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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26995, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414983

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. Dopamine transporter imaging using 123I-2ß-carbomethoxy-3ß-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (FP-CIT) and noradrenergic cardiac imaging using 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) have been used in combination or separately to study PD patients. Published results regarding uptake of the 2 tracers in each motor subtype are fairly abundant and mostly in agreement. However, data on the intrasubject association between dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in PD patients are relatively scant and vary. We aimed to assess the intrasubject relationship between striatal dopamine transporter density using a PET tracer and cardiac sympathetic innervation in tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and akinetic-rigid subtype (AR) of PD.This study has a cross-sectional design. Thirty-one patients with early PD (17 TD/14 AR) who underwent both 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy and 18F-FP-CIT PET/CT were retrospectively selected. We assessed the relationship between heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) of 123I-MIBG and specific (striatal)-to-nonspecific (cerebellar) dopamine transporter binding ratio (S/N) measured from 4 separate regions-of-interest (bilateral caudate nuclei and lentiform nuclei) of 18F-FP-CIT in each motor subtype.S/N of all 4 striatal regions were significantly lower in the AR subgroup than in the TD subgroup. H/M was not significantly different. There was a significant intrasubject correlation between H/M and S/N of the lentiform nucleus in AR-PD but no correlation between H/M and any of 4 S/N in TD-PD.Our data suggest a coupled degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic and myocardial sympathetic denervation in AR subtype, but not in TD subtype, of early PD patients. These different results between the 2 motor subtypes likely reflects the heterogeneous pathophysiology of PD.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina/metabolismo , Radioisótopos do Iodo/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , 3-Iodobenzilguanidina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/análise , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379652

RESUMO

The purposes of the study were to determine whether there are differences in texture analysis parameters between tonsil cancers and normal tonsils, and to correlate texture analysis with 18F-FDG PET/CT to investigate the relationship between texture analysis and metabolic parameters. Sixty-four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsil were included. A ROI was drawn, including all slices, to involve the entire tumor. The contralateral normal tonsil was used for comparison with the tumors. Texture analysis parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD), entropy, mean positive pixels, skewness, and kurtosis were obtained using commercially available software. Parameters were compared between the tumor and the normal palatine tonsils. Comparisons were also performed among early tonsil cancer, advanced tonsil cancer, and normal tonsils. An ROC curve analysis was performed to assess discrimination of tumor from normal tonsils. Correlation between texture analysis and 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed. Compared to normal tonsils, the tumors showed a significantly lower mean, higher SD, higher entropy, lower skewness, and higher kurtosis on most filters (p<0.001). On comparisons among normal tonsils, early cancers, and advanced tonsil cancers, SD and entropy showed significantly higher values on all filters (p<0.001) between early cancers and normal tonsils. The AUC from the ROC analysis was 0.91, obtained from the entropy. A mild correlation was shown between texture parameters and metabolic parameters. The texture analysis parameters, especially entropy, showed significant differences in contrast-enhanced CT results between tumor and normal tonsils, and between early tonsil cancers and normal tonsils. Texture analysis can be useful as an adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of tonsil cancers.

3.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 883-893, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406877

RESUMO

During constipation, indigestible foods, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fiber, may improve the bowel environment and activity. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, the effects of ID-HWS1000, composed of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, xylooligosaccharide, and dietary fiber, were evaluated to determine whether it improves the perception of bowel activity or cause changes in the gut microbiome. Thirty Korean adults with "functional constipation" according to the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to the following groups: 20 in the ID-HWS1000 group and 10 in the placebo group. ID-HWS1000 or the placebo was consumed by the participants for 4 weeks. To assess the changes in the perception of bowel activity, clinical data and gut microbiome analyses were conducted before and after the experiment. There were significant differences between the groups in the response to 9 of the 12 survey questions (the number and duration of bowel movements, amount of feces, number of irritant bowel movements, number of times bowel movements felt incomplete, shape of the feces, amount of gas in the gut, discomfort after defecation, and discomfort owing to constipation) (P < .05). There was a decrease in the proportion of Firmicutes (Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae) and an increase in Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidaceae) (P < .05). Moreover, ID-HWS1000 directly improved the discomfort associated with bowel movements, decreased the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, and increased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. These results confirmed that ID-HWS1000 improves the perception of bowel activity and exerts positive changes in individuals with functional constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208517

