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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444650

RESUMO

Postpartum depression occurs in 10-15% of mothers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor that plays a role in neuroplasticity. We hypothesized that the concentration of BDNF is related to reproduction and childbirth, and that women with postpartum depression show alteration in BDNF level. A total of 104 pregnant women was selected as subjects, and 60 non-pregnant women were selected as normal controls. Symptoms of depression were evaluated in the pregnant study subjects using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The pregnant subjects were divided into three groups of perinatal non-depressed controls (n = 61), postpartum depression-recovery (n = 18), and postpartum depression (n = 25). The plasma concentration of BDNF was higher in the pregnant group than in non-pregnant controls and lower in the postpartum depression group at 6 weeks after delivery than in the perinatal non-depressed group. In the postpartum depression-recovery group, the BDNF concentration increased at 6 weeks after delivery compared to that at 24 weeks of gestation. This study found significant changes in plasma BDNF concentration in depressed pregnant women.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544600

RESUMO

Recent neuroimaging studies have characterized the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD) as a dysfunction of the brain networks involved in the regulation of emotion, motivational behavior, cognitive control, executive function, and self-referential thinking. In this article, we reviewed LLD-associated structural neuroimaging markers such as white matter hyperintensity (WMH), white matter integrity measured by diffusion tensor imaging, cortical and subcortical volumes, and cortical thickness, which may provide a structural basis for brain network dysfunction in LLD. LLD was associated with greater severity or volumes of deep, periventricular, or overall WMH and with decreased white matter integrity in the brain regions belonging to the fronto-striatal-limbic circuits and reduced white matter tract integrity which connects these circuits, such as the cingulum, corpus callosum, or uncinate fasciculus. Decreased volumes or cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, several temporal and parietal regions, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, thalamus, and the insula were associated with LLD. These structural neuroimaging findings were also associated with cognitive dysfunction, which is a prominent clinical feature in LLD. Several structural neuroimaging markers including the WMH burden, white matter integrity, and cortical and subcortical volumes predicted antidepressant response in LLD. These structural neuroimaging findings support the hypothesis that disruption of the brain networks involved in emotion regulation and cognitive processing by impaired structural connectivity is strongly associated with the pathophysiology of LLD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777326

RESUMO

Ketamine was initially used as an anesthetic which could induce cognitive impairment and psychomimetic effects. In initial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that mostly included a small sample size and were investigator-initiated, ketamine reportedly exerted antidepressant effects 1 to 2 h after a single intravenous infusion in patients with major depressive episodes, particularly treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Interest in ketamine was reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, however, many were primarily focused on the rapid onset of ketamine effects without equal attention to its safety and tolerability. Furthermore, several meta-analyses were based on many duplicated RCTs. The initial trends emphasized the clinical utility of ketamine as an antidepressant. The development of esketamine nasal spray by a pharmaceutical company led to an RCT with a large sample size and segmented therapeutic strategy, which provided results applicable to patients with TRD in the real-world clinical environment. However, possible effects of ketamine on cognitive function have not yet been investigated in RCTs. In numerous studies, chronic, recreational use of ketamine reportedly substantially impaired cognitive function in most domains. Although results of several human and animal studies indicated the therapeutic use of ketamine for treatment of depression did not induce cognitive impairment, this issue should be further investigated. Based on the current knowledge about ketamine, future antidepressants are expected to be glutamatergic drugs without ketamine-like adverse events (e.g., psychomimetic symptoms and cognitive impairment), but having only ketamine-like therapeutic properties (e.g., rapid antidepressants effects without time lag).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340618

