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1.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2021080, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645204

RESUMO

Objectives: Glycemic control is essential to prevent severe complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the association between grip strength and glycemic control in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2,498 participants aged over 19 years without a history of cardiovascular disease and cancer were selected for analysis. Grip strength was assessed using a handheld dynamometer and was represented as age- and sex-specific tertiles. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of glycemic control according to the grip strength tertiles. Results: Our results showed that significant ORs of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45-0.93) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.52-0.99) were noted in the middle and lower groups of grip strength, respectively. After further adjustment for insulin use, the glycemic control in the lowest tertile of grip strength was 33% (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.97) lower compared to the highest tertile. Conclusion: In conclusion, lower grip strength was associated with poor glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially in men. However, further studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship between grip strength and glycemic control.

2.
BMB Rep ; 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488924

RESUMO

Melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer, exhibits a high risk of metastasis. Although chemotherapeutic treatment for metastatic melanoma improves disease outcome and patient survival, some patients exhibit resistance or toxicity to the drug treatment regime. OTUB1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme overexpressed in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibiting OTUB1 expression on melanoma-cell proliferation and viability and identified the underlying molecular mechanism of action of OTUB1. We did endogenous OTUB1 knockdown in melanoma cells using short interfering RNA, and assessed the resulting phenotypes via MTT assays, Western blotting, and cell-cycle analysis. We identified differentially expressed genes between OTUB1-knockdown cells and control cells using RNA sequencing and confirmed them via Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we investigated the involvement of apoptotic and cell survival signaling pathways upon OTUB1 depletion. OTUB1 depletion in melanoma cells decreased cell viability and caused simultaneous accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase, indicating an increase in the apoptotic-cell population. RNA sequencing of OTUB1-knockdown cells revealed an increase in the levels of the apoptosis-inducing protein TRAIL. Additionally, OTUB1-knockdown cells exhibited increased sensitivity to PLX4032, a BRAF inhibitor, implying that OTUB1 and BRAF act collectively in regulating apoptosis. Taken together, our findings show that OTUB1 induces apoptosis of melanoma cells in vitro, likely by upregulating TRAIL, and suggest that approaches targeting OTUB1 can be developed to provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating melanoma.

3.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021056, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the stepping cadence patterns in Korean adults by using objectively measured accelerometer data to analyze the time spent in each cadence category by sex and age. METHODS: During the 2014-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1,703 males and females aged 19-64 years provided at least 1 valid day of data (wearing an accelerometer ≥ 10 hr/d). The mean cumulative time and percentage per day in 8 cadence categories (0, 1-19, 20-29, 30-59, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 steps/min) by sex and age group were calculated. RESULTS: Cumulative time and percentage per day decreased across the incremental cadence categories. Participants spent 360.08± 2.56 min/d in the non-movement cadence category and 361.50± 2.28 min/d in the incidental movement cadence category. However, they spent only about 18.1 min/d (2.1%) at ≥ 100 steps/min. Males spent significantly more time in the cadence categories of sporadic movement, purposeful steps, slow walking, and medium walking, but the other categories, except for brisk walking, had higher values in females (p< 0.001). The older age group spent less time in non-movement cadence categories, and the youngest and oldest groups spent more time at a higher cadence (≥ 100 steps/min) than the other age groups. Similar patterns were found in a subgroup analysis by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Korean adults spent most of their time at a low cadence and only a few minutes at a high cadence (≥100 steps/min); this trend was consistent across sex and age groups.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26823, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397844

