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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581384

RESUMO

The isolation of respiratory viruses, especially from clinical specimens, often shows poor efficiency with classical cell culture methods. The lack of suitable methods to generate virus particles inhibits the development of diagnostic assays, treatments, and vaccines. We compared three inoculation methods, classical cell culture, the addition of a JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480, and centrifugation-enhanced inoculation (CEI), to replicate human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). In addition, a combined method using AZD1480 treatment and CEI was used on throat swabs to verify that this method could increase virus isolation efficiency from human clinical specimens. Both CEI and AZD1480 treatment increased HRSV and HMPV genome replication. Also, the combined method using CEI and AZD1480 treatment enhanced virus proliferation synergistically. The combined method is particularly suited for the isolation of interferon-sensitive or slowly growing viruses from human clinical specimens.

3.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-4, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585570

RESUMO

We present a young soldier presenting with aborted sudden cardiac death, who was found to have concomitant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Along with pathological haemodynamic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an easily-inducible re-entrant tachycardia was clearly documented in our patient. Given the fatal potential of supraventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we postulated that his tachyarrhythmia could potentially trigger the event. Upon his refusal to receive implantable cardioverter/defibrillator therapy, we ablated anatomical arrhythmogenic substrate instead, and he remained uneventfully over 3 years on ß-blocker.

4.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 9(5): 278-282, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402384

RESUMO

Objectives: Vaccinations against diphtheria and tetanus are essential in providing immunity against these bacterial infections. The potency of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccines can be measured using the in vivo toxin neutralization assay. The limit of potency of this assay was determined only for children. Therefore, we assessed the potency of adult vaccines using this assay to identify the feasibility of limit for adult vaccines. Methods: Fifteen lots of tetanus-reduced diphtheria and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines were used. In vivo toxin neutralization and lethal challenge assays were conducted on each vaccine to calculate the potencies of the toxoids. National reference standards for toxins and antitoxins were used for in vivo toxin neutralization assay. Results: All 15 lots satisfied the limits of potency for lethal challenge assay. The potency of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids exceeded 1 and 8 units/mL, respectively, for in vivo toxin neutralization assay. Conclusion: Although additional studies are required for new assays and limits, the current level of potency for adult vaccines as determined by in vivo toxin neutralization assay, was demonstrated in this study. Such efforts to improve assays are expected to promote the development of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines for adults and to contribute to vaccine self-sufficiency.

6.
Epidemiol Health ; 40: e2018023, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134649

RESUMO

The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method. This study aims to monitor at least 1,000 patients (excluding those for whom investigation had been completed) per year (estimated number of patients who can be monitored by January 2018: 939). By December 2016, the sex distribution was 93.3% for men, and 6.7% for women (gender ratio, 13.9:1.0), and 98.9% of all participants were Korean. More than 50.0% of the participants were confirmed as HIV positive after 2006. This study reports competitive, long-term research that aimed to develop policies for the prevention of chronic infectious diseases for patients with HIV. The data collected over the last decade will be used to develop indices for HIV treatment and health promotion.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Epidemiol Health ; 40: e2018014, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status. METHODS: Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results. RESULTS: The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Genome Announc ; 6(12)2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567734

RESUMO

We report here the complete genome sequence of the human coronavirus NL63 CN0601/14 strain, first isolated from South Korea. It contains 18-nucleotide discontinuous deletions of the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and spike regions. This study will aid in our understanding of the complete genome sequences of isolated coronaviruses in South Korea.

