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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 187, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is widely used as a first-line noninvasive modality that frequently exhibits no or nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in clinical practice, along with abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry on echocardiography. However, the combined prognostic value of these findings has not been well elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of abnormal LV geometry in individuals with no or nonobstructive CAD. METHODS: A total of 5806 subjects with no CAD or nonobstructive CAD (luminal narrowing < 50%) on CCTA were included in the study. The major exclusion criteria were structural heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Abnormal LV geometry on echocardiography was defined as LV mass index > 95 g/m2 in women and > 115 g/m2 in men, and/or relative wall thickness > 0.42. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 5803 subjects without significant obstructive CAD (age, 56.6 ± 8.87 years; men, 3884 [66.9%]). Of them, 4045 (69.7%) subjects had normal LV geometry and 1758 (30.3%) had abnormal LV geometry respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 1.48 years, 84 (1.44%) subjects died in the study population. Of these, 56 subjects were from the normal LV geometry group (1.24%) and 28 were from the abnormal LV geometry group (2.32%). Subjects with abnormal LV geometry had significantly worse survival rates (log-rank, p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, abnormal LV geometry was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.58; p = 0.034). Moreover, abnormal LV geometry was significantly worse in survival when classified as those with no CAD (log-rank, p = 0.024) and nonobstructive CAD (Log-rank, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal LV geometry portends a worse prognosis in subjects with no or nonobstructive CAD. These findings suggest that LV geometry assessment can help improve the stratification of individuals with these CCTA findings.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019856, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870734

RESUMO

Background Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) should be intervened before the development of irreversible right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. However, current guidelines do not provide criterion related to RV systolic function to guide optimal surgical timing. We investigated the prognostic value of RV longitudinal strain in patients undergoing isolated surgery for severe functional TR. Methods and Results We enrolled 115 consecutive patients (aged 62±10 years; 23.5% men; 62.6% [n=72] with previous left-sided valve surgery) who underwent isolated surgery for severe functional TR at 2 tertiary centers. Preoperative clinical and echocardiographic parameters, including RV free-wall longitudinal strain (RVFWSL), were collected. The primary end point was a composite of cardiac death and unplanned readmission attributable to cardiovascular causes 5 years after surgery. Forty patients (34.8%) reached the primary end point during 333 person-years of follow-up. There were 11 cardiac deaths and 34 unplanned readmissions attributable to cardiovascular causes, with 5 patients experiencing both. An absolute preoperative RVFWSL <24% was associated with the primary end point (hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.22-4.36; P=0.011), independent of clinical risk factors, including European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II and hemoglobin levels. Meanwhile, other conventional echocardiographic measures of RV systolic function were not significant. The addition of an absolute RVFWSL <24% provided incremental prognostic value to the clinical model for predicting the primary end point. Conclusions Preoperative RVFWSL as an indicator of RV dysfunction was an independent prognosticator in patients undergoing isolated surgery for severe functional TR. Thus, preoperative RVFWSL could help determine the optimal surgical timing for severe functional TR.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 46-51, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been suggested as a marker of plasma atherogenicity. This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: A total of 1488 adults (60.9 ± 9.2 years, 58.9% male) who underwent serial CCTA with a median inter-scan period of 3.4 years were included. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rapid plaque progression (RPP) was defined as the change of percentage atheroma volume (PAV) ≥1.0%/year. All participants were divided into three groups based on AIP tertiles. RESULTS: Baseline total PAV (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) (%) (group I [lowest]: 1.91 [0.00, 6.21] vs. group II: 2.82 [0.27, 8.83] vs. group III [highest]: 2.70 [0.41, 7.50]), the annual change of total PAV (median [IQR]) (%/year) (group I: 0.27 [0.00, 0.81] vs. group II: 0.37 [0.04, 1.11] vs. group III: 0.45 [0.06, 1.25]), and the incidence of RPP (group I: 19.7% vs. group II: 27.3% vs. group III: 31.4%) were significantly different among AIP tertiles (all p < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of RPP was increased in group III (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26; p = 0.042) compared to group I after adjusting for clinical factors and baseline total PAV. CONCLUSIONS: Based on serial CCTA findings, AIP is an independent predictive marker for RPP beyond traditional risk factors.