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Low specificity and operator dependency are the main problems of breast ultrasound (US) screening. We investigated the added value of deep learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (S-Detect) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to B-mode US for evaluation of breast masses detected by screening US.Between February 2018 and June 2019, B-mode US, S-Detect, and SWE were prospectively obtained for 156 screening US-detected breast masses in 146 women before undergoing US-guided biopsy. S-Detect was applied for the representative B-mode US image, and quantitative elasticity was measured for SWE. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment category was assigned for the datasets of B-mode US alone, B-mode US plus S-Detect, and B-mode US plus SWE by 3 radiologists with varied experience in breast imaging. Area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for the 3 datasets were compared using Delong's method and McNemar test.Of 156 masses, 10 (6%) were malignant and 146 (94%) were benign. Compared to B-mode US alone, the addition of S-Detect increased the specificity from 8%-9% to 31%-71% and the AUC from 0.541-0.545 to 0.658-0.803 in all radiologists (All P < .001). The addition of SWE to B-mode US also increased the specificity from 8%-9% to 41%-75% and the AUC from 0.541-0.545 to 0.709-0.823 in all radiologists (All P < .001). There was no significant loss in sensitivity when either S-Detect or SWE were added to B-mode US.Adding S-Detect or SWE to B-mode US improved the specificity and AUC without loss of sensitivity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between relative grip strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently and in combination with body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults. METHODS: The cross-sectional study includes 2,811 men and women (age 40 to 92 years old) with no history of heart disease, stroke, or cancer. Relative grip strength was measured by a handheld dynamometer and calculated by dividing absolute grip strength by body weight. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of T2DM by sex-specific quintiles of relative grip strength. In a joint analysis, participants were classified into 4 groups: "weak (lowest 20% quintile one) and normal weight (BMI <25.0 kg/m2)", "weak and overweight/obese (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2)", "strong (upper 80% four quintiles) and normal weight" or "strong and overweight/obese". RESULTS: Among the 2,811 participants, 371 were identified as having T2DM. Compared with the lowest quintile of relative grip strength (weakest), the ORs (95% CIs) of T2DM were 0.73 (0.53-1.02), 0.68 (0.48-0.97), 0.72 (0.50-1.03), and 0.48 (0.32-0.74) in upper quintiles two, three, four, and five, respectively, after adjusting for BMI and other potential confounders. In the joint analysis, compared with the "weak and overweight/obese" reference group, the odds of T2DM [ORs (95% CIs)] was lower in the "strong and overweight/obese" group [0.65 (0.46-0.92)] and the "strong and normal weight" group [0.49 (0.35-0.67)], after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, greater relative grip strength was associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM independent of BMI in Korean adults. Additional prospective studies are needed to determine whether a causal association exists between relative grip strength and T2DM prevalence considering BMI.

6.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(10): 2344-2353.e7, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836179

RESUMO

With aging, the skin becomes thin and drastically loses collagen. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), also known as superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3, is the major SOD in the extracellular matrix of the tissues and is well-known to maintain the reduction‒oxidation homeostasis and matrix components of such tissues. However, the role of EC-SOD in aging-associated reductions of skin thickness and collagen production is not well-studied. In this study, we compared the histological differences in the dorsal skin of EC-SOD‒overexpressing transgenic mice (Sod3+/+) of different age groups with that in wild-type mice and also determined the underlying signaling mechanism. Our data showed that the skin thickness in Sod3+/+ mice significantly increased with aging compared with that in wild-type male mice. Furthermore, Sod3+/+ mice had promoted collagen production through the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in aged mice. Interestingly, subcutaneous injection of adeno-associated virus‒overexpressing EC-SOD exhibited increased skin thickness and collagen expression. Furthermore, combined recombinant EC-SOD and dihydrotestosterone treatment synergistically elevated collagen production through the activation of TGFß in human dermal fibroblasts. Altogether, these results showed that EC-SOD prevents skin aging by promoting collagen production in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, we propose that EC-SOD may be a potential therapeutic target for antiaging in the skin.

7.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(6): 867-879, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the screening performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and combined mammography and ultrasound (US) in detecting clinically occult contralateral breast cancer in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2017 and July 2018, 1148 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 53.2 ± 10.8 years) with unilateral breast cancer and no clinical abnormalities in the contralateral breast underwent 3T MRI, digital mammography, and radiologist-performed whole-breast US. In this retrospective study, three radiologists independently and blindly reviewed all DW MR images (b = 1000 s/mm² and apparent diffusion coefficient map) of the contralateral breast and assigned a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category. For combined mammography and US evaluation, prospectively assessed results were used. Using histopathology or 1-year follow-up as the reference standard, cancer detection rate and the patient percentage with cancers detected among all women recommended for tissue diagnosis (positive predictive value; PPV2) were compared. RESULTS: Of the 30 cases of clinically occult contralateral cancers (13 invasive and 17 ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]), DW MRI detected 23 (76.7%) cases (11 invasive and 12 DCIS), whereas combined mammography and US detected 12 (40.0%, five invasive and seven DCIS) cases. All cancers detected by combined mammography and US, except two DCIS cases, were detected by DW MRI. The cancer detection rate of DW MRI (2.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%, 3.0%) was higher than that of combined mammography and US (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 1.8%; p = 0.009). DW MRI showed higher PPV2 (42.1%; 95% CI: 26.3%, 59.2%) than combined mammography and US (18.5%; 95% CI: 9.9%, 30.0%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, DW MRI detected significantly more contralateral breast cancers with fewer biopsy recommendations than combined mammography and US.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799875

