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1.
Anim Nutr ; 8(1): 169-184, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977387

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota has gained increased attention from researchers within the swine industry due to its role in promoting intestinal maturation, immune system modulation, and consequently the enhancement of the health and growth performance of the host. This review aimed to provide updated scientific information on the interaction among intestinal microbiota, dietary components, and intestinal health of pigs. The small intestine is a key site to evaluate the interaction of the microbiota, diet, and host because it is the main site for digestion and absorption of nutrients and plays an important role within the immune system. The diet and its associated components such as feed additives are the main factors affecting the microbial composition and is central in stimulating a beneficial population of microbiota. The microbiota-host interaction modulates the immune system, and, concurrently, the immune system helps to modulate the microbiota composition. The direct interaction between the microbiota and the host is an indication that the mucosa-associated microbiota can be more effective in evaluating its effect on health parameters. It was demonstrated that the mucosa-associated microbiota should be evaluated when analyzing the interaction among diets, microbiota, and health. In addition, supplementation of feed additives aimed to promote the intestinal health of pigs should consider their roles in the modulation of mucosa-associated microbiota as biomarkers to predict the response of growth performance to dietary interventions.

2.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 13(1): 6, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983676

RESUMO

Intestinal health is essential for the resistance to enteric diseases and for nutrient digestion and absorption to support growth. The intestine of nursery pigs are immature and vulnerable to external challenges, which cause negative impacts on the structure and function of the intestine. Among nutritional interventions, the benefits of milk are significant for the intestinal health of pigs. Milk coproducts have traditionally been used in starter feeds to improve the growth of nursery pigs, but their use is somewhat limited due to the high costs and potential risks of excessive lactose on the intestine. Thus, understanding a proper feeding level of milk carbohydrates is an important start of the feeding strategy. For nursery pigs, lactose is considered a highly digestible energy source compared with plant-based starch, whereas milk oligosaccharides are considered bioactive compounds modulating intestinal immunity and microbiota. Therefore, milk carbohydrates, mainly composed of lactose and oligosaccharides, have essential roles in the intestinal development and functions of nursery pigs. The proper feeding levels of lactose in starter feeds could be variable by weaning age, body weight, or genetic lines. Effects of lactose and milk oligosaccharides have been broadly studied in human health and animal production. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanisms of lactose and milk oligosaccharides affecting intestinal maturation and functions through modulation of enterocyte proliferation, intestinal immunity, and intestinal microbiota of nursery pigs.

3.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 231, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has been administered to many patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only few studies have examined toxicity in patients receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to determine factors that predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) in these patients. METHODS: We evaluated the size of the planning target volume, mean lung dose (MLD), and the lung volume receiving more than a threshold radiation dose (VD) in 106 patients. The primary endpoint was RP ≥ grade 2, and toxicity was evaluated. RESULTS: After CCRT, 51/106 patients were treated with ICI. The median follow-up period was 11.5 months (range, 3.0-28.2), and RP ≥ grade 2 occurred in 47 (44.3%) patients: 27 and 20 in the ICI and non-ICI groups, respectively. Among the clinical factors, only the use of ICI was associated with RP (p = 0.043). Four dosimetric variables (MLD, V20, V30, and V40) had prognostic significance in univariate analysis for occurrence of pneumonitis (hazard ratio, p-value; MLD: 2.3, 0.009; V20: 2.9, 0.007; V30: 2.3, 0.004; V40: 2.5, 0.001). Only V20 was a significant risk factor in the non-ICI group, and MLD, V30, and V40 were significant risk factors in the ICI group. The survival and local control rates were superior in the ICI group than in the non-ICI group, but no significance was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving ICI after definitive CCRT were more likely to develop RP, which may be related to the lung volume receiving high-dose radiation. Therefore, several factors should be carefully considered for patients with NSCLC.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 746717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867862