4.
Sci Prog ; 104(1): 368504211000515, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733929

RESUMO

As the efficacy of chemotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer increase, the quality-of-life to cancer survivors could be more important issue in strategies of breast cancer treatment. Bone health has become more compelling in care of breast cancer survivor than ever before. This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate factors relating to the change in BMD and to ascertain the correlation between changes in BMD and EMT of women with breast cancer in follow-up. Records of 164 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer were reviewed in this study. The basal characteristics included parity, menopausal state, medication with vitamin D, bisphosphonate, selective estrogen modulator (SERM), aromatase inhibitor (AI), gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), chemotherapy, radiotherapy, cancer type including positivity of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, combined the other gynecologic disease or the other origin cancer. At initial and follow-up visit, all subjective were checked with BMD, endometrial thickness (EMT). The mean age was 52.1 ± 8.5 years old and overall interval between initial and follow-up visits were 17.6 ± 7.5 month in this study. The BMDs of L1-4 (1.040 ± 0.166 g/cm2 vs 1.070 ± 0.181 g/cm2, p < 0.001), femur neck (0.850 ± 0.121 g/cm2 vs 0.870 ± 0.136 g/cm2, p < 0.001), and femur total (0.902 ± 0.132 g/cm2 vs 0.915 ± 0.138 g/cm2, p < 0.001) at follow-up visit were significantly lower than those at initial visit. The change in BMDs of L1-4 (ΔBMDL1-4, r = 0.353, p < 0.001, and r = 0.228, p = 0.003), femur neck (ΔBMDNeck, r = 0.198, p = 0.011, and r = 0.282, p < 0.001), femur total (ΔBMDTotal, r = 0.294, p < 0.001, and r = 0.327, p < 0.001) had positive correlation with age and the change in EMT (ΔEMT). After age correction, ΔEMT had positive correlation with ΔBMDNeck (r = 0.245, p = 0.002) and ΔBMDTotal (r = 0.273, p < 0.001). ΔBMDL1-4 and ΔBMDNeck differed according to menopausal state (p < 0.001 and p = 0.035), bisphosphonate (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), and GnRHa (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). In follow-up of women with history of breast cancer, ΔEMT could be an alternative screening marker for BMD decrease.

5.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 39(5): 537-548, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the cost effectiveness of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: This study used Ontario Cancer Registry-linked administrative data to identify patients with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer who received EGFR-TKIs as first-line treatment between 1 January, 2014 and 31 August, 2019. A net benefit regression approach accounting for baseline covariates and propensity scores was used to estimate incremental net benefits and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Outcome measures were calculated over a 68-month period and were discounted with an annual rate of 1.5%. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess and characterize the uncertainties. RESULTS: A total of 547 patients were included in the study, of whom 20.1%, 23.6%, and 56.3% received afatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib, respectively. Erlotinib was dominated by afatinib and gefitinib. Compared to gefitinib, afatinib was associated with higher effectiveness (adjusted incremental quality-adjusted life-year: 0.21), higher total costs (adjusted incremental costs: $9745), and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $46,506 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Results from the sensitivity analyses indicated the findings of the base-case analysis were robust. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previously published studies, our study established head-to-head comparisons of effectiveness and treatment-related costs of first-line EGFR-TKIs. Our findings suggest afatinib was the most cost-effective option among the three EGFR-TKIs.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682334

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite well-established benefits of sacubitril/valsartan for cardiac reverse remodelling and the prognosis of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there are some patients with limited therapeutic response, even with optimal therapy. We assessed the treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan in patients with HFrEF, focusing on the association between reverse remodelling and the prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with HFrEF treated with sacubitril/valsartan, we compared the time trajectory of cardiac function in 415 patients (1258 echocardiograms), according to the occurrence of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for HF during a median follow-up of 19.1 (interquartile range, 10.9-27.6) months. A higher sacubitril/valsartan dose was associated with a better prognosis, whereas advanced age, diabetes, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement, and pulmonary hypertension were associated with a worse prognosis. Patients without an event (n = 337; 81.2%) showed LV reverse remodelling (LV ejection fraction ≥45% or LV end-systolic volume reduction by 15% from baseline), which was typically observed within 6 months of sacubitril/valsartan treatment. Reverse remodelling achievement was significantly associated with a better prognosis. However, patients without reverse remodelling had a worse prognosis, as poor as that in patients with HFrEF not treated with sacubitril/valsartan. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HFrEF treated with sacubitril/valsartan, LV reverse remodelling reflects the treatment response and predicts the prognosis, whereas a lack of reverse remodelling indicates the lack of treatment benefits. Prediction and assessment of reverse remodelling may facilitate the selection of patients with greater benefits by sacubitril/valsartan.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709096

