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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27495, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to estimate perfusion-related parameters, but these parameters may differ, based on the curve-fitting algorithm used for IVIM. Microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) status are used as angiogenic factors in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MVD, VEGF, and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters, obtained by 4 curve-fitting algorithms, in patients with invasive breast cancers.This retrospective study investigated IVIM-derived parameters, D (ie, tissue diffusivity), D∗ (ie, pseudodiffusivity), and f (ie, perfusion fraction), of 55 breast cancers, using 10 b values (range, 0-800 s/mm2) and 4 curve-fitting algorithms: algorithm 1, linear fitting of D and f first, followed by D∗; algorithm 2, linear fitting of D and f and nonlinear fitting of D∗; algorithm 3, linear fitting of D and f, linear fitting of D∗, and ignoring D contribution for low b values; and algorithm 4, full nonlinear fitting of D, f, and D∗. We evaluated whole-tumor histograms of D, f, and D∗ for their association with MVD and VEGF.D∗10, D∗25, D∗50, D∗mean, D∗75, D∗90, f10, and f25, derived using algorithm 3, were associated with VEGF expression (P = .043, P = 0.012, P = .019, P = .024, P = .044, P = .041, P = .010, and P = .005, respectively). However, no correlation existed between MVD and IVIM-derived parameters.Perfusion-related IVIM parameters obtained by curve-fitting algorithm 3 may reflect VEGF expression.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Densidade Microvascular/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento (Física) , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683218

RESUMO

We proposed the enhancement of the electrical properties of solution-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films through microwave irradiation (MWI) and argon (Ar) gas plasma treatment. A cost- and time-effective heat treatment through MWI was applied as a post-deposition annealing (PDA) process to spin-coated ITO thin films. Subsequently, the sheet resistance of MWI ITO thin films was evaluated before and after plasma treatment. The change in the sheet resistance demonstrated that MWI PDA and Ar plasma treatment significantly improved the electrical properties of the ITO thin films. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the electrical properties of the ITO thin films were enhanced by the increase in oxygen vacancies due to the ion bombardment effect of high-energy plasma ions during Ar plasma treatment. Changes in the band gap structure of the ITO thin film due to the ion bombardment effect were also analyzed. The combination of MWI PDA and Ar plasma treatment presents new possibilities for improving the high-conductivity sol-gel ITO electrode.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20205, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642389

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate imaging characteristics of young age breast cancer (YABC) focusing on correlation with pathologic factors and association with disease recurrence. From January 2017 to December 2019, patients under 40 years old who were diagnosed as breast cancer were enrolled in this study. Morphologic analysis of tumor and multiple quantitative parameters were obtained from pre-treatment dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Tumor-stroma ratio (TSR), microvessel density (MVD) and endothelial Notch 1 (EC Notch 1) were investigated for correlation with imaging parameters. In addition, recurrence associated factors were assessed using both clinico-pathologic factors and imaging parameters. A total of 53 patients were enrolled. Several imaging parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram showed negative correlation with TSR; and there was negative correlation between MVD and Ve in perfusion analysis. There were nine cases of recurrences with median interval of 16 months. Triple negative subtype and low CD34 MVD positivity in Notch 1 hotspots showed significant association with tumor recurrence. Texture parameters reflecting tumor sphericity and homogeneity were also associated with disease recurrence. In conclusion, several quantitative MRI parameters can be used as imaging biomarkers for tumor microenvironment and can predict disease recurrence in YABC.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576875

RESUMO

The dung beetle Copris tripartitus Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a coprophagous insect that lives in and feeds primarily on the feces of mammalian herbivores and is known to protect their offspring from the pathogen-rich environment by performing parental care for brood balls. Brood balls under continuous management by dung beetle are rarely contaminated by entomopathogenic fungi compared to abandoned brood balls. On the supposition that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that protect their offspring against fungal pathogens, we evaluated the antifungal activities of bacteria isolated from the dung beetle and brood ball. As a result, bacterial isolates, mainly streptomycetes, manifested potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various fungi, including entomopathogens. Of the isolates, Streptomyces sp. AT67 exhibited pronounced antifungal activities. Culture-dependent and independent approaches show that this strain has occurred continuously in dung beetles that were collected over three years. Moreover, metabolic profiling and chemical investigation demonstrated that the strain produced an antifungal polyene macrocyclic lactam, sceliphrolactam, as a major product. Our findings imply that specific symbiotic bacteria of C. tripartitus are likely to contribute brood ball hygiene by inhibiting fungal parasites in the environment.

