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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202799

RESUMO

Real-space topological magnetic structures such as skyrmions and merons are promising candidates for information storage and transport. However, the microscopic mechanisms that control their formation and evolution are still unclear. Here, using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that skyrmion crystals (SkXs) can nucleate, grow, and evolve from the conical phase in the same ways that real nanocrystals form from vapors or solutions. More intriguingly, individual skyrmions can also "reproduce" by division in a mitosis-like process that allows them to annihilate SkX lattice imperfections, which is not available to crystals made of mass-conserving particles. Combined string method and micromagnetic calculations show that competition between repulsive and attractive interactions between skyrmions governs particle-like SkX growth, but nonconservative SkX growth appears to be defect mediated. Our results provide insights toward manipulating magnetic topological states by applying established crystal growth theory, adapted to account for the new process of skyrmion mitosis.

2.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914388, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172620

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, even with no overt stroke. Hypertension has been a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, especially in midlife (<70 years) individuals. We aimed to investigate the associations of blood pressure (BP) and hypertension burden with dementia risk among midlife AF patients. From the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we enrolled 171 228 incident AF patients aged 50 to 69 years with no prior dementia from 2005 to 2016. During a mean of 6.6 years of follow-up, 9909 patients received a first-time diagnosis of dementia. U-shaped relationships were noted between systolic or diastolic BP and dementia risk: A 10 mm Hg increase or decrease in systolic BP starting from 120 mm Hg was associated with 4.4% (95% CI, 2.7%-6.0%) and 4.6% (95% CI, 0.1%-8.2%) higher dementia risk, respectively. An increase or decrease in diastolic BP starting from 80 mm Hg also increased dementia risk. In subtype analyses, Alzheimer disease increases with BP decrease whereas vascular dementia increases according to BP increase. When BP changes over time were accounted for in time-updated models, BP of 120 to 129/80 to 84 mm Hg was associated with the lowest dementia risk. Increasing hypertension burden (the proportion of days with increased BP during follow-up) was associated with higher dementia risk (hazard ratio, 1.10 per 10% increase [95% CI, 1.08-1.12]). Among midlife AF patients, there were a U-shaped association of BP and a log-linear association of hypertension burden with dementia risk. Minimizing the burden of hypertension in AF patients might help to prevent dementia.

3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143468

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have been suggested as alternatives for developing countries with suboptimal medical conditions because of their low diagnostic cost, high portability, and disposable characteristics. Recently, paper-based diagnostic devices enabling multi-step assays have been drawing attention, as they allow complicated tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which were previously only conducted in the laboratory, to be performed on-site. In addition, user convenience and price of paper-based diagnostic devices are other competitive points over other point-of-care testing (POCT) devices, which are more critical in developing countries. Fluid manipulation technologies in paper play a key role in realizing multi-step assays via µPADs, and the expansion of biochemical applications will provide developing countries with more medical benefits. Therefore, we herein aimed to investigate recent fluid manipulation technologies utilized in paper-based devices and to introduce various approaches adopting several principles to control fluids on papers. Fluid manipulation technologies are classified into passive and active methods. While passive valves are structurally simple and easy to fabricate, they are difficult to control in terms of flow at a specific spatiotemporal condition. On the contrary, active valves are more complicated and mostly require external systems, but they provide much freedom of fluid manipulation and programmable operation. Both technologies have been revolutionized in the way to compensate for their limitations, and their advances will lead to improved performance of µPADs, increasing the level of healthcare around the world.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098261

RESUMO

Research on emotion recognition from facial expressions has found evidence of different muscle movements between genuine and posed smiles. To further confirm discrete movement intensities of each facial segment, we explored differences in facial expressions between spontaneous and posed smiles with three-dimensional facial landmarks. Advanced machine analysis was adopted to measure changes in the dynamics of 68 segmented facial regions. A total of 57 normal adults (19 men, 38 women) who displayed adequate posed and spontaneous facial expressions for happiness were included in the analyses. The results indicate that spontaneous smiles have higher intensities for upper face than lower face. On the other hand, posed smiles showed higher intensities in the lower part of the face. Furthermore, the 3D facial landmark technique revealed that the left eyebrow displayed stronger intensity during spontaneous smiles than the right eyebrow. These findings suggest a potential application of landmark based emotion recognition that spontaneous smiles can be distinguished from posed smiles via measuring relative intensities between the upper and lower face with a focus on left-sided asymmetry in the upper region.

