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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We describe the strategy used to repair intraoperative leaks of various grades and define factors for preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF) after surgery via the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery via EETA from January 2009 to May 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Intraoperative CSF leakage was graded 0-3 in terms of the dural defect size; various repairs were used depending on the grade. RESULTS: A total of 777 patients underwent 869 operations via EETA; 609 (70.1%) experienced no intraoperative CSF leakage (grade 0) but 260 (29.9%) did. Leakage was of grade 1 in 135 cases (15.5%), grade 2 in 83 (9.6%), and grade 3 in 42 (4.8%). In 260 patients with intraoperative CSF leakage, a buttress was wedged into the sellar defect site in 178 cases (68.5%) and a pedicled flap was placed in 105 cases (40.4%). Autologous fat (108 cases, 41.5%) and a synthetic dural substitute (91 cases, 35%) were used to fill the dead space of the sellar resection cavity. Postoperative CSF leakage developed in 21 patients: 6 of grade 1, 7 of grade 2, and 8 of grade 3. Buttress placement significantly decreased postoperative leakage in grade 1 patients (p = 0.041). In patients of perioperative leakage grades 2 and 3, postoperative CSF leakage was significantly reduced only when both fat and a buttress were applied (p = 0.042 and p = 0.043, respectively). CONCLUSION: A buttress prevented postoperative CSF leakage in grade 1 patients; both fat and buttress were required by patients with intraoperative leakage of grades 2 and 3.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of diagnoses of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) based on frozen sections has been questioned. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were used for data sources. True-positive, true-negative, false-positive, and false-negative data were extracted for each study. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) Tool. RESULTS: Nine prospective and retrospective studies were included. The diagnostic odds ratio of intraoperative frozen section in AIFRS was 124.4717 (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.5168-205.1623). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.906. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.8337 (95% CI, 0.7962-0.8655), 0.9858 (95% CI, 0.9330-0.9971), and 0.9822 (95% CI, 0.8905-0.9973), respectively. The correlation between sensitivity and the false-positive rate was 0.437, indicating a lack of heterogeneity. In subgroup analysis, the "per patient" subgroup tended to show higher diagnostic accuracy than the "per specimen" subgroup. Regarding fungal species, the frozen biopsy of aspergillus showed higher sensitivity than that of mucor (0.8103 vs. 0.7544). CONCLUSION: Positive frozen sections are reliable and facilitate early intervention in AIFRS. Collecting multiple specimens during surgery will decrease the rate of false-negative results.

3.
Toxics ; 9(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eupatilin is an active flavon extracted from the Artemisia species and has properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. We examined the effect of eupatilin using fine particulate matter (FPM) and human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to confirm the potential of eupatilin as a therapeutic agent for respiratory diseases caused by FPM. METHODS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were checked by flow cytometry to identify if FPM and eupatilin affect ROS production. Western blotting was performed to identify the mechanism of action of eupatilin in FPM-exposed BEAS-2B cells. RESULTS: When cells were exposed to FPM above 12.5 µg/mL concentration for 24 h, ROS production increased significantly compared to the control. When eupatilin was added to cells exposed to FPM, the ROS level decreased proportionally with the eupatilin dose. The phosphorylation of Akt, NF-κB p65, and p38 MAPK induced by FPM was significantly reduced by eupatilin, respectively. CONCLUSION: FPM cause respiratory disease by producing ROS in bronchial epithelial cells. Eupatilin has been shown to inhibit ROS production through altering signaling pathways. The ROS inhibiting property of eupatilin can be exploited in FPM induced respiratory disorders.

4.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(2): 104-111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in patients with atrophic rhinitis. METHODS: Prepared PRP was injected into the inferior turbinate bilaterally, and nasal bacterial cultures were conducted. Improvement of symptoms was assessed with the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22). Nasal mucociliary clearance was assessed using the saccharin transit time (STT). RESULTS: In the PRP-injected group (group A), NOSE (throughout the study) and SNOT-22 (1 month after injection) scores were significantly decreased during the study. However, the saline spray group (group B) showed no significant nasal symptom improvement during the study period. In group A, the STT was improved until 3 months after the injection. In contrast, group B showed STT improvement after 2 months that was maintained throughout the study. CONCLUSION: PRP injections can improve nasal symptoms and nasal mucociliary function in patients with atrophic rhinitis.

