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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e352, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140589

RESUMO

Community-based health management policies are needed considering societal aging. We aimed to develop a transitional care model (TCM) program for patients with pneumonia, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. First, we conducted in-depth interviews with patients who were hospitalized, released, and readmitted for those three conditions to identify issues with the current hospitalization/discharge system and post-discharge processes. Next, we developed a new TCM program suited to the realities of the current medical environment. Interviews revealed problems including inadequate awareness of disease and health management; insufficient information exchange between patients, caregivers, and primary medical institutions; and absence/low usage of community-based care services. The investigation applying the new TCM program to patients and following up on readmission rates and life satisfaction after discharge is ongoing. Reviewing these results and conducting further studies in the future will allow improvements to the model.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202948

RESUMO

Growing evidence links prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) with reduced lung function and incidence of pulmonary diseases in infancy and childhood. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of how prenatal PM2.5 exposure affects the lungs are incompletely understood, which explains the lack of an ideal in vitro lung development model. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been successfully employed for in vitro developmental toxicity evaluations due to their unique ability to differentiate into any type of cell in the body. In this study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of diesel fine PM (dPM2.5) exposure during hPSC-derived alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) differentiation and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular alveolar organoid (AO) development. We found that dPM2.5 (50 and 100 µg/mL) treatment disturbed the AEC differentiation, accompanied by upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases and inflammation. Exposure to dPM2.5 also promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during AEC and AO development via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, while dPM2.5 had no effect on surfactant protein C expression in hPSC-derived AECs. Notably, we provided evidence, for the first time, that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor to mediate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry into target cells, and the cofactor transmembrane protease serine 2 were significantly upregulated in both hPSC-AECs and AOs treated with dPM2.5. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential alveolar development toxicity and the increase of SARS-Cov-2 susceptibility of PM2.5. Our findings suggest that an hPSC-based 2D and 3D alveolar induction system could be a useful in vitro platform for evaluating the adverse effects of environmental toxins and for virus research.

3.
Mycopathologia ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180204

RESUMO

With the increasing number of fungal infections and immunocompromised patients, rapid and accurate fungal identification is required in clinical microbiology laboratories. We evaluated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system, MicroIDSys Elite (ASTA Corp., South Korea) for the identification of medically important filamentous fungi. A total of 505 strains comprising 37 genera and 90 species collected from 11 Korean hospitals were sent to the microbiology laboratory of International St. Mary's Hospital. All isolates were tested using MicroIDSys Elite, and data were analyzed using the MoldDB v.1.22 database (ASTA). Correct identification rates were compared with the multigene sequencing results. MicroIDSys Elite correctly identified 86.5% (437/505) and 88.9% (449/505) of all tested isolates at the species and genus level, respectively. About 98.2% of Aspergillus isolates were identified at the species level, including cryptic and rare species of A. calidoustus, A. tamarii, A. lentulus, A. versicolor and A. aculeatus. MicroIDSys Elite identified 75.0% of basidiomycetes, including Schizophyllum commune, and 84.3% of the dermatophytes. It also distinguished Sprothrix globosa at the species level. The mean scores of total isolates corresponding to correct species identification were significantly higher than those obtained for genus-level identification (253.5 ± 50.7 vs. 168.6 ± 30.3, P < 0.001). MicroIDSys Elite showed high accuracy for the identification of filamentous fungi, including cryptic and rare Aspergillus species. It is suitable for use in clinical laboratories as a rapid and efficient tool for clinical mold identification. Further evaluations are recommended for MicroIDSys Elite as a rapid and efficient tool for the identification of medically important filamentous fungi.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared surgical outcomes between free plate Ahmed glaucoma valve (FPAGV) implantation without plate fixation and conventional Ahmed glaucoma valve (CAGV) implantation with plate fixation. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative case series study. Patients with refractory glaucoma who underwent FPAGV or CAGV implantation and were followed >1 year were enrolled consecutively. We reviewed medical records, including data on postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and postoperative complications. The success rate and early postoperative hypertensive phase were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients with CAGV implantations and 36 patients with FPAGV implantations were studied. The average follow-up periods were 23.3 ± 2.6 months (CAGV) and 22.8 ± 2.8 months (FPAGV; p = 0.424). The surgery time was significantly shorter in the FPAGV group than in the CAGV group (42.6 ± 4.1 vs. 47.3 ± 5.4 min; p < 0.001). Postoperative IOP at 1 week and 1 month were significantly lower in the FPAGV group than in the CAGV group (11.8 ± 3.6 and 14.0 ± 5.3 mmHg vs. 18.7 ± 5.5 and 22.2 ± 5.2 mmHg; p = 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively). An early postoperative hypertensive phase occurred in 62 eyes, and the frequency was greater in the CAGV group (50 eyes) than the FPAGV group (12 eyes; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups (p = 0.735). The success rate was 84.2% in the FPAGV group and 80.6% in the CAGV group 24 months after surgery (p = 0.367). CONCLUSION: FPAGV implantation was associated with a shorter surgery time, without any change in the extent of IOP reduction or complication rate. This procedure may be considered a good alternative for CAGV implantation in patients with refractory glaucoma.