5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019293

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The current study aimed to elucidate a time-course change in left atrial volume after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and to verify factors associated with left atrial volume reduction (LAVR) and its prognostic implications. Methods: The records of 97 patients were retrospectively reviewed after CRT. Echocardiographic data were analyzed at baseline before CRT, at early follow-up (FU) (≤ 1 year, median 6 months), and at late FU (median 30 months). Left ventricular volume response (LVVR) was defined as 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (ESV). LAVR was classified into two groups by the median value at early FU: LAVR (≥ 7.5%) and no LAVR (< 7.5%). Results: LV ESV index continuously decreased from baseline to early FU and from early FU to late FU (106.1 ± 47.4 mL/m2 vs. 87.6 ± 51.6 mL/m2 vs. 72.5 ± 57.1 mL/m2). LA volume index decreased from baseline to early FU, but there were no reductions thereafter (51.8 ± 21.9 mL/m2 vs. 45.1 ± 19.6 mL/m2 vs. 44.9 ± 23.0 mL/m2). The only echocardiographic factor associated with LAVR was change in E velocity (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; p = 0.002). Early LAVR (OR, 10.05; p = 0.002) was an independent predictor for late LVVR. Conclusions: LAVR was related to reduction in E velocity, suggesting its relation with optimization of LV filling pressure. Early LAVR was a predictor for LVVR to CRT in long-term FU.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1475, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001791

RESUMO

Here we present the synthesis of the efficient nanophosphor Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ (D50 = 144 nm) by a simple milling approach, its strong Rayleigh scattering, and its film applications to white LED and silicon solar cell as a downshifting medium. The final nanophosphor product showed the quantum efficiency comparable to the bulk phosphor which is, to our knowledge, the highest record of nitride nanophosphors. Especially the nanophosphor showed the more tail emission at the shorter-wavelength side of the emission spectrum and the faster thermal quenching with the more spectral broadening along with the temperature due to Rayleigh scattering. Also the lowering in the excitation spectrum was observed due to lower absorbance. Finally, the nanophosphor-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film was made, and its applications to white LED and silicon solar cell as a downshifting medium demonstrated that it gave the high color rendering property in white LED in spite of still lower luminous efficiency, and it caused the increase in efficiency of silicon solar cell.

7.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(3): 392-399, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To predict the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using data from breathing sounds recorded using a noncontact device during sleep. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Audio recordings during sleep were performed using an air-conduction microphone during polysomnography. Breathing sounds recorded from all sleep stages were analyzed. After noise reduction preprocessing, the audio data were segmented into 5-second windows and sound features were extracted. Estimation of AHI by regression analysis was performed using a Gaussian process, support vector machine, random forest, and simple linear regression, along with 10-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: In total, 116 patients who underwent attended, in-laboratory, full-night polysomnography were included. Overall, random forest resulted in the highest performance with the highest correlation coefficient (0.83) and least mean absolute error (9.64 events/h) and root mean squared error (13.72 events/h). Other models resulted in somewhat lower but similar performances, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.79. The estimated AHI tended to be underestimated as the severity of OSA increased. Regarding bias and precision, estimation performances in the severe OSA subgroup were the lowest, regardless of the model used. Among sound features, derivative of the area methods of moments of overall standard deviation demonstrated the highest correlation with AHI. CONCLUSION: AHI was fairly predictable by using data from breathing sounds generated during sleep. The prediction model may be useful not only for prescreening but also for follow-up after treatment in patients with OSA.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2417, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051487

RESUMO

We previously reported the feasibility and efficacy of a simulation-guided clinical catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in an in-silico AF model. We developed a highly efficient realistic AF model reflecting the patient endocardial voltage and local conduction and tested its clinical feasibility. We acquired > 500 endocardial bipolar electrograms during right atrial pacing at the beginning of the AF ablation procedures. Based on the clinical bipolar electrograms, we generated simulated voltage maps by applying fibrosis and local activation maps adjusted for the fiber orientation. The software's accuracy (CUVIA2.5) was retrospectively tested in 17 patients and feasibility prospectively in 10 during clinical AF ablation. Results: We found excellent correlations between the clinical and simulated voltage maps (R = 0.933, p < 0.001) and clinical and virtual local conduction (R = 0.958, p < 0.001). The proportion of virtual local fibrosis was 15.4, 22.2, and 36.9% in the paroxysmal AF, persistent AF, and post-pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) states, respectively. The reconstructed virtual bipolar electrogram exhibited a relatively good similarities of morphology to the local clinical bipolar electrogram (R = 0.60 ± 0.08, p < 0.001). Feasibility testing revealed an in situ procedural computing time from the clinical data acquisition to wave-dynamics analyses of 48.2 ± 4.9 min. All virtual analyses were successfully achieved during clinical PVI procedures. We developed a highly efficient, realistic, in situ procedural simulation model reflective of individual anatomy, fiber orientation, fibrosis, and electrophysiology that can be applied during AF ablation.