5.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL), psychosocial status, sexual function, and menopausal symptoms between the risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and non-RRSO groups comprising BRCA mutation carriers and to evaluate the effect of timing of RRSO on those aspects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited BRCA mutation carriers aged ≥35 years between September 2015 and September 2016. Demographic data of carriers were collected. Outcomes were measured using the questionnaires addressing QOL, anxiety, depression, optimism, sexual function, and menopausal symptoms. RESULTS: Of 52 participants, 30 (57.7%) underwent RRSO, whereas 22 (42.3%) did not. In the RRSO group, 16 (53.3%) and 14 (46.7%) women underwent RRSO before and after menopause, respectively. The mean age in the RRSO group was higher than that in the non-RRSO group (49.8 vs. 42.1 years, respectively, p = 0.002). The scores for QOL, anxiety, depression, optimism, sexual function, and menopausal symptoms were similar between both groups. In the multivariate analysis, RRSO uptake was associated with worse physical QOL (coefficient, -5.350; 95% confidence interval, -10.593 to -0.108). With respect to the timing of RRSO, only the mental QOL was significantly lower in the postmenopausal RRSO group than in the premenopausal RRSO group (39.2 vs. 43.7, respectively, p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: We could not find any difference in mental QOL, psychosocial status, sexual function, and menopausal symptoms between the RRSO and non-RRSO groups. RRSO uptake only affected worse physical QOL. These results will help physicians counsel BRCA mutation carriers about the effect of RRSO on QOL.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562343

RESUMO

It is predicted that by 2025, all devices will be connected to the Internet, subsequently causing the number of devices connected with the Internet to rise [...].

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541033

RESUMO

Objectives: This study evaluated the diagnostic value of the various symptoms of COVID-19 in the screening of this disease. Methods: Two authors (working independently) comprehensively reviewed six databases (PubMed, Cochrane database, Embase, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar) from their dates of inception until November 2020. Patient-reported symptoms, including otolaryngologic and general symptoms, were evaluated for their predictive values in adults who underwent testing for COVID-19. True-positive, true-negative, false-positive, and false-negative data were extracted from each study. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (ver. 2). Results: Twenty-eight prospective and retrospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of a change in olfaction and/or taste was 10.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.43; 12.34). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8. Olfactory and/or taste changes had a low sensitivity (0.57, 95%CI: 0.47; 0.66) but moderate negative (0.78, 95%CI: 0.69; 0.85] and positive (0.78, 95%CI: 0.66; 0.87) predictive values and a high specificity (0.91, (95%CI: 0.83; 0.96). Olfactory and/or taste changes had a higher diagnostic value than the other otolaryngologic symptoms, a higher DOR and specificity, and a similar or higher diagnostic value than the other general symptoms. Conclusion: Among otolaryngologic symptoms, olfactory and/or taste dysfunction was the most highly associated with COVID-19 and its general symptoms and should be considered when screening for the disease.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1248, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441955

RESUMO

While previous studies have reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD), few population-based studies have investigated whether such associations differ by sex. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between CVD and its risk factors with OD, and the sex-associated differences within the general population. We examined 20,016 adults aged 40 and older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All subjects reported on their history of OD. CVD and its risk factors included coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia; logistic regression was used to analyse their associations with OD, and additive interaction was used to analyse the interaction between risk factors and sex. In males, CAD was more likely to be associated with OD (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-3.14), whereas abdominal obesity was associated with OD in females (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.84).Additive interaction were observed between abdominal obesity and female sex with a relative excess risk of interaction of 0.45 (95% CI 0.26-0.63). Our findings suggest the relationship between OD and CVD and its risk factors and sex-associated differences among middle-aged and older adults.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414511

RESUMO

To elucidate the incidence, causes, and risk factors associated with readmission due to transplant-related complications, we studied 213 consecutive patients who were discharged without progression of primary disease after their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center between 2013 and 2016. The median patient age was 50 years (range, 18-71 years). Eighty-three patients had AML or MDS, 66 had lymphoma, 28 had ALL, 23 had ATL, and 13 had other diseases. The median duration of hospitalization for transplantation was 56 days (range 27-325 days). The cumulative incidences of readmission due to transplant-related complications were 8% at 30 days, 16% at 100 days, and 25% at 1 year after discharge. The most frequent cause of readmission was infection, followed by graft-versus-host disease throughout the first year. In multivariate analysis, steroid use at discharge was the only risk factor associated with readmission within 30 days, and steroid use at discharge, absolute lymphocyte count < 500/µl at discharge, and documented bacterial infection during admission were risk factors associated with readmission within 1 year. Our results indicated that factors during hospitalization or discharge, but not at transplantation, were associated with readmission. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored carefully after discharge.

