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1.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5592-5603, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795910

RESUMO

Background: Several researchers have reported that the amount of protein intake is associated with lung function and airflow obstruction. However, few studies have investigated the effect of low protein intake on acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of low protein intake on exacerbations in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We used data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2012, linked to the National Health Insurance claims data. The clinical outcomes and the rate of exacerbation were retrospectively compared between the low protein intake group and the non-low protein intake group which was stratified by quartile categories of protein intake in 2,069 patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The low protein intake group was significantly associated with older age, women, never smoker, low household income, and low education level, compared with the non-low protein intake group. The low protein intake group was significantly associated with increased hospitalization (18.0% vs. 10.5%, P<0.001) and emergency department utilization (1.6±1.0 vs. 1.1±0.4, P=0.033) compared with the non-low protein intake group. In multivariate analysis, the low protein intake group was associated with hospitalization (odds ratio 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.96; P=0.012). The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the amount of protein intake was associated with FVC % predicted (ß=0.048, P<0.001) and FEV1% predicted (ß=0.022, P=0.015). Conclusions: Low protein intake was associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The data are available at the KNHANES website (https://knhanes.cdc.go.kr).

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833717

RESUMO

Multi-person pose estimation has been gaining considerable interest due to its use in several real-world applications, such as activity recognition, motion capture, and augmented reality. Although the improvement of the accuracy and speed of multi-person pose estimation techniques has been recently studied, limitations still exist in balancing these two aspects. In this paper, a novel knowledge distilled lightweight top-down pose network (KDLPN) is proposed that balances computational complexity and accuracy. For the first time in multi-person pose estimation, a network that reduces computational complexity by applying a "Pelee" structure and shuffles pixels in the dense upsampling convolution layer to reduce the number of channels is presented. Furthermore, to prevent performance degradation because of the reduced computational complexity, knowledge distillation is applied to establish the pose estimation network as a teacher network. The method performance is evaluated on the MSCOCO dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that our KDLPN network significantly reduces 95% of the parameters required by state-of-the-art methods with minimal performance degradation. Moreover, our method is compared with other pose estimation methods to substantiate the importance of computational complexity reduction and its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Postura , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826612

RESUMO

To explore and compare the expression patterns of venom components depending on post-capture periods, venom gland-specific transcriptome and proteome analyses were conducted for five model hymenopteran species at a series of time points after capture. Venom gland-specific genes with signal sequences were considered as putative venom component genes. Expression patterns of venom gland-specific genes in all the social wasps and bees examined varied considerably depending on the post-capture period. Higher numbers of venom genes exhibited a decreasing expression pattern than an increasing pattern as the capture period increased. For example, genes encoding most of the allergens (dipeptidyl peptidase 4, endocuticle structural glycoprotein, odorant-binding protein, phospholipase A1, A2, B1, serine protease, serine protease inhibitor and venom allergen 5), pain-producing factor (mast cell degranulating peptide), and paralyzing factor (neprilysin) commonly exhibited decreasing expression patterns in all of the hymenopteran species tested, except for some of the major venom genes in Apis mellifera and Bombus ignitus, which showed an increasing pattern. These findings indicate species- or group-specific variations in the expression patterns of major venom genes. Taken together, flash freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately after capture was determined to be the best way to obtain the most natural expression profiles of venom components in social wasp species, thus, enabling a better understanding of the toxic potential of venom in wasp sting accidents. This study provides guidance for establishing optimal protocols for venom gland isolation and venom extraction from wasps and bees that can ensure the most naturally represented venom composition.