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the associations between genetic variants of the norepinephrine transporter gene (NET, also known as SLC6A2) and diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. In addition, we examined the relationship between the genetic variants and manic and psychotic symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder. The three SNPs rs28386840, rs2242446, and rs5569 were genotyped in 326 patients: patients with bipolar I disorder (n = 160) and a control group (n = 166). Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex was conducted to identify independent influences of the SNPs on diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. A possible association between manic and psychotic symptoms and variants of SLC6A2 was also investigated in patients with bipolar I disorder. The rs28836840 SNP in the 5'-UTR of SLC6A2 was significantly associated with bipolar I disorder and with severity of manic and psychotic symptoms in this disorder. Individuals carrying a T allele in the rs28836840 SNP were likely to have a lower risk of bipolar I disorder or lower severity of manic and psychotic symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder (bipolar I disorder diagnosis: OR = 0.643, 95% Cl = 0.468-0.883, p = 0.006; manic symptoms: ß = -2.457, 95% Cl = -4.674 ~ -0.239, p = 0.031; psychotic symptoms: ß = -2.501, 95% Cl = -4.700 ~ -0.301, p = 0.027). For the rs2242446 and rs5569 SNPs, there were no significant differences between patients with bipolar I disorder and those without. Our results revealed associations of the rs28386840 SNP with bipolar I disorder diagnosis and with severity of manic and psychotic symptoms. However, the findings reported here require replication in larger samples and various ethnic groups.

5.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify the reliable and consistent grey matter volume (GMV) abnormalities associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), we excluded the influence of confounding clinical characteristics, comorbidities and brain degeneration on brain morphological abnormalities by inclusion of non-comorbid and non-geriatric drug-naïve MDD individuals experiencing first episode depressive. METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google scholar databases were searched for papers published in English up to April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 21 voxel based morphometric (VBM) studies comparing 845 individuals in the first depressive episode and medication-naïve with 940 healthy control subjects were included. The results showed a grey matter volumes reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontal and temporal gyri, temporal pole, insular lobe, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. In addition, increased grey matter volumes in the postcentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, insula, basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala, cuneus, and precuneus differentiated the first depressive episode in medication-naïve individuals from healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: The present systematic review provided additional support for the involvement of grey matter structural abnormalities in limbic-cortical circuits as possibly specific structural abnormalities in the early stage of MDD. Key points Distinct brain regions in MDD patients might be associated with the early stages of illness, and thus it is critical to study the causal relationship between brain structures and the onset of the disease to improve the evaluation in clinic. Grey matter alterations in the fronto-limbic networks in the first episode, medication-naïve MDD might suggest that these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset. First episode, medically naïve depressive patients show grey matter volume alterations in brain regions mainly associated with emotion regulation including parietal-temporal regions, PFC, insular lobe, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and limbic structures that may be specific changes in early stage of MDD. Genotype-diagnosis interaction effects on brain morphology in the cortico-limbic-striatal circuits, including the PFC, amygdala, hippocampus and striatum that might be implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of emotion in first-episode MDD patients. Future longitudinal and prospective studies should be conducted to identify the core structural brain changes in people at-risk for MDD and explore the association of their brain volumes with symptom onset.

6.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 17(11): 962-971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357193

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. Due to the lack of effective interventions, early and accurate diagnosis for new interventions are emphasized. However, significant neuronal loss and neuropathological lesions can damage the brain substantially before diagnosis. With our growing knowledge of the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory biomarkers are attracting increasing interest in the context of diagnosis. This review is focused on the use of inflammatory biomarkers detected through neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease, and also suggests clinical implications. This review includes the following biomarkers: neuroimaging, various ligands binding to the translocator protein (TSPO); cerebrospinal fluid, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM2), human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (YKL-40), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and various biomarkers in peripheral blood. Although accumulating evidence has suggested the potential role of these inflammatory biomarkers in diagnosing AD, there are limitations to their use. However, combining these biomarkers with conventional diagnostic clues such as genotype and amyloid pathology may improve the stratification and selection of patients for targeted early interventions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049324