RESUMO

AIMS : To investigate the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and declining renal function, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 891 participants with analysable serial CCTA and available glomerular filtration rate (GFR, derived using Cockcroft-Gault formulae) at baseline (CCTA 1) and follow-up (CCTA 2) were included. CKD was defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Declining renal function was defined as ≥10% drop in GFR from the baseline. Quantitative assessment of plaque volume and composition were performed on both scans. There were 203 participants with CKD and 688 without CKD. CKD was associated with higher baseline total plaque volume, but similar plaque progression, measured by crude (57.5 ± 3.4 vs. 65.9 ± 7.7 mm3/year, P = 0.28) or annualized (17.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.9 ± 2.0 mm3/year, P = 0.25) change in total plaque volume. There were 709 participants with stable GFR and 182 with declining GFR. Declining renal function was independently associated with plaque progression, with higher crude (54.1 ± 3.2 vs. 80.2 ± 9.0 mm3/year, P < 0.01) or annualized (16.4 ± 0.9 vs. 23.9 ± 2.6 mm3/year, P < 0.01) increase in total plaque volume. In CKD, plaque progression was driven by calcified plaques whereas in patients with declining renal function, it was driven by non-calcified plaques. CONCLUSION: Decline in renal function was associated with more rapid plaque progression, whereas the presence of CKD was not.

8.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of dementia; however, few studies have reported on the risk of dementia in patients with low-risk, early-grade hypertension. We investigated the protective effect of controlled BP on risk of dementia in treated, low-risk, grade 1 hypertensive patients from the entire National Health Insurance Service National Health Examinee cohort. METHODS: We selected grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mmHg) patients with low risk, diagnosed in 2005-2006. All patients (N = 128 665) were classified into controlled (average BP < 140/90 mmHg during the follow-up) and uncontrolled (average BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) BP groups and followed up until 2015. The risk of dementia was estimated using Cox proportional hazard model after adjustments for propensity score. RESULTS: Average BP was 131/81 mmHg in the controlled group (N = 49 408) and 144/87 mmHg in the uncontrolled group (N = 99 257). Overall dementia incidence rates in controlled and uncontrolled groups were 4.9 and 8.1 per 1000 person-year, respectively. The controlled group showed lower risk of overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia than the uncontrolled group. The controlled group had a low risk of vascular dementia at all ages, especially in the younger group (age <60). The optimal BP level associated with the lowest risk of dementia was 130 to less than 140 mmHg for SBP and 70 to less than 80 mmHg for DBP. CONCLUSION: We concluded that among even low-risk and grade 1 hypertension patients, controlled BP significantly reduced the risk of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649405

RESUMO

We investigated sex-related differences in the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using the Korea National Health Insurance Service database. From 2010 to 2016, 9524 patients diagnosed with HCM and had more than 1-year follow-up period were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or new-onset heart failure (HF) admission. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed to adjust for different baseline characteristics. With a 4.4-years' median follow-up interval (range 2.0-6.6 years) and male predominance (77.6%), women with HCM were older (52.6 ± 9.7 vs. 51.4 ± 9.1, p < 0.001), had lower incomes, more comorbidities based on Charlson comorbidity index. Women with HCM had a higher incidence of the primary endpoint than men (incidence rate: 34.15 vs. 22.83 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox analysis showed that female sex was a poor prognostic factor for the primary endpoint (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64, p < 0.001). This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of new-onset HF admission (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.80). However, there was no difference in the incidence of cardiovascular death between the sexes. This result was concordant in the propensity score-matched cohort. In conclusion, women with HCM have worse prognosis, which was mainly driven by a higher new-onset HF admission.

10.
J Comp Eff Res ; 10(3): 193-206, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543641

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the factors associated with treatment selection and overall survival for first-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) therapy among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Materials & methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of linked administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. Results: A total of 1011 patients received an EGFR-TKI as first-line therapy. Treatment selection and overall survival associated with these treatments were affected by age, sex, geographical residency, comorbidities and different sites of metastasis. Conclusion: Though recent approval of osimertinib offers a potential new standard of care in the first-line setting, earlier generation TKIs remain pillars in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer therapeutic armamentarium. Our findings may contribute to optimizing treatment sequencing of EGFR-TKIs to maximize clinical benefits.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525535