5.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(6): 843-848, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether texture analysis of contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images could predict risk of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: The study included 185 DCIS lesions that were classified as either low risk or non-low risk using surgical pathology records. All magnetic resonance imaging texture analyses were performed using postprocessing software, and texture-derived parameters were extracted. RESULTS: The sphericity, compactness, and spherical disproportion were significantly different in the low-risk and non-low risk groups using the Van Nuys Prognostic Index (mean ± SD, 0.479 ± 0.189 vs 0.414 ± 0.176, 0.161 ± 0.159 vs 0.112 ± 0.134, and 2.569 ± 1.434 vs 2.934 ± 1.374, respectively; P < 0.05). In the univariate analyses, sphericity (odds ratio, 7.091; 95% confidence interval, 1.236-40.666; P = 0.028) and compactness (odds ratio, 9.267; 95% confidence interval, 1.125-76.360; P = 0.039) were significantly associated with a high probability of being low risk according to the Van Nuys Prognostic Index. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-lesion texture analysis may be helpful in identifying patients classified as having low-risk DCIS before surgery.

6.
J Anim Sci Technol ; 63(3): 520-530, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189502

RESUMO

This experiment was performed to verify whether dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) improves growth performance and modulates immune responses of weaned pigs. Ninety-six weaned pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc; 6.95 ± 0.25 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly allocated to four treatments: 1) a basal diet without heat-killed LR (CON), 2) T1 (CON with 0.1% heat-killed LR), 3) T2 (CON with 0.2% heat-killed LR), and 4) T3 (CON with 0.4% heat-killed LR). Each treatment had six pens with four pigs (6 replicates per treatment) in a randomized completely block design. The heat-killed LR used in this study contained 1 × 109 FU/g of LR in a commercial product. Pigs were fed each treatment for four weeks using a two-phase feeding program to measure growth performance and frequency of diarrhea. During the last week of this study, all diets contained 0.2% chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal sampling was performed through rectal palpation for the consecutive three days after the four adaptation days to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy (GE). Blood sampling was also performed on day 1, 3, 7, and 14 after weaning to measure immune responses such as serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and cortisol. The heat-killed LR increased (p < 0.05) growth rate, feed efficiency, and ATTD of GE for overall experimental period compared with CON, but reduced (p < 0.05) post-weaning diarrhea. In addition, pigs fed diets contained heat-killed had lower concentrations of serum TNF-α (d 7; p < 0.05), TGF-ß1 (d 7; p < 0.10), and cortisol (d 3 and 7; p < 0.05) than pigs fed CON. In conclusion, dietary heat-killed LR improved growth rate, modified immune responses of weaned pigs, and alleviated post-weaning diarrhea.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252476, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115797