4.
Lab Anim Res ; 37(1): 28, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease. Despite alveolar epithelial cells is crucial role in lung, its contribution and the associated biomarker remain unknown in the pathogenesis of IPF. Recently, environmental factors including stone dust, silica and cigarette smoking were found as risk factors involved in IPF. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin super family of cell surface receptors. It has been shown that interaction between RAGE and its ligands on immune cells mediates cellular migration and regulation of pro-inflammation. RAGE is highly expressed in the lung, in particular, alveolar epithelial cells. Therefore, we determined whether RAGE expression is associated with fibrosis-associated genes in patients with IPF and mice. RESULTS: When bleomycin (BLM) was intratracheally administered to C57BL/6 mice for 1, 2 weeks, macrophage and neutrophils were significantly increased. The fibrotic nodule formed and accumulation of collagen was determined after BLM injection in H&E- and Masson's trichrome staining. Levels of elastin, Col1a1 and fibronectin were increased in quantitative real-time PCR and protein levels of α-SMA was increased in western blot analysis. In the lung tissues of 1 mg/kg BLM-induced mice, RAGE expression was gradually decreased in 1- and 2 weeks in immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, and 3 mg/kg of BLM-induced mice exhibited decreased RAGE levels while α-SMA expression was increased. We next determined RAGE expression in the lungs of IPF patients using immunohistochemistry. As a result, RAGE expression was decreased, while α-SMA expression was increased compared with non-IPF subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that reduced RAGE was associated with increased fibrotic genes in BLM-induced mice and patients with IPF. Therefore, RAGE could be applied with a biomarker for prognosis and diagnosis in the pathogenesis of IPF.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(22): 10430-10440, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651412

RESUMO

Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a type of brain injury affecting approximately 1 million newborn babies per year worldwide, the only treatment for which is therapeutic hypothermia. Thrombin-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert neuroprotective effects by enriching cargo contents and boosting exosome biogenesis, thus showing promise as a new therapeutic strategy for HIE. This study was conducted to evaluate the tissue distribution and potential toxicity of thrombin-preconditioned human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (th-hWJMSCs) in animal models before the initiation of clinical trials. We investigated the biodistribution, tumorigenicity and general toxicity of th-hWJMSCs. MSCs were administered the maximum feasible dose (1 × 105 cells/10 µL/head) once, or at lower doses into the cerebral ventricle. To support the clinical use of th-hWJMSCs for treating brain injury, preclinical safety studies were conducted in newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and BALB/c nude mice. In addition, growth parameters were evaluated to assess the impact of th-hWJMSCs on the growth of newborn babies. Our results suggest that th-hWJMSCs are non-toxic and non-tumorigenic in rodent models, survive for up to 7 days in the brain and hold potential for HIE therapy.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666427

RESUMO

Background: Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important trigger factors for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), there are limited data on the epidemiologic patterns of microbiology in South Korea. Methods: A multicenter observational study was conducted in 28 hospitals in South Korea between January 2015 and December 2018. Adult COPD patients with moderate to severe acute exacerbations were eligible for the present study. They underwent all conventional tests to identify etiologic microbiologic pathogens. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens that caused AE-COPD. Comparative microbiological analysis was performed between the patients with asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) and pure COPD. Results: We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Pure COPD patients were 87.9% and ACO patients were 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an ICS-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Among them, respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3%. Bacteria and viruses were found in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely found in ACO compared to pure COPD (8.3% vs 3.6%, p-value=0.016). Conclusion: Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate to severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management for AE-COPD and become the basis for further research related with infectious pathogens in COPD patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Significant research and development (R&D) has been conducted to make the best dental implants while developing various patent applications and registrations. In this study, we evaluated the current status of patents on dental implants and identified the future direction of R&D progress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 711 patents related to dental implants were reviewed. These were published between 1909 and 2020 and retrieved from the Derwent Innovation patent database. The patents were grouped into three categories depending on the implant components: fixture, abutment, and artificial teeth. RESULTS: The category with most patents was "abutment," and the most cited patent was "screw-type dental implant anchor." Global patenting trends over the past 20 years showed that both applicants and applications increased in the early 2010s; however, these have since been on the decline. Currently, the United States holds the largest number of patents, and Nobel Biocare Holding AG is the top assignee. Technic maturation prediction analysis showed that the current dental implant technology is in the "decline stage." CONCLUSION: Trend analysis of the dental implant patent indicates the main contributors of development are profit-oriented companies. Recent reduction in the number of new patent applications suggests the technology is in the mature declining stage. The emergence of new materials or technologies that may close the gap in clinical unmet needs would reverse the trend.