RESUMO

Making full use of high fiber and low-cost crop coproducts is helpful to alleviate the situation of people and livestock competing for crops. Digestion of dietary fibers in pigs is mainly through microbial fermentation in the large intestine. To reveal microbiota related to fiber digestion in pigs, fecal samples have been collected from 274 healthy female Suhuai pigs at 160 days of age under the same feeding conditions and have measured apparent neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility. Samples from Suhuai pigs with extreme high and low apparent NDF digestibility and extreme high and low apparent ADF digestibility were subjected to shotgun metagenomic sequencing. At the species level, 62 microbial species in H_NDF group and 54 microbial species in H_ADF group were related to high fiber digestibility. Among them, Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3-1 and Alistipes sp. CAG:514 may be new types of microorganisms associated with fiber digestion. In addition, we found that more abundant GH5 and GH48 family (contribute to cellulose degradation) genes, GH39 and GH53 family (contribute to hemicellulose degradation) genes in microorganisms may contribute to the higher apparent NDF digestibility of pigs, and more abundant GH3 and GH9 family (contribute to cellulose degradation) genes in microorganisms may contribute to the higher apparent ADF digestibility of pigs. The abundance of AA4 family (helps in lignin degradation) genes in H_NDF and H_ADF groups was significantly higher than that in L_NDF and L_ADF groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Three pathways in H_NDF group and four pathways in H_ADF group are important pathways associated with degradation of non-starch polysaccharides, and their relative abundance is significantly higher than that in L_NDF and L_ADF groups, respectively. Gut microbiota of Suhuai pigs with high apparent fiber digestibility had higher abundance of genes and microbiota related to fiber digestion and may have stronger fiber digestion potential compared with low apparent fiber digestibility group. This study revealed that the characteristics of gut microbiota and microbial gene functions of pigs with high fiber apparent digestibility, which provided a theoretical basis and reference for further understanding the impact of gut microbiota on fiber digestibility of pigs.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944129

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine supplemental effects of phytase on modulation of the mucosa-associated microbiota in the jejunum, intestinal morphology, nutrient digestibility, bone parameters, and growth performance of broiler chickens. Three hundred and sixty newly hatched broiler chickens (Ross 308) (44 ± 2 g BW) were randomly allotted in 6 treatments with 10 birds per cage based on a completely randomized design and fed for 27 d. The treatments consisted of one negative control (NC), diet formulated meeting the requirements suggested by Ross recommendations (2019), and without phytase supplementation. The other treatments consisted of a positive control diet (PC) formulated with 0.15% deficient Ca and P and split into 5 treatments with different phytase inclusion levels (0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 FTU/kg feed). Titanium dioxide (0.4%) was added to feeds as an indigestible marker to measure apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. On d 27, 3 birds were randomly selected from each cage and euthanized to collect samples for analyzing the mucosa-associated microbiota in the jejunum, oxidative stress status, AID, and bone parameters. Data were analyzed using the proc Mixed of SAS 9.4. Phytase supplementation tended to have a quadratic effect (p = 0.078) on the overall ADG (maximum: 41 g/d at 2833 FTU/kg of feed). Supplementation of phytase at 2,000 FTU/kg increased (p < 0.05) the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and reduced (p < 0.05) Pelomonas. Moreover, it tended to reduce Helicobacter (p = 0.085), Pseudomonas (p = 0.090) Sphingomonas (p = 0.071). Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the villus height and the AID of CP; and tended to increase (p = 0.086) the AID of P. Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) breaking strength and P content in the tibia. In conclusion, phytase supplementation showed potential benefits on the modulation of the mucosa-associated microbiota in the jejunum by tending to reduce harmful bacteria (Pelomonas, Helicobacter, and Pseudomonas) and increase beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus). In addition, it showed positive effects increasing apparent ileal digestibility of CP and P, enhancing intestinal morphology (villus height), and improving the bone parameters (bone breaking strength, ash, and P content). Phytase supplementation at a range of 38 to 59 FTU/d or 600 to 950 FTU/kg of feed provided the most benefits related to nutrient digestibility.