5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008325, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180771

RESUMO

Eukaryotic genome sequencing and de novo assembly, once the exclusive domain of well-funded international consortia, have become increasingly affordable, thus fitting the budgets of individual research groups. Third-generation long-read DNA sequencing technologies are increasingly used, providing extensive genomic toolkits that were once reserved for a few select model organisms. Generating high-quality genome assemblies and annotations for many aquatic species still presents significant challenges due to their large genome sizes, complexity, and high chromosome numbers. Indeed, selecting the most appropriate sequencing and software platforms and annotation pipelines for a new genome project can be daunting because tools often only work in limited contexts. In genomics, generating a high-quality genome assembly/annotation has become an indispensable tool for better understanding the biology of any species. Herein, we state 12 steps to help researchers get started in genome projects by presenting guidelines that are broadly applicable (to any species), sustainable over time, and cover all aspects of genome assembly and annotation projects from start to finish. We review some commonly used approaches, including practical methods to extract high-quality DNA and choices for the best sequencing platforms and library preparations. In addition, we discuss the range of potential bioinformatics pipelines, including structural and functional annotations (e.g., transposable elements and repetitive sequences). This paper also includes information on how to build a wide community for a genome project, the importance of data management, and how to make the data and results Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) by submitting them to a public repository and sharing them with the research community.

6.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 105(4): e21747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029869

RESUMO

All living things on Earth experience various diseases such as those caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Insects are no exception to this rule, and fungi that cause disease in insects are called entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been developed as microbial insecticides and are used to control various pests. Generally, the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi is divided into the attachment of conidia, germination, penetration, growth, and generation of secondary infectious conidia. In each of these steps, that entomopathogenic fungi use genes in a complex manner (specific or diverse) has been shown by gene knock-out and RNA-sequencing analysis. In this review, the information mechanism of entomopathogenic fungi was divided into six steps: (1) attachment of conidia to host, (2) germination and appressorium, (3) penetration, (4) fungal growth in hemolymph, (5) conidia production on host, and (6) transmission and dispersal. The strategy used by the fungi in each step was described at the genetic level. In addition, an approach for studying the mode of action of the fungi is presented.

7.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 247, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution can contribute to the development and exacerbation of COPD. However, the influence of air pollution on objective COPD phenotypes, especially from imaging, is not well studied. We investigated the influence of long-term exposure to air pollution on lung function and quantitative imaging measurements in a Korean cohort of participants with and without COPD diagnosis. METHODS: Study participants (N = 457 including 296 COPD cases) were obtained from the COPD in Dusty Areas (CODA) cohort. Annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the participants' residential addresses using a spatial air pollution prediction model. All the participants underwent volumetric computerized tomography (CT) and spirometry measurements and completed survey questionnaires. We examined the associations of PM10 and NO2 with FVC, FEV1, emphysema index, and wall area percent, using linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, height, weight, and COPD medication. RESULTS: The age of study participants averaged 71.7 years. An interquartile range difference in annual PM10 exposure of 4.4 µg/m3 was associated with 0.13 L lower FVC (95% confidence interval (CI), - 0.22- -0.05, p = 0.003). Emphysema index (mean = 6.36) was higher by 1.13 (95% CI, 0.25-2.02, p = 0.012) and wall area percent (mean = 68.8) was higher by 1.04 (95% CI, 0.27-1.80, p = 0.008). Associations with imaging phenotypes  were not observed with NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM10 correlated with both lung function and COPD-relevant imaging phenotypes in a Korean cohort.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(18)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962132

