEs) in Japan. METHODS: We formed the Japanese Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Registry, a multicenter prospective observation registry of ED patients undergoing PSA. We included all patients who received PSA in the ED. PSA was defined as any systemic pharmacological intervention intended to facilitate a painful or uncomfortable procedure. The main variables in this study were patients' demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, indication of PSA, medication choices, and AEs. The primary outcome measure was overall AEs from PSA. RESULTS: We enrolled 332 patients in four EDs during the 12-month period. The median age was 67 years (IQR, 46-78). In terms of ASA physical status, 79 (23.8%), 172 (51.8%), and 81 (24.4%) patients were class 1, 2, 3 or higher, respectively. The most common indication was cardioversion (44.0%). The most common sedative used was thiopental (38.9%), followed by midazolam (34.0%) and propofol (19.6%). Among all patients, 72 (21.7%, 95% confidence interval, 17-26) patients experienced one or more AEs. The most common AE was hypoxia (9.9%), followed by apnea (7.2%) and hypotension (3.5%). All of the AEs were transient and no patient had a serious AE. CONCLUSION: In a multicenter prospective registry in Japan, PSA in the ED appears safe particularly since the patients who underwent PSA were older and had a higher risk profile compared to patients in previous studies in different countries.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Tiopental/administração & dosagem
14.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(4): e12540, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430717

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a hereditary disease that approximately 1% of the worldwide population develops. Many studies have investigated possible underlying genes related to schizophrenia. Recently, clinical studies suggested sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) as a susceptibility gene in patients with schizophrenia. SREBP controls cellular lipid homeostasis by three isoforms: SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and SREBP-2. This study used SREBP-1c knockout (KO) mice to examine whether a deficiency in SREBP-1c would affect their emotional and psychiatric behaviors. Altered mRNA expression in genes downstream from SREBP-1c was confirmed in the brains of SREBP-1c KO mice. Schizophrenia-like behavior, including hyperactivity during the dark phase, depressive-like behavior, aggressive behavior and deficits in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, was observed in SREBP-1c KO mice. Furthermore, increased volume of the lateral ventricle was detected in SREBP-1c KO mice. The mRNA levels of several γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor subtypes and/or glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 decreased in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex of SREBP-1c KO mice. Thus, SREBP-1c deficiency may contribute to enlargement of the lateral ventricle and development of schizophrenia-like behaviors and be associated with altered GABAergic transmission.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Animais , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/deficiência
15.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(3): 595-600, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556722

RESUMO

Unlike previous studies of part-based shape representations that mostly investigated static images, we tested whether part segmentation can affect the perception of ambiguous dynamic events, involving globally inconsistent kinetic occlusion: An object moved horizontally across another stationary object, with either its top or bottom half occluding and the other half being occluded by the stationary one, which could be perceived as one object being split into halves by the other object. We manipulated an object's part structure by introducing concave or convex cusps along the contour of an object and found that objects with concave cusps were more likely perceived as being split than those with no or convex cusps. This study provides a new insight into a broad framework of spatiotemporal perceptual organization, by demonstrating that salient parts are readily perceived as broken apart in a physical sense, which in turn alters the perception of a motion event and its causal structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Opt Express ; 26(22): 28634-28640, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470036

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of phosphor deposition methods on the correlated color temperature (CCT), luminous flux and thermal characteristics of packaged white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) for use in mobile display products. For both the samples, the CCT decreased with increasing viewing angle. Phosphor sedimentation samples displayed much better angular color uniformity than phosphor dispersion samples. The phosphor sedimentation sample had higher luminous flux and luminous efficacy at 20 mA than the phosphor dispersion sample. The phosphor sedimentation sample displayed much better high-temperature/humidity (85 °C/85%) reliability and lower package temperatures compared with the phosphor dispersion sample.

17.
Exp Neurobiol ; 27(5): 419-436, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429651

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic agents induce long-term side effects, including cognitive impairment and mood disorders, particularly in breast cancer survivors who have undergone chemotherapy. However, the precise mechanisms underpinning chemotherapy-induced hippocampal dysfunction remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the detrimental effects of chronic treatment with a combination of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC) on the neuronal architecture and functions of the hippocampi of female C57BL/6 mice. After chronic AC administration, mice showed memory impairment (measured using a novel object recognition memory task) and depression-like behavior (measured using the tail suspension test and forced swim test). According to Golgi staining, chronic AC treatment significantly reduced the total dendritic length, ramification, and complexity as well as spine density and maturation in hippocampal neurons in a sub-region-specific manner. Additionally, the AC combination significantly reduced adult neurogenesis, the extent of the vascular network, and the levels of hippocampal angiogenesis-related factors. However, chronic AC treatment did not increase the levels of inflammation-related signals (microglial or astrocytic distribution, or the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines or M1/M2 macrophage markers). Thus, chronic AC treatment changed the neuronal architecture of the adult hippocampus, possibly by reducing neurogenesis and the extent of the vasculature, independently of neuroinflammation. Such detrimental changes in micromorphometric parameters may explain the hippocampal dysfunction observed after cancer chemotherapy.

18.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177658

RESUMO

Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiONPs), which are metal oxide nanoparticles, have been used in a wide variety of applications. In this study, acute pulmonary responses were examined after the intranasal instillation of SiONPs in mice primed with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS, intranasal, 5 µg/mouse). The exposure to SiONPs increased the inflammatory cell counts and proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. SiONPs induced airway inflammation with increases in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The ratios of the inflammatory responses induced by the SiONPs were increased in the acute pulmonary disease model primed by LPS. Taken together, SiONPs exhibited toxicity to the respiratory system, which was associated with MAPK phosphorylation. In addition, the exposure to SiONPs exacerbated any existing inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These data showed the additive, as well as synergistic, interaction effects of SiONPs and LPS. We conclude that the exposure to SiONPs causes potential toxicity in humans, especially those with respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Instilação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(74): 10463-10466, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156229

RESUMO

Compared to tedious, multi-step treatments for electroless gold plating of traditional thermoplastics, this communication describes a simpler three-step procedure for 3D printed crosslinked polyacrylate substrates. This allows for the synthesis of ultralight gold foam microlattice materials with great potential for architecture-sensitive applications in future energy, catalysis, and sensing.

20.
Exp Psychol ; 65(4): 218-225, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947296

RESUMO

Here we report a new ambiguous continuous motion display, in which two objects appear at the diagonally opposite corners of an imaginary square, move along the diagonal axis toward each other, and after meeting in the center, shift their trajectories to the other two diagonal corners. This display can be seen as two objects' colliding and bouncing off each other, with two competing interpretations of trajectory configuration requiring either vertical or horizontal integration of trajectory segments. Despite the fact that both percepts are equally plausible, the current study revealed a perceptual preference toward a vertical integration interpretation. We compared this bias with the similar vertical bias in a bistable apparent motion quartet, which suggests that the directional anisotropy found here is quite a new, and distinct phenomenon in both its perceptual characteristics and underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Viés , Humanos
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