6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902029

RESUMO

The objective was to determine the nutritional and functional values of lysed Corynebacterium glutamicum cell mass (CGCM) as a protein supplement and a source of cell wall fragments supporting the growth and intestinal health of nursery pigs. Thirty-two pigs (21 d of age) were allotted to four treatments (n = 8) based on the randomized block design with sex and initial body weight (BW) as blocks. The main effect was the dietary supplementation of lysed CGCM (0, 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1%) replacing blood plasma and fed in two phases (10 and 11 d, respectively). Feed intake and BW were measured at the end of each phase. Pigs were euthanized on day 21 to collect jejunal tissue and mucosa to evaluate intestinal health. Ileal digesta were collected to measure the apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients in diets. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed and Reg of SAS. Increasing daily intake of CGCM increased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG of pigs. Increasing CGCM supplementation affected (quadratic; P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae (minimum: 26.4% at 1.2% CGCM), Helicobacteraceae (maximum: 29.3% at 1.2% CGCM), and Campylobacteraceae (maximum: 9.0% at 1.0% CGCM). Increasing CGCM supplementation affected (quadratic; P < 0.05) the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (maximum: 4.94 µg/mg of protein at 1.0% CGCM) and protein carbonyl (PC; maximum: 6.12 nmol/mg of protein at 1.1% CGCM), whereas linearly decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) in the proximal jejunal mucosa. Increasing CGCM supplemention affected (quadratic; P < 0.05) intestinal enterocyte proliferation rate (maximum: 13.3% at 1.0% CGCM), whereas it did not affect intestinal morphology and the nutrient digestibility. In conclusion, supplementing 1.0% to 1.2%, reducing blood plasma supplementation by 0.7% to 0.9%, respectively, increased potential pathogenic microbiota associated in the jejunal mucosa resulting in increased immune response, enterocyte proliferation, and PC concentration. However, supplementing diets with 2.1% CGCM, replacing 1.5% blood plasma, improved growth performance, and reduced MDA without affecting nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and microbiota in the jejunal mucosa. In this study, based on the polynomial contrast, supplementing 1.0% to 1.2% CGCM suppressed the benefits from blood plasma, whereas supplementing 2.1% CGCM showed functional benefits of CGCM with similar effects from blood plasma supplementation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos , Suínos
7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 765691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925272

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiota can affect the intake, storage, and absorption of nutrients in the body, thereby greatly impacting the growth and development of animals. In addition to diet, the breed and growth stages of pigs could also affect changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, research on the developmental changes in the ileum microbiota of piglets remains unclear. In this study, the ileum microbiota of Jinfen White and Mashen piglets at different developmental stages were investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. Physiologically, the villus height of the ileum decreased, and the crypt depth increased during the development of the two pig breeds. Additionally, the serum antioxidant factors in the Jinfen White piglets were significantly higher than in the Mashen piglets at the end of the nursing stage. A total of 690 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to 21 phyla and 286 genera were identified, of which Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla during the development of both the Jinfen White and Mashen piglets, accounting for ∼90% of all OTUs. Further research revealed differences in dominant bacteria between the two breeds. With increasing age, the ileum microbial diversity increased, and in both the pig breeds, the proportion of Firmicutes increased, whereas the proportion of Proteobacteria decreased. Additionally, different samples were characterized by specific genera, and different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were predicted at certain developmental stages. Finally, the correlation between the ileum microbiota and physiological features was analyzed, and it was suggested that the host and environmental factors play important roles in the formation of the microbial community structure in piglets. In summary, we delineated the structure, function, and differences in ileum microbiota between Jinfen White and Mashen piglets during different growth stages. This study helps to understand the development of the intestinal microbiota in local and hybrid pig breeds.

8.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vitro follicular maturation (IVFM) of ovarian follicles is an emerging option for fertility preservation. Many paracrine factors and two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) environments have been used for optimization. However, since most studies were conducted using the murine model, the physiological differences between mice and humans limit the interpretation and adaptation of the results. Marmoset monkey is a non-human primate (NHPs) with more similar reproductive physiology to humans. In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D matrix (Matrtigel)-based IVFM condition for marmoset ovarian follicles in combination with anti-apoptotic factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). METHODS: Marmoset follicles were isolated as individual follicles and cultured in a single drop with the addition of 0, 10, and 100 µg/mL of XIAP molecules. Matured oocytes and granulosa cells from mature follicles were collected and analyzed. The average number of isolated follicles was less than 100, and primordial and antral follicles were abundant in the ovaries. RESULTS: IVFM of marmoset follicles in 3D matrix conditions with XIAP increased the rates of survival and in vitro follicle development. Furthermore, oocytes from the 3D cultures were successfully fertilized and developed in vitro. The addition of XIAP increased the secretion of estradiol and aromatase. Furthermore, expression of granulosa-specific genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein 15, Oct4, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor were upregulated in the in vitro-matured follicles than in normal, well-grown, and atretic follicles. Apoptosis-related B-cell lymphoma-2 was highly expressed in the atretic follicles than in the XIAP-treated follicles, and higher caspase-3 was localized in the XIAP-treated follicles. CONCLUSION: In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D-matrix-based marmoset IVFM condition and demonstrated the synergistic effects of XIAP. The use of a 3D matrix may be applied as an optimal culture condition for marmoset ovarian follicles.