RESUMO

During the period extending from 1780 to 1880, the conceptualization of melancholia changed from an intellectual to a mood model. The modern view of depression, based on Kraepelinian dualism, has reflected changes in opinion on psychiatric taxonomy of individual melancholia. From the point of view of an "operational revolution," the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) were based on a neoKraepelinian approach rooted in disease essentialism. In the revision process from the DSM-IV to the DSM-5, a combined dimensional and categorial approach was used. In the DSM-5, the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder are polythetic and operational in approach reflecting the heterogeneity of major depressive disorder. Although 227 different symptom combinations fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder can be theoretically calculated, certain symptom combinations are more prevalent than others in real clinical situations. The heterogeneity of these operational criteria for major depressive disorder have been criticized in a manner informed by the Wittgensteinian analogy of the language game. Herein, our network analysis proposes a novel perspective on the psychopathology of major depressive disorder. The novel approach suggested here may lay the foundation for a redefinition of the traditional taxonomy of depression.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906843

RESUMO

Stress-induced changes in the immune system, which lead to neuroinflammation and consequent brain alterations, have been suggested as possible neurobiological substrates of anxiety disorders, with previous literature predominantly focusing on panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder, among the anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders have frequently been associated with chronic stress, with chronically stressful situations being reported to precipitate the onset of anxiety disorders. Also, chronic stress has been reported to lead to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system disruption, which may in turn induce systemic proinflammatory conditions. Preliminary evidence suggests anxiety disorders are also associated with increased inflammation. Systemic inflammation can access the brain, and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine levels that have been shown to precipitate direct and indirect neurotoxic effects. Prefrontal and limbic structures are widely reported to be influenced by neuroinflammatory conditions. In concordance with these findings, various imaging studies on panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder have reported alterations in structure, function, and connectivity of prefrontal and limbic structures. Further research is needed on the use of inflammatory markers and brain imaging in the early diagnosis of anxiety disorders, along with the possible efficacy of anti-inflammatory interventions on the prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders.

9.
Life Sci ; 257: 118020, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603820

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. ß-amyloid peptide (Aß) is currently assumed to be the main cause of synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairments in AD, but the molecular signaling pathways underlying its neurotoxic consequences have not yet been completely explored. Additional investigations regarding these pathways will contribute to development of new therapeutic targets. In context, developing evidence suggest that Aß decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mostly by lowering phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) protein. In fact, it has been observed that brain or serum levels of BDNF appear to be beneficial markers for cognitive condition. In addition, the participation of transcription mediated by CREB has been widely analyzed in the memory process and AD development. Designing pharmacologic or genetic therapeutic approaches based on the targeting of CREB-BDNF signaling could be a promising treatment potential for AD. In this review, we summarize data demonstrating the role of CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in cognitive status and mediation of Aß toxicity in AD. Finally, we also focus on the developing intervention methods for improvement of cognitive decline in AD based on targeting of CREB-BDNF pathway.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 852-859, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217080

RESUMO

Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to examine the association between serum levels of FAM19A5, a novel chemokine-like peptide that reflects reactive astrogliosis and inflammatory activation in the brain, and the neurodegenerative changes of MDD by investigating the correlation between serum FAM19A5 levels and cortical thickness changes in patients with MDD. We included 52 drug-naïve patients with MDD and 60 healthy controls (HCs). Serum FAM19A5 levels were determined in peripheral venous blood samples using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All participants underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging. Serum FAM19A5 levels were greater in patients with MDD than in HCs. In the MDD group, there were significant inverse correlations between serum FAM19A5 levels and cortical thickness in the prefrontal regions (i.e., the left inferior and right medial superior frontal gyri), left posterior cingulate gyrus, right cuneus, and both precunei, which showed significantly reduced thickness in patients with MDD compared to HCs. However, no correlation between serum FAM19A5 level and cortical thickness was observed in the HC group. The results of our study indicate that serum FAM19A5 levels may reflect reactive astrogliosis and related neuroinflammation in MDD. Our findings also suggest that serum FAM19A5 may be a potential biomarker for the neurodegenerative changes of MDD.