RESUMO

A differential speed rolling (DSR) technique that provides capability of producing large-scale materials with fine grains and controlled texture in a continuous manner has attracted several researchers and industries. In this study, we tried to review the articles related to DSR and especially the high-ratio DSR (HRDSR) technique that is associated with a high speed ratio between the upper and lower rolls (≥2) and compare the change in microstructure and mechanical properties after HRDSR with the results obtained by using other severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques to see the potential of the HRDSR technique in enhancing the mechanical properties of metals and metal matrix composites. The reviewed results show that HRDSR is an important technique that can effectively refine the grains to micro or nano sizes and uniformly disperse the particles or reinforcement throughout the matrix, which helps extensively in improving ambient and superplastic mechanical properties of various metals and alloys.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899146

RESUMO

This study is aimed to examine the association between macronutrient intake and lung function in healthy adults (n = 5880) using the Ansan-Ansung cohort study. To identify the index of lung function, we used the percentage difference of predicted Forced Expiratory Volume (%FEV1_diff) between baseline and follow-up. Based on the median %FEV1_diff, subjects were classified by two groups as "decreased vs. unchanged/improved". The dietary macronutrients were estimated and validated using the food-frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association after adjusting for confounders. Advanced analysis examined the association after stratifying by age and obesity. The average of %FEV1 is 114.1 and 112.5 at baseline and follow-up, respectively. The positive association of protein and fiber intake with lung function was observed in men. Low fat and high carbohydrate intake decreased the lung function in women only. After stratification by age, the association of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake with lung function was observed in young men and old women only. Otherwise, the association of protein and fiber with lung function was influenced by abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the lung function was positively associated with high protein and fat intake, but was negatively associated with high carbohydrate intake, which could be influenced by age and obesity.

10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(10): 8317-8324, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981011

RESUMO

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in fish species, including in the olive flounder. Although it is well established that female olive flounders acquire more bone mass than males, the underlying mechanism and timing of this SSD remains controversial. Here, the gene expression profiles of adult male and female olive flounder fish were explored to better understand the SSD mechanisms. Using RNA sequencing, a total of 4784 sex-biased differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fin with asymptotic growth after maturity were identified, among which growth-related factors were found. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment studies were performed to predict potential SSD-related genes and their functions. According to functional analysis, negative regulation of cell proliferation was significantly enriched in males, and anabolism related genes were highly expressed in females. In addition, pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that five sexual dimorphism-related candidate genes (bambia, smurf1, dvl2, cul1a, and dvl3) were enriched in osteogenesis-contributing pathways. These results suggest that these five candidate genes may be relevant for skeletal development in olive flounders. Altogether, this study adds new knowledge for a better understanding of SSD-related growth traits in olive flounder, which can be used for enhancing aquaculture productivity with reduced production costs.

11.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13217-13231, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969647

RESUMO

Male infertility is a multifactorial condition. Unexplained male infertility is often caused by spermatogenesis dysfunction. Knockout of Pin1, an important regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation, produces male infertility phenotypes such as testicular immaturity and azoospermia with spermatogonia depletion and blood-testis barrier (BTB) dysfunction. Gene therapy has been clinically considered for the treatment of male infertility, but it is not preferred because of the risks of adverse effects in germ cells. Direct intracellular protein delivery using nanoparticles is considered an effective alternative to gene therapy; however, in vivo testicular protein delivery remains a pressing challenge. Here, we investigated the direct intracellular protein delivery strategy using a fibroin nanoparticle-encapsulated cationic lipid complex (Fibroplex) to restore intratesticular PIN1. Local intratesticular delivery of PIN1 via Fibroplex in Pin1 knockout testes produced fertile mice, achieving recovery from the infertile phenotypes. Mechanistically, PIN1-loaded Fibroplex was successfully delivered into testicular cells, including spermatogonial cells and Sertoli cells, and the sustained release of PIN1 restored the gene expression required for the proliferation of spermatogonial cells and BTB integrity in Pin1 knockout testes. Collectively, testicular PIN1 protein delivery using Fibroplex might be an effective strategy for treating male infertility.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(29): eabb1539, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832638