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the axle torque (AT) of a tractor using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on a relatively low-cost sensor. ANN has proven to be useful in the case of nonlinear analysis, and it can be applied to consider nonlinear variables such as soil characteristics, unlike studies that only consider tractor major parameters, thus model performance and its implementation can be extended to a wider range. In this study, ANN-based models were compared with multiple linear regression (MLR)-based models for performance verification. The main input data were tractor engine parameters, major tractor parameters, and soil physical properties. Data of soil physical properties (i.e., soil moisture content and cone index) and major tractor parameters (i.e., engine torque, engine speed, specific fuel consumption, travel speed, tillage depth, and slip ratio) were collected during a tractor field experiment in four Korean paddy fields. The collected soil physical properties and major tractor parameter data were used to estimate the AT of the tractor by the MLR- and ANN-based models: 250 data points were used for developing and training the model were used, the 50 remaining data points were used to test the model estimation. The AT estimated with the developed MLR- and ANN-based models showed agreement with actual measured AT, with the R2 value ranging from 0.825 to 0.851 and from 0.857 to 0.904, respectively. These results suggest that the developed models are reliable in estimating tractor AT, while the ANN-based model showed better performance than the MLR-based model. This study can provide useful results as a simple method using ANNs based on relatively inexpensive sensors that can replace the existing complex tractor AT measurement method is emphasized.

9.
Nanoscale ; 13(17): 8275-8282, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890603

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites as a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications due to their superior physical properties. Despite this, most of the reported perovskite devices based on polycrystalline thin films suffer immensely from poor stability and high trap density owing to grain boundaries limiting their performance. Perovskite single crystal structures have been recently explored to construct stable devices and reduce the trap density compared to their thin-film counterparts. We present a novel method of growing sizable CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals based on the high solubility characteristic of hybrid perovskites at low temperatures within inverse temperature crystallization. We compared both the crystallinity of perovskite single crystal structures and optoelectronic charge transport of single crystal photodetectors as a function of dissolution temperature. The performance of the photodetector fabricated with our large-scaled single crystal with high quality demonstrated low trap density, high mobility, and high photoresponse.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6810, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762711

RESUMO

TiO2 is the most widely used material for the electron transport layers (ETLs) because it is characterized by proper band alignment with light absorbers, adequate optical transmittance, and high electron mobility. There are two thermodynamically stable crystal phases of TiO2: anatase and rutile. However, understanding which phase is more effective as the ETL is still required. In this paper, we demonstrate the different effects of using epitaxial anatase TiO2 and epitaxial rutile TiO2 (both grown using pulsed laser deposition) as the ETL material on the electrical and optical properties. Epitaxial Nb-doped TiO2 layers were used as the common electrode material for the both epitaxial ETLs for which the crystalline structural analysis revealed high crystalline qualities and good coherency for both phases. By analyzing the recombination kinetics, the anatase phase shows a preferable performance in comparison with the rutile phase, although both epitaxial phases show remarkably reduced extrinsic recombination properties, such as trap-assisted recombination. This study demonstrates not only a better electron transporting performance of anatase phase but also reduced extrinsic recombination through epitaxy growth.