RESUMO

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women. Due to its various pathophysiological properties and clinical heterophenotypes, the mechanism of PCOS pathogenesis is still unclear. Several animal models have been used to study PCOS and allow the exploration of the specific mechanism underlying PCOS. We focused on streptozotocin (STZ) to develop a non-steroidal and non-diabetic PCOS model. We administered multiple STZ injections to female C57BL/6 mice (3-4 weeks old) at different concentrations: STZ-15 (15 mg/kg), STZ-30 (30 mg/kg), and STZ-60 (60 mg/kg) treatments. During the experimental period, we analyzed body weight, blood glucose levels, and estrous cycle pattern. Furthermore, five weeks after STZ administration, we examined hormone levels and the morphology of ovarian tissues. Mice in the STZ-15 group did not show differences in body weights, blood glucose level, insulin level, and insulin tolerance compared to wild-type and control groups whereas those in the STZ-60 group presented a typical diabetes phenotype. In the case of the STZ-30 group, only increased blood glucose level was observed. Total testosterone levels were significantly elevated in STZ-15 and STZ-30 groups. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol levels were not significantly changed in the STZ-treated groups. The number of ovarian antral follicles and atretic follicles significantly increased in the ovary of mice in the STZ-15 and STZ-30 groups. All STZ-treated groups manifested irregular estrus cycles. However, the patterns of estrous cycles were different between mice treated with different STZ concentrations. We found that PI3K-AKT and IRS-1 signaling in the ovary was enhanced by low doses of STZ treatment. Taken together, our finding indicates that multiple injections of STZ at low doses induce PCOS features in mice without induction of diabetes features.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome based on the patient similarity network using quantitative coronary plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA can noninvasively assess coronary plaques quantitatively. METHODS: Patients who underwent 2 coronary CTAs at a minimum of 24 months' interval were analyzed (n = 1,264). A similarity Mapper network of patients was built by topological data analysis (TDA) based on the whole-heart quantitative coronary plaque analysis on coronary CTA to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome. RESULTS: Three distinct patient groups were identified by TDA, and the patient similarity network by TDA showed a closed loop, demonstrating a continuous trend of coronary plaque progression. Group A had the least coronary plaque amount (median 12.4 mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.0 to 39.6 mm3]) in the entire coronary tree. Group B had a moderate coronary plaque amount (31.7 mm3 [IQR: 0.0 to 127.4 mm3]) with relative enrichment of fibrofatty and necrotic core (32.6% [IQR: 16.7% to 46.2%] and 2.7% [IQR: 0.1% to 6.9%] of the total plaque, respectively) components. Group C had the largest coronary plaque amount (187.0 mm3 [IQR: 96.7 to 306.4 mm3]) and was enriched for dense calcium component (46.8% [IQR: 32.0% to 63.7%] of the total plaque). At follow-up, total plaque volume, fibrous, and dense calcium volumes increased in all groups, but the proportion of fibrofatty component decreased in groups B and C, whereas the necrotic core portion decreased in only group B (all p < 0.05). Group B showed a higher acute coronary syndrome incidence than other groups (0.3% vs. 2.6% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.009) but both group B and C had a higher revascularization incidence than group A (3.1% vs. 15.5% vs. 17.8%; p < 0.001). Incorporating group information from TDA demonstrated increase of model fitness for predicting acute coronary syndrome or revascularization compared with that incorporating clinical risk factors, percentage diameter stenosis, and high-risk plaque features. CONCLUSIONS: The TDA of quantitative whole-heart coronary plaque characteristics on coronary CTA identified distinct patient groups with different plaque dynamics and clinical outcomes. (Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the independent prognostic value of whole-heart atherosclerosis progression by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: The multi-center PARADIGM study includes patients undergoing serial CCTA for symptomatic reasons, ≥2 years apart. Whole-heart atherosclerosis was characterized on a segmental level, with co-registration of baseline and follow-up CCTA, and summed to per-patient level. The independent prognostic significance of atherosclerosis progression for MACE (non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], death, unplanned coronary revascularization) was examined. Patients experiencing interval MACE were not omitted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1166 patients (age 60.5 â€‹± â€‹9.5 years, 54.7% male) who experienced 139 MACE events during 8.2 (IQR 6.2, 9.5) years of follow up (15 death, 5 non-fatal MI, 119 unplanned revascularizations). Whole-heart percent atheroma volume (PAV) increased from 2.32% at baseline to 4.04% at follow-up. Adjusted for baseline PAV, the annualized increase in PAV was independently associated with MACE: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08, 1.39) per 1 standard deviation increase, which was consistent in multiple subpopulations. When categorized by composition, only non-calcified plaque progression associated independently with MACE, while calcified plaque did not. Restricting to patients without events before follow-up CCTA, those with future MACE showed an annualized increase in PAV of 0.93% (IQR 0.34, 1.96) vs 0.32% (IQR 0.02, 0.90), P â€‹< â€‹0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-heart atherosclerosis progression examined by serial CCTA is independently associated with MACE, with a prognostic threshold of 1.0% increase in PAV per year.