10.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406035

RESUMO

Endoscopic surgical procedures rigorously underscore the significance of rapid hemostasis for unavoidable intraoperative bleeding, requiring advancement of the immediate hemostatic interventions for favorable clinical outcomes. Here, we report the efficacy of a new optical treatment combining visible (20-W 532 nm at 1.1 kW/cm2) and near-infrared (40-W 980 nm at 2.2 kW/cm2) wavelengths for facilitating noncontact thermal hemostasis on venous and arterial bleeders in in vivo leporine models in order to develop an endoscopic hemostasis method. Simultaneous irradiation of 60-W dual-wavelengths allows for an increased irradiance of 3.3 kW/cm2, involving both rapid light absorption by hemoglobin and deep thermal penetration. The collective thermal effects from the combined wavelengths contribute to a significant reduction in coagulation time and a high success rate of complete hemostasis for both venous and arterial bleeders. The enhanced hemostatic potential of the dual-wavelengths treatment accompanies minimal hemorrhage, reduces inflammatory responses, and facilitates re-epithelialization. The current data present the high-irradiance photothermal treatment using the dual-wavelengths as a novel method to regulate venous and arterial bleeding and potentially as a rapid noncontact hemostasis option to mitigate the risk associated with significant blood loss.

11.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Delphian lymph node (DLN) metastasis for the prediction of central lymph node (CLN) metastasis and lateral lymph node (LLN) metastasis. METHODS: Two authors independently reviewed the six databases (Cochrane database, Embase, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science). Four parameters were extracted from each study: true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative. The quality of the methodology was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies ver. 2 tool. RESULTS: The diagnostic odds ratio of DLN in CLN metastasis was 8.859 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.419; 16.578). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.748. The diagnostic odds ratio of DLN in LLN metastasis was 7.61 (95% CI, 4.48; 12.94). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.837. DLN metastasis was moderately predictive of CLN metastasis (sensitivity = 32%, specificity = 95%), LLN metastasis (sensitivity = 52%, specificity = 89%), and contralateral CLN metastasis (sensitivity = 46%, specificity = 85%). DLN metastasis had statistically significant correlation with specific clinicopathological characteristics, including younger age (< 45 years old), bilaterality, capsule invasion, extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular invasion, male sex, multifocality, and tumor size (> 1 cm). CONCLUSIONS: The higher specificities of DLN pathology may help predict central and lateral compartment involvement in patients with thyroid cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A Laryngoscope, 2021.

12.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(3): 501-507, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether the use of adjunctive diagnostic screening methods improves the diagnostic efficacies of oral premalignant and cancerous lesions. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of narrow-band imaging used to detect oral cancer and precancerous lesions defined employing different narrow-band imaging criteria. TYPE OF REVIEW: Systematic review and meta-analyses. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to May 2020. EVALUATION METHODS: Three different criteria for oral mucosal vascular changes using narrow-band imaging were compared: class I: well-demarcated brownish areas with thick dark spots and/or winding vessels; class II: intraepithelial papillary capillary looping of grades 2, 3 and 4; and class III: intraepithelial papillary capillary looping of grades 3 and 4. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (ver. 2) tool. We compared narrow-band imaging to conventional white-light imaging. RESULTS: We included 10 prospective or retrospective studies (1374 patients). To detect all dysplastic and cancerous lesions, the class I criteria afforded the optimal specificity and sensitivity; the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.918. To detect highly dysplastic and advanced cancerous lesions, the class III criteria afforded appropriate specificity and sensitivity. The summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.905. When using the class III criteria, narrow-band imaging afforded better specificity (0.941 [range 0.920, 0.9572], P < .0001) compared to white-light imaging (0.520 [range 0.409, 0.629]). However, the white-light imaging data were inconsistent and the ranges were broad; narrow-band imaging may be considerably more accurate than white-light imaging when using the class III criteria. CONCLUSION: Narrow-band imaging diagnosed oral premalignant or cancerous lesions much more reliably than white-light imaging.

13.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 18(1): 61-69, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) provides the unique advantage of being able to measure the optical characteristics of tissues by using polarized light. Although the well-organized fibers of healthy muscle can change the polarization states of passing light, damaged tissue has different behaviors. There are studies on optical imaging methods applied to the respiratory organs; however, they are restricted to structural imaging. In particular, the intercostal muscle situated under the pleura is very challenging to visualize due to the difficulty of access. METHOD: In this study, PS-OCT was used to identify subpleural cancer in male New Zealand white rabbits (3.2-3.4 kg) and to assess the phase retardation changes in normal and cancerous chest walls. VX2 cell suspension was injected between the intercostal muscle and parietal pleura and a tented area was observed by thoracic scope. A group of rabbits (n = 3) were sacrificed at day 7 after injection and another group (n = 3) at day 14. RESULTS: In the PS-OCT images, pleura thickness changes and muscle damage were criteria to understand the stages of the disease. The results of image and phase retardation analysis matched well with the pathologic examinations. CONCLUSION: We were able to visualize and analyze subpleural cancer by PS-OCT, which provided structural and functional information. The measured phase retardation could help to identify the margin of the tumor. For further studies, various approaches into other diseases using polarization light are expected to have positive results.