9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(2): 457-464, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919909

RESUMO

INSTRUCTION: Longer atrial fibrillation (AF) durations have higher recurrence rates after rhythm control. However, there is limited data on the effect of the AF duration on recurrence after atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (AFCA). In the present study, we investigated the rhythm outcome of AFCA according to the AF duration based on the first electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 1005 patients with AF (75% male, 59 ± 11 years old) who underwent AFCA and whose first ECG diagnosis time point was evident. The clinical characteristics and rhythm outcomes were compared based on the AF duration (≤3 years, n = 537; >3 years, n = 468) and AF burden (paroxysmal atrial fibrillation [PAF], n = 387; persistent atrial fibrillation [PeAF], n = 618). Longer AF durations were associated with older age (P = .020), larger left atrial size (P = .009) and a higher number of patients with hypertension (P < .001) or PeAF (P < .001). During 24 ± 22 months of follow-up, the postablation clinical recurrence rate was higher in patients with a longer AF duration (logrank P = .002). The AF recurrence rate was significantly higher in PeAF patients with an AF duration >3 years (logrank P = 0.009), but not in subjects with PAF (logrank P = .939). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, a longer AF duration was significantly associated with a higher clinical recurrence rate after AFCA in PeAF patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.06; range, 1.03-0.10; P = 0.001), but not PAF. CONCLUSION: Although longer AF duration was associated with higher clinical recurrence rates after AFCA, the rate was significant in patients with PeAF lasting >3 years, but not in PAF patients.

10.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 136-144, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774999

RESUMO

NiFe-layered double hydroxide (LDH) is thought of as a promising bifunctional water-splitting catalyst, owing to its excellent performances for alkaline oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). However, it shows extremely poor activity toward hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) due to the weak hydrogen adsorption. We demonstrated that the integration of Rh species and NiFe-LDH can dramatically improve its HER kinetics without sacrificing the OER performance. The Rh species were initially integrated into NiFe-LDH as oxidized dopants and metallic clusters (< 1 nm). In 1 M KOH electrolyte, an overpotential of 58 mV is needed to catalyze 10 mA cm-2 HER current density. Furthermore, this catalyst only requires 1.46 V to drive an electrolyzer at 10 mA cm-2. A strong interaction between metallic Rh clusters and NiFe hydroxide during the HER process is revealed. The theoretical calculation shows the Rh ions replace Fe ions as the major active sites that are responsible for OERs.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 72: 67-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the long-term prognosis of nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (NIVCD) in patients with structurally normal heart. METHODS: We included 107,838 patients (age, 52.1 ±â€¯15.5 years; men, 46.8%) who underwent electrocardiography in outpatient clinics or medical checkup (unmatched cohort). NIVCD was defined as QRS duration ≥110 ms without meeting the criteria for bundle branch block. Patients with structurally normal heart and sinus rhythm were assigned to the NIVCD and normal QRS groups according to propensity score with matching variables of age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes (matched cohort 1), and additional PR interval (matched cohort 2). Baseline characteristics, electrocardiographic parameters, and clinical outcomes were compared in the unmatched cohort and the matched cohort. RESULTS: In the unmatched cohort, the frequencies of male sex and preexisting atrial fibrillation were significantly higher in the NIVCD group than in the normal QRS group. In matched cohort 1 (n = 690), the NIVCD group exhibited significant slower sinus rate and longer PR interval than the normal QRS group. In matched cohort 2 (n = 598), the cumulative incidence of atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in the NIVCD group than in the normal QRS group during a follow-up period of 8.8 ±â€¯2.9 years. NIVCD significantly increased the risk for AF (hazard ratio, 2.571; 95% confidence interval, 1.074-6.156; p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that NIVCD may be associated with future occurrence of atrial fibrillation in patients with structurally normal heart and sinus rhythm.