11.
J Exerc Sci Fit ; 19(3): 158-165, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737952

RESUMO

Background/objective: This study investigated the effects of core strengthening exercise (CSE) on colon transit time (CTT) in young adult women. Methods: Eighty women (mean age 23 years) were enrolled and randomly assigned to participate in a 12-week, instructor-led group CSE program (CSE group [CSEG]; n = 40) or to maintain usual daily activities (control group [CG]; n = 40). 27 participants in the CSEG and 21 participants in the CG completed the study. The CSE program consisted of 60-min sessions, two days a week, for 12 weeks. CTT was measured using a multiple marker technique with a radio-opaque marker. Data were analyzed with a 2-way, repeated measures ANCOVA. Results: After the 12-week intervention, The CSEG showed significant improvements in trunk flexor power (P = 0.031), peak torque (P = 0.032), and endurance (P = 0.011). The CSEG also showed improvements in the sit-up (P < 0.001) and side-step (P = 0.043) tests compared to the CG. While there was not a significant group difference between the CSEG and CG, left CTT (P = 0.021) and total CTT (P = 0.006) decreased significantly within the CSEG group only. Conclusion: The 12-week CSE program increased abdominal strength but did not improve CTT compared to the control group. This study also provides preliminary data that CSE may reduce left CTT and total CTT, but additional clinical trials are needed.

12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546322

RESUMO

Genetic screens using CRISPR/Cas9 have been exploited to discover host-virus interactions. These screens have identified viral dependencies on host proteins during their life cycle and potential antiviral strategies. The acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3) was identified as an essential host factor for the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Other groups have also investigated the role of ACBD3 as a host factor for diverse enteroviruses in cultured cells. However, it has not been tested if ACBD3 is required in the animal model of CVB3 infection. Owing to embryonic lethality, conventional knockout mice were not available for in vivo study. As an alternative approach, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated CRISPR genome editing to generate mice that lacked ACBD3 within the pancreas, the major target organ for CVB3. Delivery of sgRNAs using self-complementary (sc) AAV8 efficiently induced a loss-of-function mutation in the pancreas of the Cas9 knock-in mice. Loss of ACBD3 in the pancreas resulted in a 100-fold reduction in the CVB3 titer within the pancreas and a noticeable reduction in viral protein expression. These results indicate a crucial function of ACBD3 in CVB3 infection in vivo. AAV-mediated CRISPR genome editing may be applicable to many in vivo studies on the virus-host interaction and identify a novel target for antiviral therapeutics.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/genética , Dependovirus/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 186(2): 463-473, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389406

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate clinical and imaging features associated with a high nodal burden (≥ 3 metastatic lymph nodes [LNs]) and compare diagnostic performance of US and MRI in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). METHODS: Retrospective search revealed 239 patients with ILC and 999 with IDC who underwent preoperative US and MRI between January 2016 and June 2019. Patients with ILC were propensity-score-matched with patients with IDC. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with ≥ 3 metastatic LNs. RESULTS: 412 patients (206 ILC and 206 IDC) were evaluated. Of all patients with ILC, 27.2% (56/206) were node-positive and 7.8% (16/206) showed a high nodal burden. In multivariate analysis, the clinical N stage was the only independent factor associated with a high nodal burden in patients with IDC (odds ratio [OR] 6.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-24.73; P = 0.009), but not in patients with ILC. Increased cortical thickness with loss of fatty hilum on US was associated with a high nodal burden in patients with ILC (OR 58.40; 95% CI 5.09-669.71; P = 0.001) and IDC (OR 24.14; 95% CI 3.52-165.37; P = 0.001), while suspicious LN findings at MRI were independently associated with a high nodal burden in ILC only (OR 13.94; 95% CI 2.61-74.39; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In patients with ILC, MRI findings of suspicious LNs were helpful to predict a high nodal disease burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama , Carcinoma Lobular , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 14(2): 31, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414912