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), also known as extracellular superoxide dismutase, is an enzyme that scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that SOD3 exerts anti-inflammatory abilities in several immune disorders. However, the effect of SOD3 and the underlying mechanism in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been uncovered. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether SOD3 can protect intestinal cells or organoids from inflammation-mediated epithelial damage. Cells or mice were treated with SOD3 protein or SOD3-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Caco-2 cells or intestinal organoids stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines were used to evaluate the protective effect of SOD3 on epithelial junctional integrity. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice received SOD3 or SOD3-transduced MSCs (SOD3-MSCs), and were assessed for severity of disease and junctional protein expression. The activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and elevated expression of cytokine-encoding genes decreased in TNF-α-treated Caco-2 cells or DSS-induced colitis mice when treated with SOD3 or SOD3-MSCs. Moreover, the SOD3 supply preserved the expression of tight junction (ZO-1, occludin) or adherence junction (E-cadherin) proteins when inflammation was induced. SOD3 also exerted a protective effect against cytokine- or ROS-mediated damage to intestinal organoids. These results indicate that SOD3 can effectively alleviate enteritis symptoms by maintaining the integrity of epithelial junctions and regulating inflammatory- and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Células CACO-2 , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13046, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158518

RESUMO

The study evaluated the efficacy of ID-JPL934, a probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus johnsonii IDCC 9203, Lactobacillus plantarum IDCC 3501 and Bifidobacterium lactis IDCC 4301, in relieving lower gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 112 subjects with lower gastrointestinal symptoms were consecutively enrolled. They were randomized into either ID-JPL934 administration group or placebo group. Bristol stool form, stool frequency, and abnormal bowel movement symptoms were recorded at baseline and week 2, 6, and 8. Primary endpoint was improvement in overall symptoms at week 8. Fecal samples were collected to measure the probiotic levels in feces using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and to perform metagenomic analysis of microbiome originating from bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles and bacterial cells via 16S rDNA sequencing. Of the 112 subjects, 104 (54 in ID-JPL934 group and 50 in placebo group) completed the entire study protocol. A higher relief of overall symptoms was found in ID-JPL934 group than in placebo group (p = 0.016). Among lower gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain and bloating scores were more decreased in ID-JPL934 group than in placebo group (p < 0.05). The fecal microbiome profiles of the two groups did not differ. However, the qPCR analysis showed significant increase in the levels of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Bifidobacterium lactis in feces post-treatment in ID-JPL934 group than in placebo group (p < 0.05 by repeated measure ANOVA). In conclusion, ID-JPL934 is effective in relieving lower gastrointestinal symptoms. Exposure to ID-JPL934 may increase the abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Bifidobacterium lactis in the gut.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03395626.

6.
Environ Res ; 199: 111301, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984306

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the morphological, genomic and bioaccumulation characteristics of two isolated Haematococcus strains (namely Goyang and Sogang), which were newly discovered in South Korea. Morphological analysis revealed that the isolated strains were unicellular and bi-flagellated green microalgae that formed thickened walls at the palmelloid or red-cyst phase. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL gDNA sequences demonstrated that both strains were taxonomically related to the genus Haematococcus. The two strains showed growth pattern that was similar to a typical Haematococcus strain, and accumulated astaxanthin within 48 h of exposure to intensive light. Both red-cyst cells effectively removed radioactive cesium to more than 50% within 48 h from low-level cesium-contaminated water of 5 Bq/ml concentration. The cesium-accumulation mechanism is largely associated with the replacement of cellular potassium in thick cell walls during biouptake, and the cesium-removal rate highly depends on the corresponding astaxanthin accumulation involving the potassium-transporting protein (P-type ATPase).