9.
J Med Virol ; 90(7): 1177-1183, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488229

RESUMO

The prevalence of eight respiratory viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Korea was investigated through analysis of data recorded by the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System (KINRESS) from 2013 to 2015. Nasal aspirate and throat swabs specimens were collected from 36 915 patients with ARIs, and viral nucleic acids were detected by real-time (reverse-transcription) polymerase chain reaction for eight respiratory viruses, including human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSVs), influenza viruses (IFVs), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), human coronaviruses (HCoVs), human rhinovirus (HRV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human bocavirus (HBoV), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The overall positive rate of patient specimens was 49.4% (18 236/36 915), 5% of which carried two or more viruses simultaneously. HRV (15.6%) was the most predominantly detected virus, followed by IFVs (14.6%), HAdV (7.5%), HPIVs (5.8%), HCoVs (4.2%), HRSVs (3.6%), HBoV (1.9%), and HMPV (1.6%). Most of the ARIs were significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of fever, cough, and runny nose. Although HRV and HAdV were frequently detected throughout the year in patients, other respiratory viruses showed apparent seasonality. HRSVs and IFVs were the major causative agents of acute respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Overall, this study demonstrates a meaningful relationship between viral infection and typical manifestations of known clinical features as well as seasonality, age distribution, and co-infection among respiratory viruses. Therefore, these data could provide useful information for public health management and to enhance patient care for primary clinicians.

10.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 9(6): 517-525, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913991

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Seasonal variations in asthma exacerbation (AE) are associated with respiratory virus outbreaks and the return of children to school after vacation. This study aims to elucidate the period, phase, and amplitude of seasonal cycles of AE in 5 different age groups with regard to rhino- and influenza virus epidemics in Korea. METHODS: The number of daily emergency department (ED) visits for AE in all age groups of Korea and the nationwide weekly incidence of rhino- and influenza virus, were obtained for 2008-2012. Fourier regression was used to model rhythmicity, and the Cosinor method was used to determine the amplitude and phase of the cycles in each age group. The cross-correlation function (CCF) between AE and the rhino- and influenza virus epidemics was also calculated. RESULTS: There were 157,559 events of AE (0.62 events/1,000 individuals/year) during the study period. There were spring and fall peaks of AE in children and adults, but only 1 winter peak in the elderly. The amplitude of the AE peak in infants was higher in spring than in fall (9.16 vs 3.04, P<0.010), and the fall peak was approximately 1 month later in infants than in school children (October 11 vs November 13, P<0.010). The association between AE and rhinovirus was greatest in school children (rho=0.331), and the association between AE and influenza virus was greatest in those aged ≥60 years (rho=0.682). CONCLUSIONS: The rhythmicity, amplitude, and phase of the annual cycle of AE differed among different age groups. The patterns of AE were related to the annual rhino- and influenza virus epidemics.

11.
Genome Announc ; 5(38)2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935733

RESUMO

The complete genome sequence of the wild-type genotype 2B rubella virus RVi/Busan.KOR/10.15[2B], isolated from a patient in South Korea, was determined. The availability of this sequence will help in understanding the circulation of endemic rubella viruses, as well as their genetic diversity.

12.
Vaccine ; 35(33): 4126-4132, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants <12months of age, who are unvaccinated. In addition, vaccine populations, including adolescents and young adults, can become infected though importation. Thus, the question arises whether the current level of herd immunity in Korea is now insufficient for protecting against measles infection. METHODS: Age-specific measles seroprevalence was evaluated by performing enzyme immunoassays and plaque reduction-neutralization tests on 3050 subjects aged 0-50years (birth cohort 1964-2014) and 480 subjects aged 2-30years (birth cohort 1984-2012). RESULTS: The overall seropositivity and measles antibody concentrations were 71.5% and 1366mIU/mL, respectively. Progressive decline in antibody levels and seropositivity were observed over time after vaccination in infants, adolescents, and young adults. The accumulation of potentially susceptible individuals in the population was confirmed by comparing data from 2010 and 2014 seroprevalence surveys. The statistical correlation between measles incidence and measles seronegativity was determined. CONCLUSIONS: Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea. This trend may be related to limitations of vaccine-induced immunity in the absence of natural boosting by the wild virus, compared to naturally acquired immunity triggered by measles infection. This study provides an important view into the current measles herd immunity in Korea.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , República da Coreia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 498, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea. We summarized the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings of the first Korean case of MERS-CoV and analyzed whole-genome sequences of MERS-CoV derived from the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old man developed fever and myalgia 7 days after returning to Korea, following a 10-day trip to the Middle East. Before diagnosis, he visited 4 hospitals, potentially resulting in secondary transmission to 28 patients. On admission to the National Medical Center (day 9, post-onset of clinical illness), he presented with drowsiness, hypoxia, and multiple patchy infiltrations on the chest radiograph. He was intubated (day 12) because of progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and INF-α2a and ribavirin treatment was commenced. The treatment course was prolonged by superimposed ventilator associated pneumonia. MERS-CoV PCR results converted to negative from day 47 and the patient was discharged (day 137), following rehabilitation therapy. The complete genome sequence obtained from a sputum sample (taken on day 11) showed the highest sequence similarity (99.59%) with the virus from an outbreak in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The first case of MERS-CoV infection had high transmissibility and was associated with a severe clinical course. The patient made a successful recovery after early treatment with antiviral agents and adequate supportive care. This first case in South Korea became a super-spreader because of improper infection control measures, rather than variations of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
14.
Protein Expr Purif ; 132: 1-8, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042093