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) is stably present in plasma. It has been reported that miRNA could be used for detecting cancer. Circulating miRNAs are being increasingly recognized as powerful biomarkers in a number of different pathologies, including in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to establish and validate miRNA sets that are useful for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Specifically, the current study intended to determine whether miRNA biomarkers were tumor-specific and to statistically verify whether circulating miRNA analysis could be used for breast cancer diagnosis. In the present study, a total of nine candidate miRNA biomarkers were selected by examining reference miRNAs associated with the generation and progression of breast cancer to identify novel miRNAs that could be used to detect early breast cancer. A total of 226 plasma samples from patients with breast cancer were used. In addition, 146 plasma healthy samples were used as non-cancer controls. These samples were divided into training and validation cohorts. The training cohort was used to identify a combination of miRNA that could detect breast cancer. The validation cohort was used to validate this combination of miRNA. Total RNAs were isolated from collected samples. A total of 9 miRNAs were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. A total of nine candidate miRNA expression levels were compared between patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. It was indicated that combinations of two or more of the nine miRNAs could detect breast cancer with higher accuracy than the use of a single biomarker. As a representative example, combinations of four miRNAs (miR-1246+miR-206+miR-24+miR-373) of the nine miRNAs had a sensitivity of 98%, a specificity of 96% and an accuracy of 97% for breast cancer detection in the validation cohort. The results of the present study suggest that multiple miRNAs could be used as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of breast cancer. These biomarkers are expected to overcome limitations of mammography when used as an auxiliary diagnosis of mammography.

15.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol ; 14(2): 225-234, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCs) are frequently diagnosed at the locoregional advanced stage (stage IVa), but controversy remains regarding whether stage IVa HSNCs should be treated with upfront surgery or definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage IVa HNSC treated primarily by surgery with curative intent with/without (neo)adjuvant treatment (surgery group) versus those treated primarily with CRT (CRT group). METHODS: We reviewed data of 1,033 patients with stage IVa HNSC treated with curative intent at 17 cancer centers between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: Among 1,033 patients, 765 (74.1%) received upfront surgery and 268 (25.9%) received CRT. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 64.4% and 62.0% in the surgery group and 49.5% and 45.4% in the CRT group, respectively. In multivariate analyses, OS and DFS were better in the surgery group than in the CRT group (odds ratio [OR] for death, 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592-0.981; OR for recurrence, 0.628; 95% CI, 0.492-0.802). In subgroup analyses, the OS and DFS of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were better in the surgery group (OR for death, 0.548; 95% CI, 0.341-0.879; OR for recurrence, 0.598; 95% CI, 0.377-0.948). In the surgery group, patients with laryngeal cancer showed better OS (OR for death, 0.432; 95% CI, 0.211-0.882), while those with hypopharyngeal cancer DFS was improved (OR for recurrence, 0.506; 95% CI, 0.328-0.780). CONCLUSION: A survival benefit from surgery may be achieved even in patients with stage IVa HNSC, particularly those with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Surgery led to a reduction in the recurrence rate in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353195

RESUMO

The objective of this study is the simulation of the most affected design factors and variables of the clutch pack for the power-shift transmission (PST) of a tractor based measured data. The simulation model, the mathematical model of sliding velocity, a moment of inertia, and clutch engagement pressure of clutch pack were developed using the powertrain and configurations of the real PST tractor. In this study, the sensor fusion method was used to precisely measure the proportional valve pressure by test bench, which was applied to the simulation model. The clutch engagement times were found 1.20 s at all temperatures for determined factors. The engagement pressures have a significant difference at various temperatures (25 to 100 °C) of the hydraulic oils after the 1.20 s but the most affected factors were satisfied with the simulation conditions that ensure the clutch engagement on time. Finally, this sensor fusion method is believed to be helpful in realizing precision agriculture through minimization of power loss and maximum energy efficiency of tractors.

17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238520

RESUMO

The immunoregulatory abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in various autoimmune and allergic diseases. However, the therapeutic benefits observed in preclinical settings have not been reproducible in clinical trials. This discrepancy is due to insufficient efficacy of MSCs in harsh microenvironments, as well as batch-dependent variability in potency. Therefore, to achieve more beneficial and uniform outcomes, novel strategies are required to potentiate the therapeutic effect of MSCs. One of simple strategies to augment cellular function is genetic manipulation. Several studies showed that transduction of antioxidant enzyme into cells can increase anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we evaluated the immunoregulatory abilities of MSCs introduced with extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in the present study. SOD3-overexpressed MSCs (SOD3-MSCs) reduced the symptoms of murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like inflammation, as well as the differentiation and activation of various immune cells involved in AD progression. Interestingly, extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from SOD3-MSCs delivered SOD3 protein. EVs carrying SOD3 also exerted improved therapeutic efficacy, as observed in their parent cells. These results suggest that MSCs transduced with SOD3, an antioxidant enzyme, as well as EVs isolated from modified cells, might be developed as a promising cell-based therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53134-53140, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179499

