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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131923, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426288

RESUMO

The current 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test methods lack detailed information on sample dilution, which typically leads to an incorrect dilution ratio of samples and failed BOD5 testing. This study proposed an improved dilution technique that effectively determines the dilution ratios for raw wastewater and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent. The numbers of raw wastewater and WWTPs effluent samples used in the BOD5 tests were 201 and 61, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that both the raw wastewater and WWTPs effluent varied in BOD5 values with the sample dilution ratio, and these changes were more noticeable when the dissolved oxygen consumption ratio (DOCR) was less than 20% or when the dilution ratio was large. Assuming that the BOD5 value over the DOCR range of 40%-70% was true, the optimal DOCR range was 40%-90% for the raw wastewater and 40%-70% and 80%-90% for the WWTPs effluent, where the relative error of BOD5 values in these DOCR ranges was less than 10% depending on the dilution ratio. The correlation between the sample dilution ratio and the BOD5 value over the optimal DOCR range was considerably higher than that over the entire DOCR range. This was combined with the correlation equation between BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand to propose an equation that could determine more accurate sample dilution ratios for raw wastewater and WWTPs effluent compared to the conventional sample dilution methods for the BOD5 test.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Oxigênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103682, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716690

RESUMO

Vitrimers have shown advantages over conventional thermosets via capabilities of dynamic network rearrangement to endow repairability as well as recyclability. Based on such characteristics, vitrimers have been studied and have shown promises as a 3D printing ink material that can be recycled with the purpose of waste reduction. However, despite the brilliant approaches, there still remain limitations regarding requirement of new reagents for recycling the materials or reprintability issues. Here, a new class of a 4D printable vitrimer that is translated from a commercial poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) resin is reported to exhibit self-healability, weldability, reprocessability, as well as reprintability. Thus, formed 3D-printed vitrimer products show superior heat resistance in comparison to commercial PCL prints, and can be repeatedly reprocessed or reprinted via filament extrusion and a handheld fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3D printing method. Furthermore, incorporation of semicrystalline PCL renders capabilities of shape memory for 4D printing applications, and as far as it is known, such demonstration of FDM 3D-printed shape memory vitrimers has not been realized yet. It is envisioned that this work can fuel advancement in 4D printing industries by suggesting a new material candidate with all-rounded capabilities with minimized environmental challenges.

3.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100373, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401409

RESUMO

Depression is accompanied by neuronal atrophy and decreased neuroplasticity. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1), a metastasis suppressor, plays an important role in the development of CNS synapses. We found that LGI1 expression was reduced in the hippocampi of mice that underwent chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), and could be rescued by the antidepressant, fluoxetine. Recombinant soluble neuritin, an endogenous protein previously implicated in antidepressant-like behaviors, elevated hippocampal LGI1 expression in a manner dependent on histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation. Accordingly, Nrn1 flox/flox ;Pomc-cre (Nrn1 cOE) mice, which conditionally overexpress neuritin, displayed increases in hippocampal LGI1 level under CUS and exhibited resilience to CUS that were blocked by hippocampal depletion of LGI1. Interestingly, neuritin-mediated LGI1 expression was inhibited by HNMPA-(AM)3, an insulin receptor inhibitor, as was neuritin-mediated HDAC5 phosphorylation. We thus establish hippocampal LGI1 as an effector of neurite outgrowth and stress resilience, and suggest that HDAC5-LGI1 plays a critical role in ameliorating pathological depression.

4.
Gland Surg ; 10(2): 832-836, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708565

RESUMO

Chyle leakage after modified radical neck dissection is a rare condition that could be occasionally life-threatening if untreated. We report the first case of successful management of a thoracic duct injury using Viscum album extract (Helixor-M). A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer of the right lobe of the thyroid with metastasis to cervical lymph node levels II-VI, bilaterally, underwent total thyroidectomy and modified radical neck dissection. Three days postoperatively, the surgical team identified a thoracic duct injury due to drainage of chyle from the Jackson-Pratt drain inserted in the right side of the patient`s neck. Various medical treatments (octreotide, withdrawal of enteral feeding, and total parenteral nutrition) and surgical treatments [lymphatic ligation of cervical lymph node level IV and negative pressure wound therapy (vacuum-assisted closure)] were performed, but the drainage persisted. Viscum album extract (Helixor-M) was then injected through the drain. The dose of Viscum album extract was increased while being cautious of its adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, erythema, induration at the injection site, and flu-like symptoms. The injection was effective in stopping the drainage and the patient's condition improved, without recurrence. The patient was discharged on the 64th postoperative day without any further complications. Our results suggest that treatment of thoracic duct injury after neck surgery with Viscum album extract (Helixor-M) may be a novel, less invasive alternative approach to treat cases resistant to standard treatments.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464202