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the imaging characteristics of early and late recurrent breast cancer and the detectability of mammography, ultrasonography, and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who underwent breast-conservation therapy (BCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total of 1312 women with 2026 surveillance breast MRI after BCT between January 2014 and September 2018 were studied. Early recurrence was defined as newly diagnosed breast cancer and/or axillary metastasis within 12 months of surgery. Late recurrence was defined as recurrence after 12months of surgery. We assessed the detectability of recurrent lesions in each postoperative imaging modality and evaluated characteristics of recurrent lesions on postoperative MRI by comparing early and late recurrence groups. RESULT: Of the 2026 cases, 103 were confirmed as recurrent breast cancer by biopsy or surgery. Thirty-one cases were early recurrence, and 72 cases were late recurrence. MRI showed significantly higher detectability for recurrent lesions (102 cases, 99%) than mammography (59.4%, p < 0.001) or ultrasound (68.9%, p < 0.001), or both mammography and ultrasound (81.6%, p < 0.001). The recurrent lesions did not have typical malignant morphologic features, but variable features on MRI. However, early recurrent lesions showed fast enhancement in early dynamic phase regardless of the kinetic pattern of delayed dynamic phase; and late recurrence lesions showed early fast enhancement and delayed washout pattern. There were 19 cases which were not detected on mammography or ultrasound but could only be detected with MRI. CONCLUSION: Postoperative breast MRI showed significantly higher detectability for recurrent lesions than mammography and ultrasound. Early fast enhancement is the most important feature of recurrent lesions on postoperative breast MRI for both early and late recurrence groups. Due to its high possibility of recurrence, further work-up should be considered regardless of their morphologic features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ultrassonografia Mamária
8.
Eur Radiol ; 31(10): 7771-7782, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of screening ABUS as the primary screening test for breast cancer among Korean women aged 40-49 years. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study included asymptomatic Korean women aged 40-49 years from three academic centers between February 2017 and October 2019. Each participant underwent ABUS without mammography, and the ABUS images were interpreted at each hospital with double-reading by two breast radiologists. Biopsy and at least 1 year of follow-up was considered the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of ABUS screening and subgroup analyses according to patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: Reference standard data were available for 959 women. The recall rate was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9%, 11.7%; 94 of 959 women) and the cancer detection yield was 5.2 per 1000 women (95% CI: -0.6, 11.1; 5 of 959 women). There was only one interval cancer. The sensitivity was 83.3% (95% CI: 53.5%, 100%; 5 of 6 cancers) and the specificity was 90.7% (95% CI: 88.8%, 92.5%; 864 of 95. women). The positive predictive values of biopsies performed (PPV3) was 20.0% (95% CI: 4.3%, 35.7%; 5 of 25 women). Women with heterogeneous background echotexture had a higher recall rate (p = .009) and lower specificity (p = .036). Women with body mass index values < 25 kg/m2 had a higher mean recall rate (p = .046). CONCLUSION: In East Asia, screening automated breast US may be an alternative to screening mammography for detecting breast cancers in women aged 40-49 years. KEY POINTS: • Automated breast US screening for breast cancer in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 is effective with 5.2 per 1000 cancer detection yield. • Women with heterogeneous background echotexture had a higher recall rate and lower specificity. • Women with body mass index < 25 kg/m2 had a higher recall rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Mamária
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the image quality of acquired diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and computed DWI and evaluate the lesion detectability and likelihood of malignancy in these datasets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 29 women (mean age, 43.5 years) underwent DWI between August 2018 and April 2019 for 32 breast cancers and 16 benign breast lesions. Three radiologists independently reviewed the acquired DWI with b-values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 (A-b1000 and A-b2000) and the computed DWI with a b-value of 2000 s/mm2 (C-b2000). Image quality was scored and compared between the three DWI datasets. Lesion detectability was recorded, and the lesion's likelihood for malignancy was scored using a five-point scale. RESULTS: The A-b1000 images were superior to the A-b2000 and C-b2000 images in chest distinction, fat suppression, and overall image quality. The A-b2000 and C-b2000 images showed comparable scores for all image quality parameters. C-b2000 showed the highest values for lesion detection among all readers, although there was no statistical difference in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy between the DWI datasets. The malignancy scores of the DWI images were not significantly different among the three readers. CONCLUSIONS: A-b1000 DWI is suitable for breast lesion evaluations, considering its better image quality and comparable diagnostic values compared to that of A-b2000 and C-b2000 images. The additional use of computed high b-value DWI may have the potential to increase the detectability of breast masses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572820

RESUMO

We proposed a synaptic transistor gated using a Ta2O5 barrier-layered organic chitosan electric double layer (EDL) applicable to a micro-neural architecture system. In most of the previous studies, a single layer of chitosan electrolyte was unable to perform lithography processes due to poor mechanical/chemical resistance. To overcome this limitation, we laminated a high-k Ta2O5 thin film on chitosan electrolyte to ensure high mechanical/chemical stability to perform a lithographic process for micropattern formation. Artificial synaptic behaviors were realized by protonic mobile ion polarization in chitosan electrolytes. In addition, neuroplasticity modulation in the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide (a-IGZO) channel was implemented by presynaptic stimulation. We also demonstrated synaptic weight changes through proton polarization, excitatory postsynaptic current modulations, and paired-pulse facilitation. According to the presynaptic stimulations, the magnitude of mobile proton polarization and the amount of weight change were quantified. Subsequently, the stable conductance modulation through repetitive potential and depression pulse was confirmed. Finally, we consider that proposed synaptic transistor is suitable for advanced micro-neural architecture because it overcomes the instability caused when using a single organic chitosan layer.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Óxidos/química , Tantálio/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletricidade , Eletrólitos/química , Desenho de Equipamento
11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(3): 1875-1882, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404462