RESUMO

Temperature-independent magnetoresistance (TIMR) has been studied for applications in magnetic field sensors operating in wide temperature ranges. Graphene is considered as one of the best candidates for achieving nonsaturating and large TIMR through engineering disorders. Nevertheless, large TIMR has not been achieved in disordered graphene with intrinsic defects, such as chemical doping and atomic dislocations. In this work, by introducing extrinsic defects, we realize nonsaturating and large TIMR in monolayer graphene transferred on a BiFeO3 nanoisland array (G/BFO-NIA). Furthermore, the G/BFO-NIA device exhibits a significantly larger MR (∼250% under 9 T) than other materials without gating operation, demonstrating its application feasibility. It is shown that the large MR is a result of the coexistence of electrons and holes with almost the same density, and the observed TIMR originates from the temperature dependence of carrier transport in graphene and of the dielectric property of BFO-NIA.

19.
Radiol Case Rep ; 15(9): 1428-1432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642011

RESUMO

Surgical resection is usually indicated for symptomatic mediastinal tumors. However, surgery potentially increases postoperative complications and hospitalization length in patients who are elderly, in poor general condition, or have tumors located in the thoracic inlet. We present an 84-year-old female with progressive cough and dyspnea for 1 week. Simple radiogram and computed tomography scan showed a large superior mediastinal cyst, sized 8.3 × 6.1 × 4.6 cm, narrowing the trachea. Ultrasonography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy using alcohol and bleomycin was applied a single time. The patient was discharged 2 days later without complication, and she did not develop symptoms over a 6-year period. Percutaneous sclerotherapy, especially in patients who are elderly or in poor general condition, could be an effective and reliable tool for cyst management.

20.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(5): 1336-1350, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microRNAs (miRNAs) down-regulated in aged mouse skeletal muscle were mainly clustered within the delta-like homologue 1 and the type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dlk1-Dio3) genomic region. Although clustered miRNAs are coexpressed and regulate multiple targets in a specific signalling pathway, the function of miRNAs in the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster in muscle aging is largely unknown. We aimed to ascertain whether these miRNAs play a common role to regulate age-related muscle atrophy. METHODS: To examine anti-atrophic effect of miRNAs, we individually transfected 42 miRNA mimics in fully differentiated myotubes and analysed their diameters. The luciferase reporter assay using target 3' untranslated region (UTR) and RNA pull-down assay were employed to ascertain the target predicted by the TargetScan algorithm. To investigate the therapeutic potential of the miRNAs in vivo, we generated adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 9 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (AAV9-GFP) bearing miR-376c-3p and infected it into the tibialis anterior muscle of old mice. We performed morphometric analysis and measured ex vivo isometric force using a force transducer. Human gluteus maximus muscle tissues (ages ranging from 25 to 80 years) were used to investigate expression levels of the conserved miRNAs in the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster. RESULTS: We found that the majority of miRNAs (33 out of 42 tested) in the cluster induced anti-atrophic phenotypes in fully differentiated myotubes with increasing their diameters. Eighteen of these miRNAs, eight of which are conserved in humans, harboured predicted binding sites in the 3' UTR of muscle atrophy gene-1 (Atrogin-1) encoding a muscle-specific E3 ligase. Direct interactions were identified between these miRNAs and the 3' UTR of Atrogin-1, leading to repression of Atrogin-1 and thereby induction of eIF3f protein content, in both human and mouse skeletal muscle cells. Intramuscular delivery of AAV9 expressing miR-376c-3p, one of the most effective miRNAs in myotube thickening, dramatically ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy and improved muscle function, including isometric force, twitch force, and fatigue resistance in old mice. Consistent with our findings in mice, the expression of miRNAs in the cluster was significantly down-regulated in human muscle from individuals > 50 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that genetic intervention using a muscle-directed miRNA delivery system has therapeutic efficacy in preventing Atrogin-1-mediated muscle atrophy in sarcopenia.

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