8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(35): e224, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience high morbidity and mortality worldwide, few biomarkers are available for COPD. Here, we analyzed potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of COPD by using word embedding. METHODS: To determine which biomarkers are likely to be associated with COPD, we selected respiratory disease-related biomarkers. Degrees of similarity between the 26 selected biomarkers and COPD were measured by word embedding. And we infer the similarity with COPD through the word embedding model trained in the large-capacity medical corpus, and search for biomarkers with high similarity among them. We used Word2Vec, Canonical Correlation Analysis, and Global Vector for word embedding. We evaluated the associations of selected biomarkers with COPD parameters in a cohort of patients with COPD. RESULTS: Cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra 21-1) was selected because of its high similarity and its significant correlation with the COPD phenotype. Serum Cyfra 21-1 levels were determined in patients with COPD and controls (4.3 ± 5.9 vs. 3.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P = 0.611). The emphysema index was significantly correlated with the serum Cyfra 21-1 level (correlation coefficient = 0.219, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Word embedding may be used for the discovery of biomarkers for COPD and Cyfra 21-1 may be used as a biomarker for emphysema. Additional studies are needed to validate Cyfra 21-1 as a biomarker for COPD.

9.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112093, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562483

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources and is transformed in the environment to its most toxicant form, methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies suggest that MeHg exposure can alter epigenetic modifications during embryogenesis. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and levels of cord blood DNA methylation (DNAm) by meta-analysis in up to seven independent studies (n = 1462) as well as persistence of those relationships in blood from 7 to 8 year-old children (n = 794). In cord blood, we found limited evidence of differential DNAm at cg24184221 in MED31 (ß = 2.28 × 10-4, p-value = 5.87 × 10-5) in relation to prenatal MeHg exposure. In child blood, we identified differential DNAm at cg15288800 (ß = 0.004, p-value = 4.97 × 10-5), also located in MED31. This repeated link to MED31, a gene involved in lipid metabolism and RNA Polymerase II transcription function, may suggest a DNAm perturbation related to MeHg exposure that persists into early childhood. Further, we found evidence for association between prenatal MeHg exposure and child blood DNAm levels at two additional CpGs: cg12204245 (ß = 0.002, p-value = 4.81 × 10-7) in GRK1 and cg02212000 (ß = -0.001, p-value = 8.13 × 10-7) in GGH. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with DNAm modifications that may influence health outcomes, such as cognitive or anthropometric development, in different populations.

10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 306, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of bronchiectasis as a common respiratory disease, epidemiological data have accumulated. However, the prevalence and impact of psychological comorbidities were not sufficiently evaluated. The present study examined the prevalence of depression and its associated factors in patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study involved a multicenter cohort of bronchiectasis patients recruited from 33 pulmonary specialist hospitals. The baseline characteristics and bronchiectasis-related factors at enrollment were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Of the 810 patients enrolled in the study, 168 (20.7%) patients had relevant depression (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10), and only 20 (11.9%) patients had a diagnosis of depression. Significant differences were noted in the depressive symptoms with disease severity, which was assessed using the Bronchiectasis Severity Index and E-FACED (all p < 0.001). Depressive symptoms inversely correlated with quality-of-life (r = - 0.704, p < 0.001) and positively correlated with fatigue severity score (r = 0.712, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that depression was significantly associated with the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale ≥ 2 (OR 2.960, 95% CI 1.907-4.588, p = < 0.001) and high number of exacerbations (≥ 3) in the previous year (OR 1.596, 95% CI 1.012-2.482, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is common, but its association with bronchiectasis was underrecognized. It negatively affected quality-of-life and presented with fatigue symptoms. Among the bronchiectasis-related factors, dyspnea and exacerbation were closely associated with depression. Therefore, active screening for depression is necessary to optimize the treatment of bronchiectasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea (KCT0003088). The date of registration was June 19th, 2018.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16692, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404834