12.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(1): 99-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Efforts to reduce stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have focused on increasing physician adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) guidelines; however, the high early discontinuation rate of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is a limitation. Although non-VKA OACs (NOACs) are more convenient to administer than warfarin, their lack of monitoring may predispose patients to nonpersistence. We compared the persistence of NOAC and VKA treatment for AF in real-world practice. METHODS: In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 7,013 patients with nonvalvular AF (mean age 67.2 ± 10.9 years, women 36.4%) were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. This study included 3,381 patients who started OAC 30 days before enrollment (maintenance group) and 572 patients who newly started OAC (new-starter group). The persistence rate of OAC was evaluated. RESULTS: In the maintenance group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 88.3% for VKA and 95.5% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). However, the persistence rate was not different among NOACs. In the new-starter group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 78.9% for VKA and 92.1% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). The persistence rate was lower for rivaroxaban (83.7%) than apixaban (94.6%) and edoxaban (94.1%, p < 0.001). In the new-starter group, diabetes, valve disease, and cancer were related to nonpersistence of OAC. CONCLUSION: Nonpersistence was significantly lower with NOAC than VKA in both the maintenance and new-starter groups. In only the new-starter group, apixaban or edoxaban showed higher persistence rates than rivaroxaban.

13.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(3): 187-195, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal surgery is usually performed in the prone position using a posterior approach. However, the prone position may cause venous engorgement in the back and thus increase surgical bleeding with interruption of surgery. The prone position also affects cardiac output since large vessels are compressed decreasing venous return to the heart. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade would be associated with less surgical bleeding during spinal surgery in the prone position. DESIGN: Randomised, single blinded trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight patients in two groups. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to moderate neuromuscular blockade or deep neuromuscular blockade. In the moderate neuromuscular blockade group, administration of rocuronium was adjusted such that the train-of-four count was one to two. In the deep neuromuscular blockade group, rocuronium administration was adjusted such that the train-of-four count was zero with a posttetanic count 2 or less. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the volume of intra-operative surgical bleeding. The surgeon's satisfaction with operating conditions, haemodynamic and respiratory status, and postoperative pain scores were evaluated. RESULTS: The median [IQR] volume of intra-operative surgical bleeding was significantly less in the deep neuromuscular blockade group than in the moderate neuromuscular blockade group; 300 ml [200 to 494] vs. 415 ml [240 to 601]; difference: 117 ml (95% CI, 9 to 244; P = 0.044). The mean ±â€ŠSD surgeon's satisfaction with the intra-operative surgical conditions was greater in the deep neuromuscular blockade group than in the moderate neuromuscular blockade group; 3.5 ±â€Š1.0 vs. 2.9 ±â€Š0.9 (P = 0.004). In intergroup comparisons of respiratory variables, peak inspiratory pressure was lower in the deep neuromuscular blockade group overall (P < 0.001). The median [IQR] postoperative pain score was lower in the deep neuromuscular blockade group than the moderate neuromuscular blockade group; 50 [36 to 60] vs. 60 [50 to 70], (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Deep neuromuscular blockade reduced intra-operative surgical bleeding in patients undergoing spinal surgery. This may be related to greater relaxation in the back muscles and lower intra-operative peak inspiratory pressure when compared with moderate neuromuscular blockade. TRIAL REGISTRATION: KCT0001264 (http://cris.nih.go.kr).

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 68-75, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699363

RESUMO

It is unknown whether heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) carry a similar risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) and other outcomes in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). A prospective, multicenter outpatient registry with echocardiographic data which enrolled 10,589 patients from June 2016 to May 2019 was analyzed. In this registry, 935 (8.8%) patients had HF, and the proportions of patients with HFpEF and HFrEF were 43.2% and 56.8%, respectively. During follow-up over 1.33 years, 11 (2.07 per 100 person-years [PYR]) and 5 (0.76 per 100 PYR) patients had stroke/SE in the HFpEF and HFrEF groups, respectively, whereas 102 patients (0.84 per 100 PYR) had these sequelae in the no-HF group. The HFpEF group had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of stroke/SE (p = 0.004) and risk of stroke/SE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19 to 4.18) than the no-HF group. The risk of stroke/SE in the HFpEF group compared with that in the no-HF group was consistently increased even in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy (adjusted HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.96). There was a correlation between larger left atrial size and risk of stroke/SE (adjusted HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.29), but not between reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and this risk. In conclusion, these results suggest that strict oral anticoagulation therapy helps reduce the risk of stroke/SE in patients with nonvalvular AF and HFpEF, especially in those with a larger left atrial size.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(1): 252-257, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808474

RESUMO

Water confinement inside a carbon nanotube (CNT) has been one of the most exciting subjects of both experimental and theoretical interest. Most of the previous studies, however, considered CNT structures with simple cylindrical shapes. In this paper, we report a classical molecular dynamics study of the equilibrium structural arrangement of water molecules confined in a multiply connected carbon nanotube (MCCNT) containing two Y-junctions. We investigate the structural arrangement of the water molecules in the MCCNT in terms of the density of water molecules and the average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule. Our results show that the structural rearrangement of the H2O molecules takes place several angstroms ahead of the Y-junction, rather than only at the CNT junction itself. This phenomenon arises because it is difficult to match the boundary condition for hydrogen bonding in the region where two different hydrogen-bonded structures are interconnected with each other.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 217602, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809133