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Césio , Clorófitas/genética , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Xantofilas
7.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(10): 2344-2353.e7, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836179

RESUMO

With aging, the skin becomes thin and drastically loses collagen. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), also known as superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3, is the major SOD in the extracellular matrix of the tissues and is well-known to maintain the reduction‒oxidation homeostasis and matrix components of such tissues. However, the role of EC-SOD in aging-associated reductions of skin thickness and collagen production is not well-studied. In this study, we compared the histological differences in the dorsal skin of EC-SOD‒overexpressing transgenic mice (Sod3+/+) of different age groups with that in wild-type mice and also determined the underlying signaling mechanism. Our data showed that the skin thickness in Sod3+/+ mice significantly increased with aging compared with that in wild-type male mice. Furthermore, Sod3+/+ mice had promoted collagen production through the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in aged mice. Interestingly, subcutaneous injection of adeno-associated virus‒overexpressing EC-SOD exhibited increased skin thickness and collagen expression. Furthermore, combined recombinant EC-SOD and dihydrotestosterone treatment synergistically elevated collagen production through the activation of TGFß in human dermal fibroblasts. Altogether, these results showed that EC-SOD prevents skin aging by promoting collagen production in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, we propose that EC-SOD may be a potential therapeutic target for antiaging in the skin.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 628117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717151

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), a well-known antioxidant has been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties through inhibition of T cell differentiation. However, the underlying inhibitory mechanism of SOD3 on T cell differentiation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of SOD3 on anti-CD3/CD28- or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (ION)-mediated activation of mouse naive CD4+ T cells. Our data showed that SOD3 suppressed the expression of activation-induced surface receptor proteins such as CD25, and CD69, and cytokines production. Similarly, SOD3 was found to reduce CD4+T cells proliferation and suppress the activation of downstream pathways such as ERK, p38, and NF-κB. Moreover, naïve CD4+T cells isolated from global SOD3 knock-out mice showed higher expression of CD25, CD69, and CD71, IL-2 production, proliferation, and downstream signals compared to wild-type CD4+T cells. Whereas, the use of DETCA, a known inhibitor of SOD3 activity, found to nullify the inhibitory effect of SOD3 on CD4+T cell activation of both SOD3 KO and wild-type mice. Furthermore, the expression of surface receptor proteins, IL-2 production, and downstream signals were also reduced in Th2 and Th17 differentiated cells upon SOD3 treatment. Overall, our data showed that SOD3 can attenuate CD4+T cell activation through modulation of the downstream signalings and restrict CD4+T cell differentiation. Therefore, SOD3 can be a promising therapeutic for T cell-mediated disorders.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/genética
9.
Explore (NY) ; 17(5): 403-409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of meditation, showing performance enhancement in a variety of sports fields, but few attempts have been made to derive outcomes based on evidence from the preexisting groundwork. The present study empirically reviews reports on meditation in athletes to investigate (a) the efficacy of these interventions in augmenting athletic attainment, (b) the methodological quality of studies (risk of bias), and (c) a possible conceptual framework for how meditation affects athletes' performance. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (Ovid Medline(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline(R)); EMBASE; EBSCO; CINAHL; SPORTDiscuss; and SCOPUS from June 16, 2019 to July 18, 2019. All studies published were screened and included if they met the eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. The available evidence was summarized. RESULTS: Our initial search returned a total of 734 articles. After screening abstracts and full texts, 6 studies were included. Participants reported changes that might be considered positively in sports events after experiencing planned intervention. However, in the methodological quality assessment measured in seven domains of Cochrane criteria, the risk of bias of each study was generally high. DISCUSSION: From the results derived, the theoretical insights of imagery, relaxation and self-talk, which can catalyze the development of a new form of meditation program, were obtained. However, given methodological defects of RCTs, further precisely designed RCTs are needed.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672928