RESUMO

Emphysema is an important feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic factors likely affect emphysema pathogenesis, but this question has predominantly been studied in those of European ancestry. In this study, we sought to determine genetic components of emphysema severity and characterize the potential function of the associated loci in Korean population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on quantitative emphysema in subjects with or without COPD from two Korean COPD cohorts. We investigated the functional consequences of the loci using epigenetic annotation and gene expression data. We also compared our GWAS results with an epigenome-wide association study and previous differential gene expression analysis. In total, 548 subjects (476 [86.9%] male) including 514 COPD patients were evaluated. We identified one genome-wide significant SNP (P < 5.0 × 10-8), rs117084279, near PIBF1. We identified an additional 57 SNPs (P < 5.0 × 10-6) associated with emphysema in all subjects, and 106 SNPs (P < 5.0 × 10-6) in COPD patients. Of these candidate SNPs, 2 (rs12459249, rs11667314) near CYP2A6 were expression quantitative trait loci in lung tissue and a SNP (rs11214944) near NNMT was an expression quantitative trait locus in whole blood. Of note, rs11214944 was in linkage disequilibrium with variants in enhancer histone marks in lung tissue. Several genes near additional SNPs were identified in our previous EWAS study with nominal level of significance. We identified a novel SNP associated with quantitative emphysema on CT. Including the novel SNP, several candidate SNPs in our study may provide clues to the genetic etiology of emphysema in Asian populations. Further research and validation of the loci will help determine the genetic factors for the development of emphysema.


Assuntos
Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Idoso , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(4): 609-622, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) represent the most powerful approach for identifying genes that influence asthma, to date, no studies have established genetic susceptibility to asthma in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with adult Korean asthmatics and compare them with the significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of UK asthmatics from the UK Biobank. METHODS: Patients were defined as having asthma if they were diagnosed by a doctor or taking medications for asthma. Controls were defined as individuals without asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We performed quality control, genotype imputation, GWAS, and PrediXcan analyses. In the GWAS, a P value of < 5 × 10-8 was considered significant. We compared significant SNPs between Korean and UK patients with asthma. RESULTS: A total of 1,386 asthmatic patients and 5,205 controls were analyzed. The SNP rs1770, located near the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1, was the most significant SNP (P = 4.5 × 10-10). In comparison with 24 SNPs in a GWAS of UK asthmatics, six SNPs were significant with the same odds ratio (OR) direction, including signals related to type 2 inflammation (e.g., IL1RL1, TSLP, and GATA3) and mucus plugging (e.g., MUC5AC). HLA-DQA1 showed an opposite OR direction. The HLA-DQB1 gene demonstrated significantly imputed mRNA expression in the lung tissue and whole blood. CONCLUSIONS: The SNP rs1770 of HLA-DQB1 was the most significant in Korean asthmatics. Similarities and discrepancies were found in the genetic variants between Korean and UK asthmatics. GWAS of Korean asthmatics should be replicated and compared with those of GWAS of other ethnicities.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126071, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229387

RESUMO

This study is to propose a pyro-hydrometallurgical process for recovering Pb, Sn, and Sb from lead dross (LD), incorporating stages of roasting, leaching, and precipitation. The LD, containing 67.2% of Pb, 4.0% of Sn, and 1.4% of Sb, was first roasted at 750 °C for 2 h to oxidise the sulphide metals. Approximately 90% of Pb was oxidised from the first roasting. The LD was second roasted by mixing with 95% H2SO4 for sulphatising at 300 °C for 3 h to break the complex oxide structure of the oxyplumboromeite (Pb2Sb2O7). After the two-step roasting process, over 99% of Pb was oxidised and Sb was separated. The calcine obtained was desulphurised by 2 M Na2CO3 solution for insoluble PbSO4 to PbCO3 for selective leaching. The residue was then leached in 2.5 M HNO3 at 50 °C for 3 h and over 99% of Pb dissolved into the solution while Sn and Sb remained in the solid residue. The Pb containing solution was neutralised at pH 8 using 2 M Na2CO3 and over 99% Pb was precipitated as PbCO3 and Pb hydroxides. A residue containing Sn and Sb was leached in 7 M NaOH at 95 for 1 h and over 99% Sn was leached selectively. Sn in the solution was precipitated at pH 7 using 2 M H2SO4 as SnO2. Sb was recovered as Sb2O3 in solid reside from Sn leaching. The overall recovery rates of Pb, Sn, and Sb from the LD were 99.5%, 95.4%, and 86.3%, respectively. The proposed process is expected to contribute to recycling Pb and other metal values from LD by minimising hazardous waste emissions.