RESUMO

Herein, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are prepared by a solution-based spin-coating process followed by a heat-treatment process with microwave irradiation (MWI). The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films are investigated. The properties of the microwave-irradiated sol-gel ITO films are compared with those of as-spun ITO films and sol-gel ITO films subjected to conventional furnace annealing (CFA) or a rapid thermal process (RTP). After microwave irradiation, the sol-gel ITO thin films are found to have crystallized, and they indicate enhanced conductivity and transparency. Furthermore, the resistances of the ITO films are decreased considerably at increased microwave power levels, and the resistivity of the films almost saturate even at a low microwave power of 500 W. The improved physical properties of the MW-irradiated samples are mainly due to the increase in the electron concentration of the ITO films and the increase in the carrier mobility after MWI.

12.
Ultrasonography ; 40(2): 265-273, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify useful shear wave elastography (SWE) parameters for differentiating breast cancer and predicting associated immunohistochemical factors and subtypes. METHODS: From November 2018 to February 2019, a total of 211 breast lesions from 190 patients who underwent conventional breast ultrasonography and SWE were included. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories and qualitative and quantitative SWE parameters for each lesion were obtained. Pathologic results including immunohistochemical factors were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of each parameter and its correlation with histological characteristics, immunohistochemical factors, and subtypes of breast cancer were analyzed using analysis of variance, the independent t test, the Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis, and the DeLong method. RESULTS: Among 211 breast lesions, 82 were malignant, and 129 were benign. Of the SWE parameters, Emax showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating malignant from benign lesions (AUC, 0.891; cut-off>50.85). Poor tumor differentiation and progesterone receptor-negativity were correlated with higher SDmean and Emax (P<0.05). Ki-67-positive breast cancer showed higher SDmean and a heterogeneous color distribution (P<0.05). Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6-positive breast cancers showed higher Emax/Efat ratios (P<0.05). Luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched, and triple-negative (non-basal) subtypes showed somewhat higher SDmean values than the luminal A and triple-negative (basal) subtypes (P=0.028). CONCLUSION: Emax is a reliable parameter for differentiating malignancies from benign breast lesions. In addition, high stiffness and SDmean values in tumors measured on SWE could be used to predict poorly differentiated, progesterone receptor-negative, or Ki-67-positive breast cancer.

13.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 53(3): 818-826, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated measurement and classification models with objectivity and reproducibility are required for accurate evaluation of the breast cancer risk of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE). PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a machine-learning algorithm for breast FGT segmentation and BPE classification. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: A total of 794 patients with breast cancer, 594 patients assigned to the development set, and 200 patients to the test set. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T and 1.5T; T2 -weighted, fat-saturated T1 -weighted (T1 W) with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE). ASSESSMENT: Manual segmentation was performed for the whole breast and FGT regions in the contralateral breast. The BPE region was determined by thresholding using the subtraction of the pre- and postcontrast T1 W images and the segmented FGT mask. Two radiologists independently assessed the categories of FGT and BPE. A deep-learning-based algorithm was designed to segment and measure the volume of whole breast and FGT and classify the grade of BPE. STATISTICAL TESTS: Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and Spearman correlation analysis were used to compare the volumes from the manual and deep-learning-based segmentations. Kappa statistics were used for agreement analysis. Comparison of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) and F1 scores were calculated to evaluate the performance of BPE classification. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) DSC for manual and deep-learning segmentations was 0.85 ± 0.11. The correlation coefficient for FGT volume from manual- and deep-learning-based segmentations was 0.93. Overall accuracy of manual segmentation and deep-learning segmentation in BPE classification task was 66% and 67%, respectively. For binary categorization of BPE grade (minimal/mild vs. moderate/marked), overall accuracy increased to 91.5% in manual segmentation and 90.5% in deep-learning segmentation; the AUC was 0.93 in both methods. DATA CONCLUSION: This deep-learning-based algorithm can provide reliable segmentation and classification results for BPE. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Angle Orthod ; 90(4): 548-555, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intersegmental displacement during long-term follow-up after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) by mandibular body area superimposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 23 patients ages 18-37 years with class III malocclusion before orthognathic surgery were obtained. A three-dimensional (3D) CBCT examination was performed at four stages: surgery (T0), 6 months after surgery (T1), 1 year after surgery (T2), and long-term follow-up (6.1 ± 2.1 years, T3). The CBCT datasets were superimposed on the symphyseal area and the lower part of the distal segment of the mandible between T0 and the other time points (T1, T2, and T3). The reference points (both condyle, coronoid, and sigmoid) were estimated by the CBCT analyzed program. RESULTS: The coronoid, condylion, and sigmoid showed changes within 6 months after surgery, but there was no significant change in the intersegmental displacement between 6 months and 6 years after surgery. The distances between the left and right coronoid, condylion, and sigmoid from T0 to T3 were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The change in intersegmental displacement between T0 and T3 affecting relapse after orthognathic surgery was not significantly different. This suggests that the mandible itself may have a stable morphology during the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Cirurgia Ortognática , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/cirurgia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Osteotomia Sagital do Ramo Mandibular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806736