RESUMO

Complex polar structures of incommensurate modulations (ICMs) are revealed in chemically modified PbZrO_{3} perovskite antiferroelectrics using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. The Pb-cation displacements, previously assumed to arrange in a fully compensated antiparallel fashion, are found to be either antiparallel, but with different magnitudes, or in a nearly orthogonal arrangement in adjacent stripes in the ICMs. Ab initio calculations corroborate the low-energy state of these arrangements. Our discovery corrects the atomic understanding of ICMs in PbZrO_{3}-based perovskite antiferroelectrics.

18.
J Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although eastern Asian countries are exposed to high levels of air pollution, the impact of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is not well identified. We assessed the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and all-cause/cardiovascular mortalities. METHODS: We included 436,933 subjects who received national health examinations from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-based National Sample Cohort. We matched subjects' residential-address areas with hourly-measurements of PM2.5 concentration data. We estimated the risk of mortality with average PM2.5 exposure during the study period using a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS: During 1,683,271 person·years, all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities were observed in 6432 and 1603 subjects (382 and 95 per 100,000 person·years, respectively). An increase in 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities by 3.4 % [2.7-4.1] and 4.7 % [3.6-5.8], respectively (each p < 0.001). PM2.5 was linearly and significantly correlated with these all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities above 18 µg/m3 of PM2.5 (p < 0.001), but it was not significant below 18 µg/m3 of PM2.5. To investigate the specific PM2.5 concentration for raising cardiovascular mortality more, we analyzed the sensitivities/specificities for different PM2.5 levels, and 18 µg/m3 showed the highest Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity-1) with c-index of 0.85 (0.84-0.86). PM2.5 effect on all-cause mortality was more profound in subjects with previous myocardial infarction compared to the opposite population. CONCLUSIONS: In the Korean general population exposed to high-air pollution, long-term PM2.5 exposure was linearly associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, especially above 18 µg/m3 of PM2.5.

19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of the intimal tear location on aortic dilation and reintervention after nontotal arch replacement (non-TAR) for acute type I aortic dissection. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, 92 patients who underwent non-TAR for acute type I aortic dissection were enrolled. Intimal tears were analyzed at the supraaortic (SA) segment; segment 1, proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA); segment 2, distal DTA; and segment 3, abdominal aorta. Aortic diameter was measured at the pulmonary artery bifurcation, celiac axis, maximal abdominal aorta, and maximal thoracoabdominal aorta using serial follow-up computed tomographic scans. The Fisher exact or χ2 test, independent t or Mann-Whitney U test, and log-rank test were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The significant factors for increasing aortic diameter were the first location of intimal tear in the SA segment and segments 1 and 2. In the adjusted analysis, the first location of intimal tear in the SA segment and segment 1 was statistically significant. In the additional adjusted analysis, a segment 1 tear without SA tear was the only significant factor for increasing aortic diameter. The 5-year freedom from reintervention rate was significantly higher in patients with no intimal tear than in those with a segment 1 intimal tear with/without SA tear. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that SA and proximal DTA intimal tears are associated with subsequent aortic dilation and reintervention. These proximal aortic intimal tears might warrant aggressive surgical treatment at the initial operation or close postoperative follow-up.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16685, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723168

RESUMO

The hyaloid vascular system (HVS) is known to have an important role in eye development. However, physiological mechanisms of HVS regression and their correlation with developmental eye disorders remain unclear due to technical limitations of conventional ending point examination with fixed tissues. Here, we report comparative optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) monitoring of HVS regression in wild-type and retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mice. Longitudinal OCTA monitoring revealed accelerated regression of hyaloid vessels correlated with retinal degeneration in rd10. Quantitative OCT measurement disclosed significant distortions of both retinal thickness and the vitreous chamber in rd10 compared to WT mice. These OCT/OCTA observations confirmed the close relationship between HVS physiology and retinal neurovascular development. The distorted HVS regression might result from retinal hyperoxia or dopamine abnormality due to retinal remodeling in rd10 retina. By providing a noninvasive imaging platform for longitudinal monitoring of HVS regression, further OCT/OCTA study may lead to in-depth understanding of the physiological mechanisms of HVS regression in normal and diseased eyes, which is not only important for advanced study of the nature of the visual system but also may provide insights into the development of better treatment protocols of congenital eye disorders.

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