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. Glycoprotein (G) is major antigen on the viral surface, and plays a key role for virus entry. Therefore, purification of the glycoprotein of HRSV is critical for the development of HRSV vaccine and serological diagnosis. In this study, we report the design and characterization of glycoprotein engineered rationally to enhance the protein solubility and to facilitate efficient purification. We permuted HRSV glycoproteins with two tags: (i) an immunoglobulin (Ig) M signal peptide and a protein A B domain tag to render HRSV glycoprotein secret into the culture media and (ii) a foldon and 6 × histidine tag with or without transmembrane domain. Three recombinant baculoviruses were constructed: (i) transmembrane-truncated HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 66-298) inserted with the N-terminal IgM signal peptide and protein A B domain (MG-GΔTM), (ii) truncated HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 66-298) fused with a C-terminal foldon and 6 × histidine tag (GΔTM-FH), and (iii) full-length HRSV glycoprotein (amino acid positions 1-298) fused with a C-terminal foldon and 6 × histidine tag (G-FH). Highly soluble recombinant MG-GΔTM protein was clearly purified using one-step affinity chromatography with IgG-sepharose resin, whereas the recombinant G-FH protein and truncated GΔTM-FH were purified partially using nickel-resin. Although, the antigenicity of GΔTM-FH was stronger than highly mannose-rich MG-GΔTM protein, MG-GΔTM induced neutralizing antibodies efficiently in the mice to protect from infectious HRSV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Proteínas Virais , Animais , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/biossíntese , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
15.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 40(2): 162-174, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of J-waves in the pathogenesis of ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurring in structurally normal hearts is important. METHODS: We evaluated 127 patients who received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for Brugada syndrome (BS, n = 53), early repolarization syndrome (ERS, n = 24), and patients with unknown or deferred diagnosis (n = 50). Electrocardiography (ECG), clinical characteristics, and ICD data were analyzed. RESULTS: J-waves were found in 27/50 patients with VF of unknown/deferred diagnosis. The J-waves were reminiscent of those seen in BS or ERS, and this subgroup of patients was termed variants of ERS and BS (VEB). In 12 VEB patients, the J/ST/T-wave morphology was coved, although amplitudes were <0.2 mV. In 15 patients, noncoved-type J/ST/T-waves were present in the right precordial leads. In the remaining 23 patients, no J-waves were identified. VEB patients exhibited clinical characteristics similar to those of BS and ERS patients. Phenotypic transition and overlap were observed among patients with BS, ERS, and VEB. Twelve patients with BS had background inferolateral ER, while five ERS patients showed prominent right precordial J-waves. Patients with this transient phenotype overlap showed a significantly lower shock-free survival than the rest of the study patients. CONCLUSIONS: VEB patients demonstrate ECG phenotype similar to but distinct from those of BS and ERS. The spectral nature of J-wave morphology/distribution and phenotypic transition/overlap suggest a common pathophysiologic background in patients with VEB, BS, and ERS. Prognostic implication of these ECG variations requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/classificação , Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Yonsei Med J ; 58(1): 174-179, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27873511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with positive HCoV respiratory specimens between October 2014 and December 2014 who were admitted to Severance Children's Hospital at Yonsei University Medical Center for LRTI. Charts of the patients with HCoV infection were reviewed and compared with RSV infection. RESULTS: During the study period, HCoV was the third most common respiratory virus and accounted for 13.7% of infections. Coinfection was detected in 43.8% of children with HCoV. Interestingly, one patient had both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63. Mild pneumonia was most common (60.4%) with HCoV, and when combined with RSV, resulted in bronchiolitis. Two patients required care in the intensive care unit. However, compared with that of RSV infection, the disease course HCoV was short. CONCLUSION: Infections caused by HCoVs are common, and can cause LRTIs. During an epidemic season, clinicians should be given special consideration thereto. When combined with other medical conditions, such as neurologic or cardiologic diseases, intensive care unit (ICU) care may be necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 31(12): 1957-1962, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822935