RESUMO

We used low-temperature reactions to synthesize different-sized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) capped with fatty-acid and phosphine ligands. From the correlation of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the synthesized QDs, we observed size-dependent shape anisotropy. In addition, the recorded XRD patterns revealed mixed crystal facets with zinc blende and wurtzite structures in small-sized QDs. Furthermore, from differential absorption (DA) spectra, we extracted the electronic transition energies for different-sized QDs, which were found to be similar to the calculated values of the quantum size levels associated with band mixing of CdSe QDs with a moderate bandgap. We found that the excitonic absorption peaks are increasingly "hidden" with decreasing QD size because of the crystal structure and crystalline quality. The results show good agreement with the obtained diffraction patterns and the estimation errors obtained from the DA spectra.

16.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(4): 572-578, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to establish maxillary basal arch forms using the root apices and to determine the differences in the basal arch forms in adult women with different sagittal skeletal patterns. METHODS: This retrospective study included 91 adult women, with either a Class I (n = 24), Class II Division 1 (n = 22), Class II Division 2 (n = 23), or Class III (n = 22) malocclusion, who underwent cone-beam computed tomography. Three-dimensional coordinates of the root apices were determined using the multiplanar reformation mode of OnDemand3D software (Cybermed Inc, Seoul, South Korea). Two-dimensional coordinates were converted from acquired 3-dimensional coordinates via projection on the palatal plane, and the Procrustes superimposition method was used to build the basal arch form. Finally, interroot width measurements were performed for basal arch form comparisons. RESULTS: There were significant differences among the 4 groups (P <0.05) with respect to the intercanine width. The intercanine width of Class II Division 1 group was significantly narrower than that of the other groups. The Class II Division 1 and Class II Division 2 groups tended to have tapered arch forms and squared arch forms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We established maxillary basal arch forms using the root apices. The Class II Division 1 group had a significantly narrower intercanine distance. The use of the root apex to depict the basal arch form seems reasonable.


Assuntos
Arco Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Cefalometria , Feminino , Humanos , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648357

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal microbiota impact host's biological activities, including digestion of indigestible feed components, energy harvest, and immunity. In this study, fecal microbiota of high body weight (HW) and low body weight (LW) growing pigs at 103 days of age were compared. Principal coordinates analysis separated the HW and LW groups into two clusters, indicating their potential differences between microbial community composition. Although the abundances of two major phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, did not significantly differ between the HW and LW groups, some genera showed significant differences. Among them, Peptococcus and Eubacterium exhibited strong positive correlations with body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) (Rho > 0.40), whereas Treponema, Desulfovibrio, Parabacteroides, and Ruminococcaceae_unclassified exhibited strong negative correlations with BW and ADG (Rho < -0.40). Based on these results, the structure of intestinal microbiota may affect growth traits in pigs through host-microbe interactions. Further in-depth studies will provide insights into how best to reshape host-microbe interactions in pigs and other animals as well.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Eubacterium , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Peptococcus , Ganho de Peso
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7598, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371907