9.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727641

RESUMO

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of increasing supplementation of Yarrowia lipolytica (YL) up to 3.0% replacing 1.6% poultry fat and 0.9% blood plasma for growth performance, intestinal health and nutrient digestibility of diets fed to nursery pigs. Methods: Twenty-four pigs weaned at 24 d of age (initial body weight at 7.2 ± 0.6 kg) were allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 8) based on the randomized complete block. The diets with supplementation of YL (0.0, 1.5 and 3.0%, replacing poultry fat and blood plasma up to 1.6 and 0.9%, respectively) were fed for 21 d. Feed intake and body weight were recorded at d 0, 10 and 21. Fecal score was recorded at every odd day from d 3 to 19. Pigs were euthanized on d 21 to collect proximal and distal jejunal mucosa to measure intestinal health markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G. Ileal digesta was collected for AID of nutrients in diets. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS. Results: Supplementation of YL (1.5 and 3.0%) replacing poultry fat and blood plasma did not affect growth performance, fecal score and intestinal health. Supplementation of YL at 1.5% did not affect nutrient digestibility, whereas supplementation of YL at 3.0% reduced AID of dry matter (40.2 to 55.0%), gross energy (44.0 to 57.5%), crude protein (52.1 to 66.1%) and ether extract (50.8 to 66.9%) compared to diets without supplementation. Conclusion: Yarrowia lipolytica can be supplemented at 1.5% in nursery diet, replacing 0.8% poultry fat and 0.45% blood plasma without affecting growth performance, intestinal health and nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of YL at 3.0% replacing 1.6% poultry fat and 0.9% blood plasma did not affect growth performance and intestinal health, whereas nutrient digestibility was reduced.

10.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211056201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841954

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to examine the development of a multiple linear regression model to estimate heart rate variability (HRV) parameters using easy-to-measure independent variables in preliminary experiments. HRV parameters (time domain: SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50; frequency domain: TP, VLF, LF, HF) and the independent variables (e.g., sex, age, body height, body weight, BMI, HR, HRmax, HRR) were measured in 75 healthy adults (male n = 27, female n = 48) for estimating HRV. The HRV estimation multiple linear regression model was developed using the backward elimination technique. The regression model's coefficient of determination for the time domain variables was significantly high (SDNN = R2: 72.2%, adjusted R2: 69.8%, P < .001; RMSSD = R2: 93.1%, adjusted R2: 92.1%, P < .001; NN50 = R2: 78.0%, adjusted R2: 74.9%, P < .001; pNN50 = R2: 89.1%, adjusted R2: 87.4%, P < .001). The coefficient of determination of the regression model for the frequency domain variable was moderate (TP = R2: 75.6%, adjusted R2: 72.6%, P < .001; VLF = R2: 41.6%, adjusted R2: 40.3%, P < .001; LF = R2: 54.6%, adjusted R2: 49.2%, P < .001; HF = R2: 67.5%, adjusted R2: 63.4%, P < .001). The coefficient of determination of time domain variables in the developed multiple regression models was shown to be very high (adjusted R2: 69.8%-92.1%, P < .001), but the coefficient of determination of frequency domain variables was moderate (adjusted R2: 40.3%-72.6%, P < .001). In addition to the equipment used for measuring HRV in clinical trials, this study confirmed that simple physiological variables could predict HRV.