14.
Curr Genomics ; 22(2): 79-87, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220295

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. As early symptoms of lung cancer are minimal and non-specific, many patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Despite a concerted effort to diagnose lung cancer early, no biomarkers that can be used for lung cancer screening and prognosis prediction have been established so far. As global DNA demethylation and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation are present in lung cancer, DNA methylation biomarkers have become a major area of research as potential alternative diagnostic methods to detect lung cancer at an early stage. This review summarizes the emerging DNA methylation changes in lung cancer tumorigenesis, focusing on biomarkers for early detection and their potential clinical applications in lung cancer.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 84-90, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214656

RESUMO

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes severe mortality among more than 90 fish species. The 11 kb viral genome encodes six proteins including nonvirion protein (NV). In previous study, we reported that NV gene variations of VHSV decrease cellular energy metabolism. Among several NV mutant proteins, NV-S56L showed the highest cellular energy deprivation. Based on this finding, we further examined a molecular mechanism of one amino acid (S56L) change on differential cellular dysregulation. In the fish cells, the NV-S56L protein showed an increased level of cellular expression than normal and other mutant NV proteins without change of mRNA expression. Using cycloheximide treatment for exclude de novo NV protein expression, NV-S56L had an extensive half-life of intracellular protein. The proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, treatment recovered the all NV protein levels. The ubiquitination of NV was increased in the treatment of MG132 via inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system process. Finally, increased protein stability of NV-S56L led to downregulation of NF-κB response immune gene expression. These results indicate that the prolonged protein stabilization of NV protein variant (NV-S56L) increases its pathological duration and might eventually lead to high virulence activity in the host fish cell.


Assuntos
Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral , Novirhabdovirus/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Peixes , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/genética , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/imunologia , Estabilidade Proteica
16.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296820

RESUMO

Salivary gland-specific transcriptomes of nine heteropteran insects with distinct feeding strategies (predaceous, hematophagous, and phytophagous) were analyzed and annotated to compare and identify the venom components as well as their expression profiles. The transcriptional abundance of venom genes was verified via quantitative real-time PCR. Hierarchical clustering of 30 representative differentially expressed venom genes from the nine heteropteran species revealed unique groups of salivary gland-specific genes depending on their feeding strategy. The commonly transcribed genes included a paralytic neurotoxin (arginine kinase), digestive enzymes (cathepsin and serine protease), an anti-inflammatory protein (cystatin), hexamerin, and an odorant binding protein. Both predaceous and hematophagous (bed bug) heteropteran species showed relatively higher transcription levels of genes encoding proteins involved in proteolysis and cytolysis, whereas phytophagous heteropterans exhibited little or no expression of these genes, but had a high expression of vitellogenin, a multifunctional allergen. Saliva proteomes from four representative species were also analyzed. All venom proteins identified via saliva proteome analysis were annotated using salivary gland transcriptome data. The proteomic expression profiles of venom proteins were in good agreement with the salivary gland-specific transcriptomic profiles. Our results indicate that profiling of the salivary gland transcriptome provides important information on the composition and evolutionary features of venoms depending on their feeding strategy.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(10): 836, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164470

RESUMO

Background: Recent advances in critical care and infection control have led to improved intensive care unit (ICU) survival rates. However, controversy exists regarding the benefits of ICU treatment for patients with lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients from the Korean national database, who had been diagnosed with lung cancer and had received ICU treatment. Methods: We investigated patients in Korea who had been newly diagnosed with lung cancer between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. We classified these critically ill patients with lung cancer according to their lung cancer treatment pathways, with a specific focus on those who had undergone ICU treatment. Results: We found that 31.3% of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer had been admitted to the ICU for any reason, and 18.5% of patients with lung cancer were admitted to the ICU for reasons other than postoperative surgical lung cancer resection. The ICU mortality rate was 2.9% in patients admitted to the ICU for postoperative care and 47.5% in patients admitted for other reasons. Clinical cancer staging (HR, 7.02; 95% CI, 5.82-8.48; P<0.01) and the need for mechanical ventilator (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.27-1.41; P<0.01) were independently associated with ICU mortality. The importance of mechanical ventilator intervention as a predictor for survival was significantly greater in the earlier stages of lung cancer (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.15-3.38; P<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that goals and treatment plans for critically ill patients with lung cancer should be determined by the individual patient's clinical cancer stage, regardless of the reason for admission to the ICU.