RESUMO

Extensive water loss and melanin hyperproduction can cause various skin disorders. Low-temperature argon plasma (LTAP) has shown the possibility of being used for the treatment of various skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and skin cancer. However, the role of LTAP in regulating skin moisturizing and melanogenesis has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of LTAP on yes-associated protein (YAP), a major transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo signaling pathway that is involved in skin moisturizing and melanogenesis-regulating markers. In normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), the human epidermal keratinocyte line HaCaT, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we found that LTAP exhibited increased expression levels of YAP protein. In addition, the expression levels of filaggrin (FLG), which is involved in natural moisturizing factors (NMFs), and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS), transglutaminase (TGM), and involucrin (IVL), which regulate skin barrier and moisturizing, were also increased after exposure to LTAP. Furthermore, collagen type I alpha 1 and type III alpha 1 (COL1A1, COL3A1) were increased after LTAP exposure, but the expression level of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) was reduced. Moreover, LTAP was found to suppress alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis in murine melanoma B16F10 cells and normal human melanocytes (NHEMs). LTAP regulates melanogenesis of the melanocytes through decreased YAP pathway activation in a melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R)-dependent manner. Taken together, our data show that LTAP regulates skin moisturizing and melanogenesis through modulation of the YAP pathway, and the effect of LTAP on the expression level of YAP varies from cell to cell. Thus, LTAP might be developed as a treatment method to improve the skin barrier, moisture content, and wrinkle formation, and to reduce melanin generation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Argônio/farmacologia , Melaninas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/citologia , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , alfa-MSH/metabolismo
11.
Nucl Med Commun ; 42(5): 553-565, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to provide data supporting the expanded clinical use of respiratory gating by assessing the diagnostic accuracy of breathing motion correction using amplitude-based respiratory gating. METHODS: A respiratory movement tracking device was attached to a PET-computed tomography scanner, and images were obtained in respiratory gating mode using a motion phantom that was capable of sensing vertical motion. Specifically, after setting amplitude changes and intervals according to the movement cycle using a total of nine combinations of three waveforms and three amplitude ranges, respiratory motion-corrected images were reconstructed using the filtered back projection method. After defining areas of interest in the acquired images in the same image planes, statistical analyses were performed to compare differences in standardized uptake value (SUV), lesion volume, full width at half maximum (FWHM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). RESULTS: SUVmax increased by 89.9%, and lesion volume decreased by 27.9%. Full width at half maximum decreased by 53.9%, signal-to-noise ratio increased by 11% and contrast-to-noise ratio increased by 16.3%. Optimal results were obtained when using a rest waveform and 35% duty cycle, in which the change in amplitude in the respiratory phase signal was low, and a constant level of long breaths was maintained. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that respiratory-gated PET-CT imaging can be used to accurately correct for SUV changes and image distortion caused by respiratory motion, thereby providing excellent imaging information and quality.

12.
J Dermatol ; 48(6): 778-785, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528054

RESUMO

Postmarketing surveillance is conducted to establish drug safety and effectiveness under real-world practice. We aimed to validate the effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab in the treatment of adult Korean patients with plaque psoriasis under real-world practice. This was a prospective, observational, and multi-center study. Subjects aged 18 years or older who were treated with ustekinumab for plaque psoriasis were enrolled. We enrolled 977 patients; 654 (66.9%) were men, with mean body surface area (BSA, ± standard deviation) of 27.0 ± 18.3% and mean psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score of 18.1 ± 9.7. The effectiveness analysis was performed in 581 patients who had at least one follow-up assessment and met treatment criteria per local label and reimbursement guidelines. Of these patients, 287 had effectiveness data for visit 6 at 53.7 ± 2.1 weeks. At visit 6, 91.6% (263/287), 51.2% (147/287), and 9.4% (27/287) patients achieved PASI 75, 90, and 100 responses, respectively. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 112 of the 977 (11.5%) patients with an incidence rate of 21.5 per 100 patient-years (PYs). Serious AEs occurred in eight (0.8%) patients with an incidence rate of 1.2 per 100 PYs. The estimated 1-year drug survival rate was 87.7%. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that higher baseline PASI score and no prior biologic exposure were significant predictors for PASI 90 response at visit 6. Ustekinumab was effective and safe, and displayed a high survival rate in the treatment of adult Korean patients with plaque psoriasis in real-world practice.