RESUMO

The recent observation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) without notable magnetization in antiferromagnets has suggested that ferromagnetic ordering is not a necessary condition. Thus, recent theoretical studies have proposed that higher-rank magnetic multipoles formed by clusters of spins (cluster multipoles) can generate the AHE without magnetization. Despite such an intriguing proposal, controlling the unconventional AHE by inducing these cluster multipoles has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that strain can manipulate the hidden Berry curvature effect by inducing the higher-rank cluster multipoles in spin-orbit-coupled antiferromagnets. Observing the large AHE on fully strained antiferromagnetic Nd2Ir2O7 thin films, we prove that strain-induced cluster T 1-octupoles are the only source of observed AHE. Our results provide a previously unidentified pathway for generating the unconventional AHE via strain-induced magnetic structures and establish a platform for exploring undiscovered topological phenomena via strain in correlated materials.

13.
Exp Mol Med ; 52(8): 1178-1184, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788656

RESUMO

RUNX2 is a master transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation. RUNX2 expression in the bone and osteogenic front of a suture is crucial for cranial suture closure and membranous bone morphogenesis. In this manner, the regulation of RUNX2 is precisely controlled by multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs) mediated by the stepwise recruitment of multiple enzymes. Genetic defects in RUNX2 itself or in its PTM regulatory pathways result in craniofacial malformations. Haploinsufficiency in RUNX2 causes cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), which is characterized by open fontanelle and hypoplastic clavicles. In contrast, gain-of-function mutations in FGFRs, which are known upstream stimulating signals of RUNX2 activity, cause craniosynostosis (CS) characterized by premature suture obliteration. The identification of these PTM cascades could suggest suitable drug targets for RUNX2 regulation. In this review, we will focus on the mechanism of RUNX2 regulation mediated by PTMs, such as phosphorylation, prolyl isomerization, acetylation, and ubiquitination, and we will summarize the therapeutics associated with each PTM enzyme for the treatment of congenital cranial suture anomalies.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13075, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753590

RESUMO

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, more than 25% of COPD patients are non-smokers, and gene-by-smoking interactions are expected to affect COPD onset. We aimed to identify the common genetic variants interacting with pack-years of smoking on FEV1/FVC ratios in individuals with normal lung function. A genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) on FEV1/FVC was performed for individuals with FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 70 in the Korea Associated Resource cohort data, and significant SNPs were validated using data from two other Korean cohorts. The GWIS revealed that rs10947231 and rs8192575 met genome-wide significant levels; For [Formula: see text] the likelihood ratio (LR) test was conducted, and its P values, PLR, for rs10947231 and rs8192575 were 2.23 × 10-12 and 1.18 × 10-8, respectively. Interaction between rs8192575 and smoking is significantly replicated with two additional data (PINT = 0.0454, 0.0131). Expression quantitative trait loci, topologically associated domains, and PrediXcan analyses revealed that rs8192575 is significantly associated with AGER expression. SNPs on the 6p21 region are associated with FEV1/FVC, and the effect of smoking on FEV1/FVC differs among the associated genotypes.