11.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(3): 179-180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209964
12.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(3): 181-192, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209965

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric illness that causes functional impairment in many people. While monoaminergic antidepressants have been used to effectively treat MDD, these antidepressants have limitations in that they have delayed onset of action and many patients remain treatment-resistant. Therefore, there is a need to develop antidepressants with a novel target, and researchers have directed their attention to the glutamatergic system. Ketamine, although developed as an anesthetic, has been found to produce an antidepressant effect at sub-anesthetic doses via N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor blockade as well as NMDA receptor- independent pathways. A single infusion of ketamine produced rapid improvement in clinical symptoms to a considerable level and led to the resolution of serious depressive symptoms, including imminent suicidal ideation, in patients with MDD. A series of recent randomized controlled trials have provided a high level of evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of ketamine treatment in MDD and presented new insights on the dose, usage, and route of administration of ketamine as an antidepressant. With this knowledge, it is expected that ketamine treatment protocols for MDD will be established as a treatment option available in clinical practice. However, long-term safety must be taken into consideration as ketamine has abuse potential and it is associated with psychological side effects such as dissociative or psychotomimetic effects.

14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 21-34, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002920

RESUMO

Network-based approach for psychological phenotypes assumes the dynamical interactions among the psychiatric symptoms, psychological characteristics, and neurocognitive performances arise, as they coexist, propagate, and inhibit other components within the network of mental phenomena. For differential types of dataset from which the phenotype network is to be estimated, a Gaussian graphical model, an Ising model, a directed acyclic graph, or an intraindividual covariance network could be used. Accordingly, these network-based approaches for anxiety-related psychological phenomena have been helpful in quantitative and pictorial understanding of qualitative dynamics among the diverse psychological phenomena as well as mind-environment interactions. Brain structural covariance refers to the correlative patterns of diverse brain morphological features among differential brain regions comprising the brain, as calculated per participant or across the participants. These covarying patterns of brain morphology partly overlap with longitudinal patterns of brain cortical maturation and also with propagating pattern of brain morphological changes such as cortical thinning and brain volume reduction in patients diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders along the trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies that used the brain structural covariance network could show neural correlates of specific anxiety disorder such as panic disorder and also elucidate the neural underpinning of anxiety symptom severity in diverse psychiatric and neurologic disorder patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/patologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Humanos , Vias Neurais
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 103-120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002925

RESUMO

Oxytocin, a neuropeptide synthesized by the hypothalamus, plays a central role in human social behavior, social cognition, anxiety, mood, stress modulation, and fear learning and extinction. The relationships between oxytocin and psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder have been extensively studied. In this chapter, we focus on the current knowledge about oxytocin and anxiety disorder. We discuss the anxiolytic effects of oxytocin in preclinical and clinical findings, possible related neurobehavioral mechanisms (social cognition, fear learning, and extinction), related neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, serotoninergic, and GABAergic systems), and studies regarding plasma levels of oxytocin, genetic and epigenetic findings, and effects of intranasal oxytocin in DSM-5 anxiety disorder (primarily social anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder) patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Medo , Humanos , Comportamento Social
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 187-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002930

RESUMO

Under the partial influences of paradigm shift form category to dimension, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) was revised to the fifth edition (DSM-5); however, due to the lack of consistent biological makers and processes and the restricted availability of dimensional meta-structure, the revisions for the DSM-5 were based on a combination of categorical and dimensional approaches. Anxiety disorders were more clearly and consistently defined in the DSM-5 with the removal of obsessive compulsive, acute stress, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Differences between the childhood and adulthood categories of anxiety disorders were decreased, and overall, the symmetrical classification of anxiety subtypes was increased, since separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism were considered anxiety disorders, not neurodevelopmental disorders. Additionally, based on growing evidence, agoraphobia is distinct from panic disorder. Next, considering cultural syndromes including taijin kyofusho, khyal cap, trung gio attacks, and ataque de nervios, cultural influences are considered a significant factor for definitions and presentations of anxiety disorders. Controversies in the DSM-5 criteria for anxiety disorders are lowering the diagnostic thresholds of anxiety disorders and limiting the dichotomous view of anxiety and depression when defining generalized anxiety disorder. Further studies of alternative approaches to the restrictions of the DSM-5 criteria of anxiety disorders, including transdiagnostic specifiers and dimensional assessment tools, may be required.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/classificação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/classificação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 219-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002932