Assuntos
Psoríase , Ustekinumab , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Ustekinumab/efeitos adversos
13.
BMB Rep ; 54(2): 142-147, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612150

RESUMO

Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG phosphorothioate (PS CpG-ODN) are known to decrease IgE synthesis in Th2 allergy responses. Nonetheless, the therapeutic role of PS CpG-ODN is limited due to cytotoxicity. Therefore, we developed a phosphodiester (PO) form of CpG-ODN (46O) with reduced toxicity but effective against allergies. In this study, we first compared the toxicity of 46O with CpG-ODNs containing a PS backbone (1826S). We also investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of 46O injected intravenously in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). To elucidate the mechanism of 46O underlying the inhibition of IgE production, IgE- and TGF-ô€…-associated molecules were evaluated in CD40/IL-4- or LPS/IL-4-stimulated B cells. Our data showed that the treatment with 46O was associated with a lower hematological toxicity compared with 1826S. In addition, injection with 46O reduced erythema, epidermal thickness, and suppressed IgE and IL-4 synthesis in mice with OVA-induced AD. Additionally, 46O induced TGF-ß production in LPS/IL-4-stimulated B cells via inhibition of Smad7, which suppressed IgE synthesis via interaction between Id2 and E2A. These findings suggest that enhanced TGF-ß signaling is an effective treatment for IgE-mediated allergic conditions, and 46O may be safe and effective for treating allergic diseases such as AD and asthma. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(2): 142-147].


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291466

RESUMO

In this study, potential protection of chlorophyll a from illumination and oxidation-induced decomposition has been examined using C-phycocyanin (C-PC) aqueous medium. Photo-oxidation resistance of chlorophyll a was monitored in various aqueous media using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and direct-infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry analysis. The spectroscopy results showed that chlorophyll a in C-PC medium experienced the lowest rate of conversion to its derivatives; thus, it was demonstrated that chlorophyll a was mostly intact in the C-PC medium. Furthermore, the C-PC treated with chlorophyll a showed the lowest concentrations of malondialdehyde, and chlorophyll a in C-PC medium did not cause serious damage to human liver cells in vitro after intensive illumination. Therefore, we propose a new method of protecting chlorophyll a from photodegradation and oxidation using C-PC aqueous medium.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238520

RESUMO

The immunoregulatory abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in various autoimmune and allergic diseases. However, the therapeutic benefits observed in preclinical settings have not been reproducible in clinical trials. This discrepancy is due to insufficient efficacy of MSCs in harsh microenvironments, as well as batch-dependent variability in potency. Therefore, to achieve more beneficial and uniform outcomes, novel strategies are required to potentiate the therapeutic effect of MSCs. One of simple strategies to augment cellular function is genetic manipulation. Several studies showed that transduction of antioxidant enzyme into cells can increase anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we evaluated the immunoregulatory abilities of MSCs introduced with extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in the present study. SOD3-overexpressed MSCs (SOD3-MSCs) reduced the symptoms of murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like inflammation, as well as the differentiation and activation of various immune cells involved in AD progression. Interestingly, extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from SOD3-MSCs delivered SOD3 protein. EVs carrying SOD3 also exerted improved therapeutic efficacy, as observed in their parent cells. These results suggest that MSCs transduced with SOD3, an antioxidant enzyme, as well as EVs isolated from modified cells, might be developed as a promising cell-based therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20546, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239711