18.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(5)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068801

RESUMO

The Japanese pine sawyer (JPS) beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), damages pine trees and transmits the pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Nickle. Chemical agents have been used to control JPS beetle, but due to various issues, efforts are being made to replace these chemical agents with entomopathogenic fungi. We investigated the expression of immune-related genes in JPS beetle in response to infection with JEF-197, a Metarhizium anisopliae isolate, using RNA-seq. RNA samples were obtained from JEF-197, JPS adults treated with JEF-197, and non-treated JPS adults on the 8th day after fungal treatment, and RNA-seq was performed using Illumina sequencing. JPS beetle transcriptome was assembled de novo and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis was performed. There were 719 and 1953 up- and downregulated unigenes upon JEF-197 infection, respectively. Upregulated contigs included genes involved in RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, spliceosome-related genes, and genes involved in immune-related signaling pathways such as the Toll and Imd pathways. Forty-two fungal DEGs related to energy and protein metabolism were upregulated, and genes involved in the stress response were also upregulated in the infected JPS beetles. Together, our results indicate that infection of JPS beetles by JEF-197 induces the expression of immune-related genes.

19.
Front Physiol ; 12: 643389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093222

RESUMO

The longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae), is a hard tick and a vector for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus. The number of patients infected with SFTS is rapidly increasing. Recently, the invertebrate pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae JEF-290 was reported to be useful to control the tick as an alternative to chemical acaricides, which are not easily applicable in human living areas where the tick is widely spread. In this study, we analyzed how the tick and the fungal pathogen interact at the transcriptional level. Field-collected tick nymphs were treated with JEF-290 conidia at 1 × 108 conidia/ml. In the early stage of infection with 2.5% mortality, the infected ticks were subjected to RNA sequencing, and non-infected ticks and fungal masses served as controls. Fungus and tick genes were mostly up-regulated at the early stage of infection. In the gene set enrichment analysis of the infecting fungus, catabolic processes that included lipids, phospholipids, and detoxification processes, the response to oxidative stress, and toxic substances were significantly up-regulated. In this fungal up-regulation, various lipase, antioxidant enzyme, and hydrolase genes were highly transcribed. The gene set enrichment analysis of the infected tick showed that many peptide synthesis processes including translation, peptide metabolism, ribonucleotide metabolism, and energy production processes that included ATP generation and ADP metabolism were significantly up-regulated. Structurally, mitochondria and ribosome subunit genes in ticks were highly transcribed to upregulate these processes. Together these results indicate that JEF-290 initiates process that infects the tick while the tick actively defends against the fungal attack. This work provides background to improve our understanding of the early stage of fungal infection in longhorned tick.

20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1599-1606, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113092

RESUMO

Purpose: Up to 20% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require re-admission within 30 days of discharge after hospitalization for acute exacerbations of the disease. These re-admissions can increase morbidity and the economic burden of COPD. Reducing re-admissions has become a policy target in many developed countries. We investigated the risk factors for COPD re-admissions among older adults with COPD. Patients and Methods: Data obtained from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort (NHIS-SC) in Korea were analyzed. The subjects included 558,147 patients aged ≥70 who had been admitted for COPD between 2013 and 2015. Re-admission was defined as being re-hospitalized within 30 days after discharge. The key variables selected from the database included income-based insurance contributions, demographical variables, information on inpatient medical services, types of healthcare facilities, and emergency time relevance index (TRI). The TRI is a regional medical-use analysis index that evaluates whether the capacity of the medical services available is appropriate for the medical needs of the target residents. Results: In 814 COPD re-admission cases among 4867 total admissions due to COPD in elderly subjects, higher re-admission rates were associated with male sex, admission to district hospitals, medical aid recipients, and a longer hospital stay. When additionally adjusting the TRI to identify the difference in re-admission rates due to medical service accessibility, the same results were found, except for the areas of residence. The TRI was lower in re-admission cases (odds ratio 0.991 [95% CI, 0.984‒0.998], P = 0.013). Conclusion: In this study, COPD re-admission rates among older adults were significantly associated with sex, length of hospital stay, and the type of hospital. The capacity of the medical services provided was also related to the COPD re-admission rate. Better access to appropriate emergency services is associated with reduction of COPD re-admission rates.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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