14.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 18(1): 81-87, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside: the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed of abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. It is clinically important to visualize the tissue microstructure using a non-invasive method, especially in the case of vocal cord nodules or cancer, since histological changes in each layer of the vocal cord cause changes in the voice. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) enables phase retardation measurement to evaluate birefringence of tissue with varied organization of collagen fibers in different tissue layers. Therefore, PS-OCT can visualize structural changes between normal and abnormal vocal cord tissue. METHOD: A rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression was investigated ex-vivo by PS-OCT. A phase retardation slope-based analysis, which quantifies the birefringence in different layers, was conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers. RESULTS: The PS-OCT images showed a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to advanced tumor tissue. The quantitative analysis provided a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model, which was validated by the corresponding histological findings. CONCLUSION: Differences in tissue birefringence was evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. It is also possible to indirectly infer the dysplastic changes based on the mucosal and submucosal alterations.

15.
Int J Hematol ; 113(4): 518-529, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392973

RESUMO

We reviewed blood product use in 729 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients at our center to assess the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets required after allo-HCT. The median number of bags required by day 30 was 4 for RBCs (range 0-22) and 9.5 for platelets (0-53). Multivariate analysis showed that related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) required a significantly lower RBC transfusion volume by day 30 compared to unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT). PBSCT from haplo-identical related donors and cord blood transplantation (CBT) required a significantly greater RBC transfusion volume. For platelet transfusion, related and unrelated PBSCT required a significantly lower volume than UBMT, and CBT a greater volume. Other factors independently associated with greater RBC transfusion volume were male sex, disease status other than complete remission, and major ABO mismatch. For platelet transfusion, these were male sex, disease status, and HCT-specific comorbidity index of 1. Although the burden of blood transfusions may not be the most important factor when choosing a donor type, our findings may provide a foundation for nationwide strategies to prepare blood products and inform aspects of national healthcare expenditures.

16.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12838, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713961

RESUMO

The translocator protein (TSPO) transports cholesterol into mitochondria and is involved in steroidogenesis. The TSPO polymorphism rs6971 influences binding of cholesterol and other TSPO ligands including positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging radiotracers. Although it is recognized that alcohol increases plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), its effects on total cholesterol and triglycerides along with its relationship to TSPO genotype have not been assessed. Here, we evaluated whether plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are disrupted in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their association with rs6971 in 932 AUD participants (DSM IV or 5) and 546 controls. AUD participants compared with controls had significantly higher plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides, but not of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In the AUD group only, TSPO rs6971 had a significant effect on plasma levels of cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (AA (n = 62) > AG (n = 319) > GG (n = 551)), but not on HDL levels. Additionally, we showed a significant effect of TSPO rs6971 on withdrawal scores (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol [CIWA]), with higher scores in AA (n = 50) compared with AG (n = 238) and GG (n = 428). CIWA scores in AUD participants correlated negatively with LDL and positively with HDL, but not with total cholesterol or triglycerides. These findings corroborate elevated plasma cholesterol and HDL levels in AUD and document significant increases in triglycerides. We also reveal for the first time an association in AUD participants between TSPO rs6971 genotype and plasma cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels (not for HDL) and with withdrawal severity. Mediation analyses revealed that LDL (but not HDL) influenced the association between TSPO and alcohol withdrawal severity.

17.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244544

RESUMO

It is important to focus on urgent needs in clinics and develop optimal materials. For successful augmentation of vocal folds, the ideal filler should be injectable through a syringe, and should stably maintain its volume for a long time without toxicity. To achieve these criteria, a click chemistry-based PEG (polyethylene glycol) hydrogel was developed and applied for vocal fold augmentation in vivo. The PEG hydrogel enables fast gelation in vivo after injection and provides long-term stability. Azide- and dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-modified 4-arm PEG were cross-linked by chemical conjugation via click chemistry and yielded gelation within several minutes. After subcutaneous injection into mice and rats, the PEG hydrogel showed higher stability after 1 month compared to the traditionally used calcium hydroxyapatite-carboxymethyl cellulose (CaHA-CMC) filler. In rabbit models with vocal fold paralysis, the PEG hydrogel stably fixed the paralyzed vocal fold in 4 months and minimized the glottic gap. It was an improved therapeutic result compared to CaHA-CMC, demonstrating the potential of a click chemistry-based PEG hydrogel for vocal fold therapy.