11.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-4, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the BRCA mutations and hormone receptor status affect the ovarian reserve and ovarian stimulation outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation. METHODS: A total of 117 women diagnosed with breast cancer who were referred to the fertility preservation clinics at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital between September 2012 and July 2019 undergone ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. Basal characteristics including age, BMI, basal AMH, basal FSH, and fertility preservation outcomes such as the number of retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes were compared retrospectively. RESULTS: BRCA1 mutation was noted in 25 women, and BRCA2 mutation was observed in 35 women. Positive estrogen receptor status was noted in 87 women, and positive progesterone receptor status was noted in 69 women. HER2 was positive in 55 women, and 19 women were diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancers. The number of total oocytes retrieved was lower in patients with BRCA mutation (8.3 ± 5.4 vs. 15.3 ± 8.7, p = .002). The number of mature oocytes retrieved was also lower in BRCA carriers (4.7 ± 4.2 vs. 8.7 ± 7.9, p = .025). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients were younger than non-TNBC patients (30.3 ± 4.8 vs. 33.9 ± 5.0, p = .007). The rate of mature oocyte rate was higher in TNBC patients (68.6%±20.6 vs. 52.5%±29.7, p = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that BRCA carriers with breast cancer had comparable ovarian reserve to non-carriers but the response to ovarian stimulation was lower. We also observed that oocyte maturity was higher in TNBC patients, however age might be a confounding factor of this result.

12.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 12(1): 111, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whey permeate is an effective lactose source for nursery pigs and the most benefits are obtained when pigs are at 7 to 11 kg BW. Altering weaning ages could cause different length of early-weaner phases until 7 kg BW and thus it would influence the dietary need of whey permeate during 7 to 11 kg BW of pigs. This study aimed to evaluate if weaning ages would affect the dietary needs of whey permeate for optimum growth performance of pigs at 7 to 11 kg BW. METHODS: A total of 1,632 pigs were weaned at d 21 (d 21.2 ± 1.3) or d 25 (d 24.6 ± 1.1) after birth. All pigs had a common early-weaner feeds until they reached 7 kg BW. When pigs reached 7 kg BW within a weaning age group, they were allotted in a randomized complete block design (2 × 4 factorial). Two factors were weaning age groups (21 and 25 d of age) and varying whey permeate levels (7.50%, 11.25%, 15.00%, and 18.75%). Data were analyzed using the GLM and NLIN procedures of SAS for slope-ratio and broken-line analyses to determine the growth response to whey permeate and optimal daily whey permeate intake for the growth of the pigs weaned at different ages. RESULTS: Pigs weaned at 21 d of age had a common diet for 11 d to reach 7 kg BW whereas pigs weaned at 25 d of age needed 2 d. The G:F of pigs weaned at 25 d of age responded to increased daily whey permeate intake greater (P < 0.05) than pigs weaned at 21 d of age. Breakpoints were obtained (P < 0.05) at 88 and 60 g/d daily whey permeate intake or 17.0% and 14.4% of whey permeate for G:F of pigs weaned at 21 and 25 d of age, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pigs weaned at an older age with a short early-weaner phase had a greater growth response to whey permeate intake compared with pigs weaned at a younger age with a long early-weaner phase. Altering weaning ages affected dietary needs of whey permeate for optimum growth performance of pigs from 7 to 11 kg BW.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639162

RESUMO

Female endocrinological symptoms, such as premature ovarian inefficiency (POI) are caused by diminished ovarian reserve and chemotherapy. The etiology of POI remains unknown, but this can lead to infertility. This has accelerated the search for master regulator genes or other molecules that contribute as enhancers or silencers. The impact of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) on POI has gained attention; however, their regulatory function in this condition is not well known. RNA sequencing was performed at four stages, 2-(2 W), 6-(6 W), 15-(15 W), and 20-(20 W) weeks, on ovarian tissue samples and 5058 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Gene expression and enrichment were analyzed based on the gene ontology and KEGG databases, and their association with other proteins was assessed using the STRING database. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to identify the key target genes. The DEGs were most highly enriched in 6 W and 15 W groups. Figla, GDF9, Nobox, and Pou51 were significantly in-creased at 2 W compared with levels at 6 W and 20 W, whereas the expression of Foxo1, Inha, and Taf4b was significantly de-creased at 20 W. Ccnd2 and Igf1 expression was maintained at similar levels in each stage. In total, 27 genes were upregulated and 26 genes interacted with miRNAs; moreover, stage-specific upregulated and downregulated interactions were demonstrated. Increased and decreased miRNAs were identified at each stage in the ovaries. The constitutively expressed genes, Ccnd2 and Igf1, were identified as the major targets of many miRNAs (p < 0.05), and Fshr and Foxo3 interacted with miRNAs, namely mmu-miR-670-3p and mmu-miR-153-3p. miR-26a-5p interacted with Piwil2, and its target genes were downregulated in the 20 W mouse ovary. In this study, we aimed to identify key miRNAs and their target genes encompassing the reproductive span of mouse ovaries using mRNA and miRNA sequencing. These results indicated that gene sets are regulated in the reproductive stage-specific manner via interaction with miRNAs. Furthermore, consistent expression of Ccnd2 and Igf1 is considered crucial for the ovarian reserve and is regulated by many interactive miRNAs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , Reserva Ovariana , Transcriptoma , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639690