RESUMO

A novel deep-learning algorithm for artificial neural networks (ANNs), completely different from the back-propagation method, was developed in a previous study. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the algorithm for the detection of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and the classification of its subtypes, without employing the convolutional neural network (CNN). For the detection of ICH with the summation of all the computed tomography (CT) images for each case, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.859, and the sensitivity and the specificity were 78.0% and 80.0%, respectively. Regarding ICH localisation, CT images were divided into 10 subdivisions based on the intracranial height. With the subdivision of 41-50%, the best diagnostic performance for detecting ICH was obtained with AUC of 0.903, the sensitivity of 82.5%, and the specificity of 84.1%. For the classification of the ICH to subtypes, the accuracy rate for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was considerably excellent at 91.7%. This study revealed that our approach can greatly reduce the ICH diagnosis time in an actual emergency situation with a fairly good diagnostic performance.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/classificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Curva ROC
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16206, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004860

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) involves repeated events of gross haematuria with concurrent upper airway infections. The mucosal immune system, especially the tonsil, is considered the initial site of inflammation, although the role of the tonsillar microbiota has not been established in IgAN. In this study, we compared the tonsillar microbiota of patients with IgAN (n = 21) and other glomerular diseases (n = 36) as well as, healthy controls (n = 23) from three medical centres in Korea. The microbiota was analysed from tonsil swabs using the Illumina MiSeq system based on 16S rRNA gene. Tonsillar bacterial diversity was higher in IgAN than in other glomerular diseases, although it did not differ from that of healthy controls. Principal coordinates analysis revealed differences between the tonsillar microbiota of IgAN and both healthy and disease controls. The proportions of Rahnella, Ruminococcus_g2, and Clostridium_g21 were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls (corrected p < 0.05). The relative abundances of several taxa were correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen, haemoglobin, and serum albumin levels. Based on our findings, tonsillar microbiota may be associated with clinical features and possible immunologic pathogenesis of IgAN.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/microbiologia , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/genética , Humanos , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tonsila Palatina/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
ACS Omega ; 5(31): 19778-19784, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803073

RESUMO

Protein and peptide therapeutics tend to have a short blood circulation time mainly caused by rapid clearance in kidney, leading to a low therapeutic efficacy. Here, we demonstrate that the antitumor activity of a small-sized protein binder can be significantly enhanced by prolonged blood half-life through site-specific lipidation. An unnatural amino acid was genetically incorporated into a specific site with the highest accessibility in a human interleukin-6 (IL-6)-targeting protein binder with a size of 30.8 kDa, followed by conjugation with palmitic acid using cooper-free click chemistry. The resulting protein binder was shown to have a binding capacity for serum albumin, maintaining a comparable binding affinity for human IL-6 to the native protein binder. The terminal half-life of the lipidated protein binder was estimated to be 10.7 h, whereas the native one had a half-life of 20 min, resulting in a significantly enhanced tumor suppression effect. The present approach can be generally applied to small-sized therapeutic proteins for the elongation of circulation time and increase of bioavailability in blood, consequently enhancing their therapeutic efficacy.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659984

RESUMO

Heat stress negatively impacts plant growth and yield. The effects of carbon materials on plants in response to abiotic stress and antioxidant activity are poorly understood. In this study, we propose a new method for improving heat tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using a natural carbon material, shungite, which can be easily mixed into any soil. We analyzed the phenotype and physiological changes in cucumber plants maintained at 35 °C or 40 °C for 1 week. Our results show that shungite-treated cucumber plants had a healthier phenotype, exhibiting dark green leaves, compared to the plants in the control soil group. Furthermore, in the shungite-treated plants, the monodehydroascorbate content (a marker of oxidative damage) of the leaf was 34% lower than that in the control group. In addition, scavengers against reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were significantly upregulated. These results indicate that the successive pre-treatment of soil with a low-cost natural carbon material can improve the tolerance of cucumber plants to heat stress, as well as improve the corresponding antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Ácido Desidroascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Desidroascórbico/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solo/química
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