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate prognostic factors predicting recurrence of breast cancer, focusing on imaging factors including morphologic features, quantitative MR parameters, and clinicopathologic factors. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A total of 267 patients with breast cancer were enrolled in this study, who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgery from February 2014 to June 2016. Imaging parameters of MRI, including morphologic features, perfusion parameters, and texture analysis, were retrospectively reviewed by two expert breast radiologists. Clinicopathologic information of enrolled patients was also reviewed using medical records. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with cancer recurrence. C statistics was used to discriminate low and high risk patients for disease recurrence. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, disease-free survival was compared between patients who experienced recurrence and those who did not. At a median follow up of 49 months, 32 patients (12%) showed disease: six cases of ipsilateral breast or axilla recurrence, one case of contralateral breast recurrence, 24 cases of distant metastasis, and one case of both ipsilateral breast recurrence and distant metastasis. Of multiple imaging features and parameters, increased ipsilateral vascularity and higher positive skewness of texture analysis showed significant association with disease recurrence in every multivariable model regardless of tumor subtype and pathologic stage. Pathologic stage, especially if higher than stage II, showed significant association with disease recurrence and its highest hazard ratio was 3.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-8.67, p = 0.008]. Of the multivariable models, the model including clinico-pathologic factors and both qualitative and quantitative imaging parameters showed good discrimination with a high C index value of 0.825 (95% CI: 0.755-0.896). In addition, recurrence associated factors were associated with short interval time to disease recurrence by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Therefore, comprehensive analysis using both clinico-pathologic factors and qualitative and quantitative imaging parameters is more effective in predicting breast cancer recurrence. Among those factors, higher pathologic stage, increased ipsilateral vascularity and higher positive skewness of texture analysis could be good predictors of breast cancer recurrence. Moreover, when these three factors are applied comprehensively, they may also be the predictors for poor survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 403-409, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328848

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ACOSOG Z0011 trial demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is unnecessary in select patients with cT1-2N0 tumors undergoing breast-conserving therapy with 1-2 positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, patients with preoperatively confirmed ALN metastasis were not included and may be subjected to unnecessary ALND. The aim of this study is to identify patients who can be considered for ALND omission when the preoperative ALN biopsy results are positive. METHODS: Breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative ALN biopsy and primary surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Among patients with positive ALN biopsy results, clinicopathological and imaging characteristics were compared according to LN disease burden (1-2 positive LNs vs. ≥ 3 positive LNs). RESULTS: A total of 542 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 225 (41.5%) patients had a preoperative positive ALN biopsy. More than 40% of the patients (n = 99, 44.0%) with a positive biopsy had only 1-2 positive ALNs. The association between nodal burden and imaging factors was strongest when ≥ 2 suspicious LNs were identified on PET/CT images (HR 8.795, 95% CI 4.756 to 13.262). More than one imaging modality showing ≥ 2 suspicious LNs was also strongly correlated with ≥ 3 positive ALNs (HR 5.148, 95% CI 2.881 to 9.200). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of patients with a preoperative biopsy-proven ALN metastasis had only 1-2 positive LNs on ALND. Patients meeting ACOSOG Z0011 criteria with only one suspicious LN on PET/CT or those presenting with few abnormal ALNs on only one imaging modality appear appropriate for SLNB and consideration of ALND omission.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Lobular/cirurgia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Lobular/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Korean J Orthod ; 50(2): 129-135, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257938

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of mandibular posterior displacement on the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) by using cephalometric evaluations and to investigate how the surrounding structures are schematically involved. Methods: In this retrospective study, 38 subjects with functional Class III malocclusion and two lateral cephalograms were selected. The first lateral cephalogram was taken with the mandible in the habitual occlusal position, and the second in anterior edge-to-edge bite. Paired t-test was used to analyze changes in the PAS, hyoid bone, tongue, and soft palate, followed by mandibular posterior displacement. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and other variables. Results: A statistically significant decrease was observed in the PAS following mandibular posterior displacement. Along with mandibular posterior displacement, the tongue decreased in length (p < 0.001) and increased in height (p < 0.05), while the soft palate increased in length, decreased in thickness, and was posteriorly displaced (p < 0.001). The hyoid bone was also posteriorly displaced (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and the measured variables. Conclusions: The PAS showed a statistically significant decrease following mandibular posterior displacement, which was a consequence of retraction of the surrounding structures. However, there were individual variances between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and the measured variables.

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