RESUMO

Although anxiety and depression have been considered as two distinct entities according to the diagnostic criteria, anxious depression (comorbid anxiety and depression) is relatively a common syndrome. According to the DSM-5 criteria, it uses "with anxious distress specifier" to define anxious depression in its MDD section. Anxious depression is known to have different neurobiological profiles compared to non-anxious depression. Several studies have revealed significant differences between anxious depression and non-anxious depression regarding the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, structural and functional brain imaging findings, inflammation markers, etc. Patients with anxious depression were significantly more likely to be found in primary care setting and more likely to be associated with female gender, non-single, unemployed, less educated, and more severe depression. Previous reports also showed that patients with anxious depression had more frequent episodes of major depression and a higher risk of suicidal ideation and previous suicide attempts than those with non-anxious depression. Although anxious depression is known to be associated with poor treatment outcomes in several studies, recent researches have sought to find better treatment strategy to improve patients with anxious depression.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Humanos
18.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(7): 554-584, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A research on mood disorder pathophysiology has hypothesized abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission, by suggesting further investigation on glutamatergic N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptor modulators in treating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Esketamine (ESK), an NMDA receptor antagonist able to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission has been recently developed as an intranasal formulation for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and for rapid reduction of depressive symptomatology, including suicidal ideation in MDD patients at imminent risk for suicide. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at investigating recent clinical findings on research on the role of the glutamatergic system and ESK in treating suicidal depression in MDD and TRD. METHODS: A systematic review was here carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and the database on U.S. N.I.H. Clinical Trials (https://clinicaltrials.gov) and the European Medical Agency (EMA) (https://clinicaltrialsregister.eu) from inception until October 2019. RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of ESK is reported to elicit rapid-acting and sustained antidepressant activity in refractory patients with MDD and TRD. In phase II studies, intranasal ESK demonstrated a rapid onset and a persistent efficacy in patients with TRD as well as in MDD patients at imminent risk for suicide. However, some data discrepancies have emerged in phase III studies. CONCLUSION: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted fast track and Breakthrough Therapy Designation to Janssen Pharmaceuticals®, Inc. for intranasal ESK in 2013 for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and in 2016 for the treatment of MDD with an imminent risk of suicide. However, further studies should be implemented to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of intranasal ESK.

19.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 35(2): 113-118, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004167

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is often associated with schizophrenia and may represent a significant challenge in the treatment as this comorbidity may not respond properly to antipsychotic medication and usually require a pharmacological and psychotherapeutic add-on. In the present case report, we present the case of a 26-year-old male blue-collar subject who developed obsessive-compulsive disorder after a year of complete remission of schizophrenia symptoms under paliperidone long-acting injection that rapidly resolved after low-dosage cariprazine add-on. No adverse effects were reported due to cariprazine- paliperidone long-acting injection combination.

20.
Neurosci Lett ; 721: 134804, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014516

RESUMO

Because depression has high prevalence and cause enduring disability, it is important to predict onset of depression among community dwelling adults. In this study, we aimed to build a machine learning-based predictive model for future onset of depression. We used nationwide survey data to construct training and hold-out test set. The class imbalance was dealt with the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique. A tree-based ensemble method, random forest, was used to build a predictive model. Depression was defined by 9 or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale 11 items version. Hyperparameters were tuned throughout the 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 6,588 (6,067 of non-depression and 521 of depression) participants were included in the study. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.870. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.862, 0.730, and 0.866, respectively. Satisfactions for leisure, familial relationship, general, social relationship, and familial income had importance in building predictive model for the onset of future depression. Our study demonstrated that predicting future onset of depression by using survey data could be possible. This predictive model is expected to be used for early identification of individuals at risk for depression and secure time to intervention.

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