15.
Eur Radiol ; 30(12): 6779-6787, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study determined the effect of dose reduction and kernel selection on quantifying emphysema using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and evaluated the efficiency of a deep learning-based kernel conversion technique in normalizing kernels for emphysema quantification. METHODS: A sample of 131 participants underwent LDCT and standard-dose computed tomography (SDCT) at 1- to 2-year intervals. LDCT images were reconstructed with B31f and B50f kernels, and SDCT images were reconstructed with B30f kernels. A deep learning model was used to convert the LDCT image from a B50f kernel to a B31f kernel. Emphysema indices (EIs), lung attenuation at 15th percentile (perc15), and mean lung density (MLD) were calculated. Comparisons among the different kernel types for both LDCT and SDCT were performed using Friedman's test and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: All values of LDCT B50f were significantly different compared with the values of LDCT B31f and SDCT B30f (p < 0.05). Although there was a statistical difference, the variation of the values of LDCT B50f significantly decreased after kernel normalization. The 95% limits of agreement between the SDCT and LDCT kernels (B31f and converted B50f) ranged from - 2.9 to 4.3% and from - 3.2 to 4.4%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in EIs and perc15 between SDCT and LDCT converted B50f in the non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The deep learning-based CT kernel conversion of sharp kernel in LDCT significantly reduced variation in emphysema quantification, and could be used for emphysema quantification. KEY POINTS: • Low-dose computed tomography with smooth kernel showed adequate performance in quantifying emphysema compared with standard-dose CT. • Emphysema quantification is affected by kernel selection and the application of a sharp kernel resulted in a significant overestimation of emphysema. • Deep learning-based kernel normalization of sharp kernel significantly reduced variation in emphysema quantification.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
17.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 133, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dust exposure has been reported as a risk factor of pulmonary disease, leading to alterations of segmental airways and parenchymal lungs. This study aims to investigate alterations of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based airway structural and functional metrics due to cement-dust exposure. METHODS: To reduce confounding factors, subjects with normal spirometry without fibrosis, asthma and pneumonia histories were only selected, and a propensity score matching was applied to match age, sex, height, smoking status, and pack-years. Thus, from a larger data set (N = 609), only 41 cement dust-exposed subjects were compared with 164 non-cement dust-exposed subjects. QCT imaging metrics of airway hydraulic diameter (Dh), wall thickness (WT), and bifurcation angle (θ) were extracted at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC), along with their deformation ratios between TLC and FRC. RESULTS: In TLC scan, dust-exposed subjects showed a decrease of Dh (airway narrowing) especially at lower-lobes (p < 0.05), an increase of WT (wall thickening) at all segmental airways (p < 0.05), and an alteration of θ at most of the central airways (p < 0.001) compared with non-dust-exposed subjects. Furthermore, dust-exposed subjects had smaller deformation ratios of WT at the segmental airways (p < 0.05) and θ at the right main bronchi and left main bronchi (p < 0.01), indicating airway stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Dust-exposed subjects with normal spirometry demonstrated airway narrowing at lower-lobes, wall thickening at all segmental airways, a different bifurcation angle at central airways, and a loss of airway wall elasticity at lower-lobes. The airway structural alterations may indicate different airway pathophysiology due to cement dusts.

19.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 140(7): 553-557, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406274

RESUMO

Background: Palatal myoclonic tinnitus (PMT) is a rare otological condition caused by rhythmic contractions of soft palate muscles. Due to its rarity, only a few case series studies have been reported in the literature at the present time.Aims: This large case series study reviews treatment outcomes of PMT patients over the past 15 years based on clinical characteristics.Materials and methods: Between the year 2003 and 2018, 54 patients with a diagnosis of PMT were assessed. Clinical characteristics, audiological findings, psychological status, and other relevant medical history were thoroughly reviewed. Response to various treatment modalities were retrospectively analyzed.Results: The mean age of enrolled patients was 29.0 ± 16.4 years, with female gender predominance. All of the patients complained of 'clicky' sounding tinnitus. Twenty-nine patients had comorbid tinnitus of other type. Reassurance and behavior therapy was sufficient for young patients. Medication was effective in 44.4% of the patients. Botulinum toxin injection in the palate led to complete resolution of symptoms in a majority of intractable PMT patients.Conclusions and significance: Management of PMT should be customized according to the individual clinical characteristics of the patients. This study may provide insightful information to establish optimal treatment modalities for PMT.

20.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336055

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Lung function is an objective indicator of diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases. Many common genetic variants have been associated with lung function in multiple ethnic populations. We looked for coding variants associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) in the Korean general population. Methods: We carried out exome array analysis and lung function measurements of the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in 7,524 individuals of the Korean population. We evaluated single variants with minor allele frequency greater than 0.5%. We performed look-ups for candidate coding variants associations in the UK Biobank, SpiroMeta, and CHARGE consortia. Results: We identified coding variants in the SMIM29 (C6orf1) (p = 1.2 × 10-5) and HMGA1 locus on chromosome 6p21, the GIT2 (p = 6.5 × 10-5) locus on chromosome 12q24, and the ARHGEF40 (p = 9.9 × 10-5) locus on chromosome 14q11 as having a significant association with lung function (FEV1). We also confirmed a previously reported association with lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the FAM13A (p = 4.54 × 10-6) locus on chromosome 4q22, in TNXB (p = 1.30 × 10-6) and in AGER (p = 1.09 × 10-8) locus on chromosome 6p21. Conclusions: Our exome array analysis identified that several protein coding variants were associated with lung function in the Korean population. Common coding variants in SMIM29 (C6orf1), HMGA1, GIT2, FAM13A, TNXB, AGER and low-frequency variant in ARHGEF40 potentially affect lung function, which warrant further study.

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