18.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 565668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192252

RESUMO

The enzyme aromatase catalyzes the final step in estrogen biosynthesis, converting testosterone to estradiol, and is expressed in the brain of all mammals. Estrogens are thought to be important for maintenance of cognitive function in women, whereas testosterone is thought to modulate cognitive abilities in men. Here, we compare differences in cognitive performance in relation to brain aromatase availability in healthy men and women. Twenty-seven healthy participants were administered tests of verbal learning and memory and perceptual/abstract reasoning. In vivo images of brain aromatase availability were acquired in this sample using positron emission tomography (PET) with the validated aromatase radiotracer [11C]vorozole. Regions of interest were placed bilaterally on the amygdala and thalamus where aromatase availability is highest in the human brain. Though cognitive performance and aromatase availability did not differ as a function of sex, higher availability of aromatase in the amygdala was associated with lower cognitive performance in men. No such relationship was found in women; and the corresponding regression slopes were significantly different between the sexes. Thalamic aromatase availability was not significantly correlated with cognitive performance in either sex. These findings suggest that the effects of brain aromatase on cognitive performance are both region- and sex-specific and may explain some of the normal variance seen in verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities in men and women as well as sex differences in the trajectory of cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19869, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199786

RESUMO

Equilibrium omphacite-garnet-bearing mafic rocks have been classified as eclogites, either pristine or retrogressed, that were formed at great depths in the lithosphere. Here we report a unique natural example of eclogite resembling assemblage in disequilibrium formed through fluid-induced metasomatic reactions under the amphibolite to granulite facies. Primarily, the amphibolized protolith experienced a garnet-amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~ 500-700 °C and ~ 0.8-1 GPa. Subsequently, CO2 fluid induced fracturing and dissolution-reprecipitation reactions occurred at peak metamorphic conditions of ~ 700 °C and ~ 1 GPa. Occasional omphacite-albite assemblage, which gradually replace diopside-oligoclase symplectite adjacent to albite veins along fractures, indicates fluid-induced coupled dissolution-reprecipitation disequilibrium reactions. Here the albite-omphacite assemblage is in local equilibrium at least on 1 mm length scale, during cooling, below ~ 600 ºC and ~ 1 GPa, within the amphibolite facies conditions. The results from this study clearly suggest that disequilibrium garnet-omphacite assemblage in mafic rocks could be formed by crustal reworking processes below granulite facies conditions, and their textural equilibrium is an important criterion while defining eclogite facies.

20.
Nano Converg ; 7(1): 34, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064240

RESUMO

Cell therapy based on human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) is a known potential therapeutic approach to induce angiogenesis in ischemic diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of direct hADSC injection is limited by a low cell viability and poor cell engraftment after administration. To improve the outcomes of this kind of approach, various types of nanoparticles have been utilized to improve the therapeutic efficacy of hADSC transplantation. Despite their advantages, the adverse effects of nanoparticles, such as genetic damage and potential oncogenesis based on non-degradable property of nanoparticles prohibit the application of nanoparticles toward the clinical applications. Herein, we designed a transition metal based inorganic nanocluster able of pH-selective degradation (ps-TNC), with the aim of enhancing an hADSC based treatment of mouse hindlimb ischemia. Our ps-TNC was designed to undergo degradation at low pH conditions, thus releasing metal ions only after endocytosis, in the endosome. To eliminate the limitations of both conventional hADSC injection and non-degradable property of nanoparticles, we have collected conditioned medium (CM) from the ps-TNC treated hADSCs and administrated it to the ischemic lesions. We found that intracellular increment of transition metal ion upregulated the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, which can induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expressions. Based on the molecular mechanism, the secretion of VEGF and bFGF by ps-TNC treated hADSCs showed a significant improvement compared to that of untreated cells. Injecting the CM collected from ps-TNC treated hADSCs into the mouse hindlimb ischemia model (ps-TNC-CM group) showed significantly improved angiogenesis in the lesions, with improved limb salvage and decreased muscle degeneration compared to the group injected with CM collected from normal hADSCs (CM group). This study suggests a novel strategy, combining a known angiogenesis molecular mechanism with both an improvement on conventional stem cell therapy and the circumvention of some limitations still present in modern approaches based on nanoparticles.

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