RESUMO

Estimation of health-related physical fitness (HRPF) levels of individuals is indispensable for providing personalized training programs in smart fitness services. In this study, we propose an artificial neural network (ANN)-based estimation model to predict HRPF levels of the general public using simple affordable physical information. The model is designed to use seven inputs of personal physical information, including age, gender, height, weight, percent body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI), to estimate levels of muscle strength, flexibility, maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and muscular endurance. HRPF data (197,719 sets) gathered from the National Fitness Award dataset are used for training (70%) and validation (30%) of the model. In-depth analysis of the model's estimation accuracy is conducted to derive optimal estimation accuracy. This included input/output correlation, hidden layer structures, data standardization, and outlier removals. The performance of the model is evaluated by comparing the estimation accuracy with that of a multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The results demonstrate that the proposed model achieved up to 10.06% and 30.53% improvement in terms of R2 and SEE, respectively, compared to the MLR model and provides reliable estimation of HRPF levels acceptable to smart fitness applications.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Aptidão Física , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
16.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 800-809, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. METHODS: This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. CONCLUSION: Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17255, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446742

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of education on the edge efficiency in resting state functional networks (RSFNs) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD). We collected the data of 57 early aMCI, 141 late aMCI, 173 mild ADD, and 39 moderate-to-severe ADD patients. We used years of education as a proxy for cognitive reserve. We measured edge efficiency for each edge in RSFNs, and performed simple slope analyses to discover their associations with education level among the four groups. In the late aMCI, a sub-network that had hub nodes in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right posterior cingulate gyrus, showed a positive association between RSFN edge efficiency and education (threshold = 2.5, p = 0.0478). There was no negative effect of education on the RSFN edge efficiency. In the early aMCI, mild ADD, and moderate-to-severe ADD, there were no sub-networks showing positive or negative correlation between education and RSFN edge efficiency. There was a positive effect of higher education on RSFN edge efficiency in the late aMCI, but not in the early aMCI or ADD. This indicates that in late aMCI, those who have higher education level have greater ability to resist collapsed functional network.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Escolaridade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201810

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of resistance training on muscle quality, muscle growth factors, and functional fitness in older adult women with sarcopenia. Twenty-two older adult women aged over 65 with sarcopenia were randomly assigned to either resistance training (RT, n = 12) or non-exercise control group (CG, n = 10). The body weight-based and elastic band RT were performed three times a week, 60 min per session, for 16 weeks. Body composition and thigh muscle quality were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively. The muscle growth factors, including growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, and follistatin, were analyzed via blood samples. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and effect size (i.e., cohen's d, partial eta square), and the significance level was set at 0.05. The RT group improved their functional fitness, grip strength, gait speed, and isometric muscle strength (p < 0.01, d > 0.99; large), while these variables did not change in the CG. An increase in intramuscular fat was only observed in the CG (p < 0.01, 1.06; large). Muscle growth factors such as follistatin were significantly increased in the RT (p < 0.05, 0.81; large), but other variables did not change following resistance training. Sixteen weeks of resistance training improved functional fitness and prevented age-related increases in intramuscular fat in the thigh area. However, there were only some changes in muscle growth factors, such as follistatin, suggesting that the effectiveness of resistance training on muscle growth factors is limited. Body weight-based and elastic band resistance training is an alternative training method for sarcopenia to minimize the age-related adverse effects on muscle function and quality.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
19.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 326-333, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258420