RESUMO

In this study, the seroprevalences of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in infants were determined to assess the immunization strategy and control measures for these infectious diseases. Serum samples from infants < 1 year of age and their mothers were collected to measure the concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For selected infant serum samples, measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels were determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test. The sera from 295 of infants and 80 of their mothers were analyzed. No infants had past measles, mumps, or rubella infections. Almost all infants < 2 months of age were positive for measles and rubella IgG antibodies. However, seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies decreased with age, and measles IgG and rubella IgG were barely detectable after 4 months of age. The seroprevalence of mumps antibodies was lower than that of measles and rubella antibodies in infants ≤ 4 months old, and mumps IgG was barely detectable after 2 months of age. The seropositivity of measles-specific neutralizing antibody was 63.6% in infants aged 2 months and undetectable in infants ≥ 6 months old. Because the seropositivity rates of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were low after the first few months of age in Korean infants, active immunization with vaccines is strongly recommended for infants aged 6-11 months when measles is epidemic. Timely administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age should be encouraged in non-epidemic situations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , República da Coreia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
J Clin Virol ; 81: 53-7, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of antiretroviral drugs has reduced the mortality and morbidity of patients with HIV/AIDS. More than 20 antiretroviral drugs have been used in patients with HIV/AIDS since zidovudine was first introduced in 1991 in South Korea. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and estimate the annual prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and drug-resistant variants of HIV-1 in newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive patients in South Korea during 1999-2012. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma specimens were collected from 928 antiretroviral-naive patients during 1999-2012. Mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase sections of the HIV-1 pol gene were identified using the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (Stanford DB). RESULTS: Among 928 HIV-1 isolates from antiretroviral-naive patients, 45 (4.8%) showed 'intermediate' or 'resistant' drug resistance. The predicted prevalence of drug resistance among isolates was 2.2%, 2.7%, and 0.3% for resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant increase in the prevalence of drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients infected with HIV-1 during 1999-2012 in South Korea, although there was a slight increase during 2009-2012. The emergence of drug-resistant variants will continue to be monitored by national surveys.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Protease de HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Korean J Intern Med ; 31(5): 953-60, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The frequencies of opportunistic diseases (ODs) vary across countries based on genetic, environmental, and social differences. The Korean HIV/AIDS cohort study was initiated in 2006 to promote research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Korea, and to provide a logistical network to support multicenter projects on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of HIV infection. This study evaluated the prevalence of ODs among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the risk factors associated with ODs. METHODS: The study enrolled 1,086 HIV-infected patients from 19 hospitals. This study examined the baseline data of the HIV/AIDS Korean cohort study at the time of enrollment from December 2006 to July 2013. RESULTS: Candidiasis was the most prevalent opportunistic infection (n = 176, 16.2%), followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (n = 120, 10.9%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (n = 121, 11.0%), cytomegalovirus infection (n = 52, 4.7%), and herpes zoster (n = 44, 4.0%). The prevalence rates of Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 8, 0.7%) and toxoplasmosis (n = 4, 0.4%) were very low compared with other countries. The risk factors for ODs were a low CD4 T cell count at the time of HIV diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; p < 0.01), current smoking (OR, 2.27; p = 0.01), current alcohol use (OR, 2.57; p = 0.04), and a history of tuberculosis (OR, 5.23; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Using recent Korean nationwide data, this study demonstrated that an important predictor of ODs was a low CD4 T cell count at the time of HIV diagnosis. Tuberculosis remains one of the most important ODs in HIV-infected patients in Korea.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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