14.
Fertil Steril ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean women. DESIGN: Longitudinal case-control study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): PCOS patients aged 15 to 44 years (n = 1,136) and control individuals (n = 5,675), matched 1:5 by age group, income, and region of residence. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The occurrence of T2DM. RESULT(S): In the PCOS and control groups, 15.7% and 14.4%, respectively, were obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2). The incidence rate of T2DM was 15.84/1,000 and 5.80/1,000 person-years in the PCOS and control groups, respectively. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of T2DM in women with PCOS was 2.6-fold higher than that in control individuals. Women with PCOS still had a higher HR of T2DM than did control individuals after adjustment for body mass index, family history of T2DM, physical exercise level, and total cholesterol. PCOS was significantly associated with T2DM in women both with and without obesity. CONCLUSION(S): PCOS is independently associated with an increased incidence of T2DM in both obese and nonobese women. Screening for T2DM should be considered for both obese and nonobese women with PCOS in Korea.

15.
Harmful Algae ; 100: 101954, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298363

RESUMO

The extent and frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms are increasing, owing to the climate change caused by global warming, and some harmful filamentous cyanobacteria that were first reported in the tropics are spreading to temperate regions, such as North America, Europe, and Northeast Asia. Although these exotic invasive cyanobacteria have a high toxigenic potential, they are not targeted in management plans in many countries. This study analyzed the occurrence of and potential toxin and off-flavor secondary metabolite production by invasive nostocalean cyanobacteria in the Nakdong River in Korea, which is a temperate region. The occurrence of four species belonging to three genera of cyanobacteria was confirmed in the Nakdong River. The quantities of cyanobacteria in the Nakdong River were mostly low, fewer than 1,000 cells mL-1. Twenty-four strains belonging to four species in three genera of cyanobacteria were isolated from the Nakdong River. Analysis revealed no off-flavor secondary metabolite production by any of the isolates, and those belonging to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides, and S. reniformis were identified as nontoxic strains. However, anatoxin-a production was observed in two of the eleven isolates of Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi. Given the sites and the timing of its occurrence, C. issatschenkoi had the highest potential for toxin production among the invasive nostocalean cyanobacteria appearing in the Nakdong River.

16.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amino acid metabolites (AAMs) have been linked to glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated whether (1) baseline AAMs predict T2D remission 12 months after bariatric surgery and (2) whether AAMs are superior for predicting T2D remission postoperatively compared with existing prediction models. METHODS: Among 24 participants undergoing bariatric surgery, 16 diabetes-related AAMs were quantified at baseline and postoperative 3 and 12 months. Existing prediction models included the ABCD, DiaRem, and IMS models. RESULTS: Baseline L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75 to 1.00) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) (AUROC, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.00) better predicted T2D remission 12 months postoperatively than the ABCD model (AUROC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), which presented the highest AUROC value among the three models. The superior prognostic performance of L-DOPA (AUROC at 3 months, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.00) and 3-HAA (AUROC at 3 months, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.00) continued until 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The AAM profile predicts T2D remission after bariatric surgery more effectively than the existing prediction models.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215192