RESUMO

This study was aimed to determine the efficacy of multispecies probiotics in reducing the severity of post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F18+ on newly weaned pigs. Thirty-two pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts, BW = 6.99 ± 0.33 kg) at 21 d of age were individually allotted in a randomized complete block design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Pigs were selected from sows not infected previously and not vaccinated against ETEC. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 25 d based on 10 d phase 1 and 15 d phase 2. The factors were ETEC challenge (oral inoculation of saline solution or E. coli F18+ at 2 × 109 CFU) and probiotics (none or multispecies probiotics 0.15% and 0.10% for phase 1 and 2, respectively). Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 5, 9, 13, 19, and 25. Fecal scores were measured daily. Blood samples were taken on d 19 and 24. On d 25, all pigs were euthanized to obtain samples of digesta, intestinal tissues, and spleen. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), malondialdehyde (MDA), peptide YY (PYY), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured in serum and intestinal tissue. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The fecal score of pigs was increased (P < 0.05) by ETEC challenge at the post-challenge period. The ETEC challenge decreased (P < 0.05) jejunal villus height and crypt depth, tended to increase (P = 0.056) jejunal TNFα, increased (P < 0.05) ileal crypt depth, and decreased (P < 0.05) serum NPY. The probiotics decreased (P < 0.05) serum TNFα, tended to reduce (P = 0.064) jejunal MDA, tended to increase (P = 0.092) serum PYY, and increased (P < 0.05) jejunal villus height, and especially villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in challenged pigs. Growth performance of pigs were not affected by ETEC challenge, whereas the probiotics increased (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI and tended to increase (P = 0.069) G:F ratio. In conclusion, ETEC F18+ challenge caused diarrhea, intestinal inflammation and morphological damages without affecting the growth performance. The multispecies probiotics enhanced growth performance by reducing intestinal inflammation, oxidative stress, morphological damages.

20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206784

RESUMO

Phytobiotics with a mycotoxin adsorbent were used to mitigate negative effects of multiple mycotoxins in diets fed to pigs. In experiment 1, 120 pigs (11.6 kg body weight; BW) were assigned to five treatments (three pigs/pen) and fed for 28 days. Treatments were CON (control), MTD (CON + 2.5 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol), DP (MTD + phytobiotics at 0.1%), and DPA1 and DPA2 (MTD + phytobiotics and adsorbent at 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively). In experiment 2, 96 pigs (28.5 kg BW) were assigned to four treatments (three pigs/pen) and fed for 26 days. Treatments were CON, MTAF (CON + 0.19 mg/kg of aflatoxin and 8 mg/kg of fumonisins), AFP (MTAF + phytobiotics at 0.1%), and AFPA (MTAF + phytobiotics and adsorbent at 0.1%). Growth performance was measured weekly, and blood was sampled at the end of study to measure hepatic function and inflammatory status (TNF-α). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure. In experiment 1, pigs fed MTD, DP, DPA1, and DPA2 had smaller (p < 0.05) BW than CON. Pigs fed DPA2 had greater (p < 0.05) BW than MTD. Pigs fed DP and DPA2 tended to have lower (p < 0.1) serum total protein than CON. Pigs fed MTD and DPA2 tended to have higher (p < 0.1) alanine aminotransferase than CON. Similarly, pigs fed MTD, DP, and DPA2 tended to have higher (p < 0.1) urea nitrogen/creatinine than CON. In experiment 2, pigs fed MTAF, AFP, and AFPA had smaller (p < 0.05) BW than CON. Pigs fed MTAF, AFP, and AFPA had smaller (p < 0.05) ADFI than CON. Pigs fed AFPA had higher (p < 0.05) aspartate aminotransferase than CON and MTAF. Pigs fed AFP and AFPA had higher (p < 0.05) alanine aminotransferase than CON. Pigs fed MTAF, AFP, and AFPA had lower (p < 0.05) urea nitrogen/creatinine than CON. Pigs fed AFPA had higher (p < 0.05) TNF-α than CON and MTAF. In conclusion, feeding an additional 2.5 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol or 0.19 mg/kg of aflatoxin with 8 mg/kg of fumonisins reduced the growth of pigs. Deoxynivalenol compromised the hepatic function of pigs. Phytobiotics with adsorbent could partly overcome the detrimental effects of mycotoxins.

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