RESUMO

AIMS: Anatomic series commonly report the extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), regardless of location. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition across the major epicardial coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1271 patients (age 60 ± 9 years; 57% men) with suspected CAD prospectively underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Atherosclerotic plaque volume was quantified with categorization by composition (necrotic core, fibrofatty, fibrous, and calcified) based on Hounsfield Unit density. Per-vessel measures were compared using generalized estimating equation models. On CCTA, total plaque volume was lowest in the LCx (10.0 ± 29.4 mm3), followed by the RCA (32.8 ± 82.7 mm3; P < 0.001), and LAD (58.6 ± 83.3 mm3; P < 0.001), even when correcting for vessel length or volume. The prevalence of ≥2 high-risk plaque features, such as positive remodelling or spotty calcification, occurred less in the LCx (3.8%) when compared with the LAD (21.4%) or RCA (10.9%, P < 0.001). In the LCx, the most stenotic lesion was categorized as largely calcified more often than in the RCA and LAD (55.3% vs. 39.4% vs. 32.7%; P < 0.001). Median diameter stenosis was also lowest in the LCx (16.2%) and highest in the LAD (21.3%; P < 0.001) and located more distal along the LCx when compared with the RCA and LAD (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Atherosclerotic plaque, irrespective of vessel volume, varied across the epicardial coronary arteries; with a significantly lower burden and different compositions in the LCx when compared with the LAD and RCA. These volumetric and compositional findings support a diverse milieu for atherosclerotic plaque development and may contribute to a varied acute coronary risk between the major epicardial coronary arteries.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of plaque calcification in terms of absolute calcified plaque volume (CPV) and in the context of its percentage of the total plaque volume at a lesion and patient level on the progression of coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification is an established marker of risk of future cardiovascular events. Despite this, plaque calcification is also considered a marker of plaque stability, and it increases in response to medical therapy. METHODS: This analysis included 925 patients with 2,568 lesions from the PARADIGM (Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging) registry, in which patients underwent clinically indicated serial coronary computed tomography angiography. Plaque calcification was examined by using CPV and percent CPV (PCPV), calculated as (CPV/plaque volume) × 100 at a per-plaque and per-patient level (summation of all individual plaques). RESULTS: CPV was strongly correlated with plaque volume (r = 0.780; p < 0.001) at baseline and with plaque progression (r = 0.297; p < 0.001); however, this association was reversed after accounting for plaque volume at baseline (r = -0.146; p < 0.001). In contrast, PCPV was an independent predictor of a reduction in plaque volume (r = -0.11; p < 0.001) in univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses. Patient-level analysis showed that high CPV was associated with incident major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio: 3.01: 95% confidence interval: 1.58 to 5.72), whereas high PCPV was inversely associated with major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio: 0.529; 95% confidence interval: 0.229 to 0.968) in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Calcified plaque is a marker for risk of adverse events and disease progression due to its strong association with the total plaque burden. When considered as a percentage of the total plaque volume, increasing PCPV is a marker of plaque stability and reduced risk at both a lesion and patient level. (Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

19.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-management has become the dominant care model for chronic disease management. This study aimed to investigate the effect of changes in self-management strategies on the clinical outcomes of chronic diseases. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-seven patients with one or more chronic disease (diabetes, dyslipidemia, or hypertension) were registered and followed in this prospective cohort study. We compared differences in the changes in clinical outcomes from baseline to 6 months according to the improvement of self-management strategies by analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Diabetic patients with improved self-management strategies showed a significantly greater change in HbA1c levels compared to patients without improvement of self-management strategies (group difference in HbA1c = 0.51%). In hypertensive patients, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) showed a significant decline in the patients with improved self-management strategies (group difference in systolic BP = 6.2 mmHg and in diastolic BP = 5.5 mmHg). Clinical outcomes improved significantly when self-management strategies improved in people with a poor self-management strategy at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that improvements in self-management strategies are associated with an improvement in clinical outcomes among patients with chronic diseases, especially for those with an initially poor self-management strategy.

20.
Circ J ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aortic valve area index (AVAI) in aortic stenosis (AS) is measured by echocardiography with a continuity equation using the stroke volume index by Doppler (SVIDoppler) or biplane Simpson (SVIBiplane) method. AVAIDopplerand AVAIBiplaneoften show discrepancy due to differences between SVIDopplerand SVIBiplane. The degree of discrepancy and utility of combined AVAIs have not been investigated in a large population of AS patients, and the characteristics of subjects with larger discrepancies are unknown.Methods and Results:We studied 820 patients with significant AS (AVADoppler<1.5 cm2) enrolled in the Asian Valve Registry, a prospective multicenter registry at 12 Asian centers. All-cause death and aortic valve replacement were defined as events. SVIDopplerwas significantly larger than SVIBiplane(49±11 vs. 39±11 mL/m2, P<0.01) and AVAIDopplerwas larger than AVAIBiplane(0.51±0.15 vs. 0.41±0.14 cm2/m2, P<0.01). An increase in (AVAIDoppler- AVAIBiplane) correlated with shorter height, lower weight, older age, smaller left ventricular (LV) diameter and increased velocity of ejection flow at the LV outflow tract. Severe AS by AVAIDoppleror AVAIBiplaneenabled prediction of events, and combining these AVAIs improved the predictive value of each. CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancy in AVAI by Doppler vs. biplane method was significantly more pronounced with increased LV outflow tract flow velocity, shorter height, lower weight, older age and smaller LV cavity dimensions. Combining the AVAIs enabled mutual and incremental value in predicting events.

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