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, pale yellow-pigmented, non-motile and gentamycin-resistant bacterial strain designated CJ210T was isolated from the Han River, Republic of Korea. Strain CJ210T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0 in the absence of NaCl on tryptic soy agar. Flexirubin-type pigments were not produced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain CJ210T belonged to the genus Myroides within the family Flavobacteriaceae and was most closely related to Myroides odoratus KACC 14347T (98.1 % similarity), followed by M. injenensis KCTC 23367T (95.3 % similarity). The average nucleotide identity values between strain CJ210T and two closely related type strains M. odoratus KACC 14347T and M. injenensis KCTC 23367T were 83.7 and 73.8 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization results between strain CJ210T and the related type strains were 27.5 and 20.2 %, respectively. Strain CJ210T contained menaquinone 6 (MK-6) as the predominant menaquinone. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids of strain CJ210T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl). Whole genome sequencing revealed that strain CJ210T had a genome of 3.8 Mbp with 36.5 % DNA G+C content. The genome contained several antimicrobial resistance genes including an aminoglycoside-resistant gene. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain CJ210T represents a novel species in the genus Myroides, for which name Myrodies fluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ210T (=KACC 19954T=JCM 33306T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Rios/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 186(1): 125-134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognosis of patients with node-negative T1b tumors according to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is not known. This group of patients has not been studied in the available randomized trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of patients in a monoethnic group diagnosed with T1b lymph node-negative breast cancer depending on HER2 status. METHODS: We analyzed 3110 patients with T1bN0M0 breast cancer whose data were deposited into the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry database between 2000 and 2009. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were compared according to HER2 status. RESULTS: Among all patients, 494 (15.9%) had HER2-positive breast cancer. At a mean follow-up of 93 months, 108 deaths and 86 breast cancer-specific deaths were noted among all patients. There was no significant difference in OS between the HER2-negative and HER2-positive groups (p = 0.103). The same result was observed for BCSS. However, in the subgroup of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive women, HER2-negative patients had a better BCSS prognosis than HER2-positive patients (p = 0.025). Multivariate analysis also indicated a significant difference in BCSS in the ER-positive subgroup (HR 2.60; 95% CI 1.15-5.87; p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: This study analyzed a large nationwide and monoethnic cohort and found a significant difference only in BCSS in the ER-positive subgroup according to HER2 status. Anti-HER2 therapy may be considered in HER2-positive and ER-positive patients with small, node-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1556, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452292

RESUMO

The three-dimensional field-in-field (3-D FIF) technique for radiotherapy is an advanced, state-of-the-art method that uses multileaf collimators to generate a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution via segmental subfields. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric reproducibility of 3-D FIF plans using the original simulation computed tomography (iCT) scans and re-simulation CT (rCT) scans for whole breast irradiation (WBI) schedule. This study enrolled a total of 34 patients. The study population underwent iCT scans for standard WBI and took rCT scans after 45 Gy of WBI for cone down boost plans. The dosimetric parameters (V105%, V103%, V100%, V98%, V95%, V90%, V50%), plan quality indices (conformity index, homogeneity index) and clinical parameters (isocenter-breast axis, isocenter-lung axis, soft tissue volumes within radiation field, lung volumes within radiation field) were assessed. The median time interval from surgery to iCT was 33 days and from iCT to rCT was 35 days. All dosimetric parameters exhibited statistically significant differences between iCT and rCT among cohorts with a surgery-iCT interval of < 60 days. Homogeneity index showed a statistically significant increase from iCT to rCT among all cohorts. Soft tissue volumes (p = 0.001) and isocenter-breast axis (p = 0.032) exhibited statistically significant differences among cohorts with surgery-iCT interval < 60 days. Regarding the reproducibility of the 3-D FIF WBI plans, significant changes were observed in dosimetric and clinical factors, particularly in study cohorts with a surgery-simulation interval < 60 days. The main contributing factor of these transitions seemed to be the changes in volume of the soft tissue within the WBI field. Further confirmative studies are necessary to determine the most suitable timing and technique for WBI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3001024, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362243

RESUMO

Zoonotic avian influenza viruses pose severe health threats to humans. Of several viral subtypes reported, the low pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus has since February 2013 caused more than 1,500 cases of human infection with an almost 40% case-fatality rate. Vaccination of poultry appears to reduce human infections. However, the emergence of highly pathogenic strains has increased concerns about H7N9 pandemics. To develop an efficacious H7N9 human vaccine, we designed vaccine viruses by changing the patterns of N-linked glycosylation (NLG) on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein based on evolutionary patterns of H7 HA NLG changes. Notably, a virus in which 2 NLG modifications were added to HA showed higher growth rates in cell culture and elicited more cross-reactive antibodies than did other vaccine viruses with no change in the viral antigenicity. Developed into an inactivated vaccine formulation, the vaccine virus with 2 HA NLG additions exhibited much better protective efficacy against lethal viral challenge in mice than did a vaccine candidate with wild-type (WT) HA by reducing viral replication in the lungs. In a ferret model, the 2 NLG-added vaccine viruses also induced hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and significantly suppressed viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts compared with the WT HA vaccines. In a mode of action study, the HA NLG modification appeared to increase HA protein contents incorporated into viral particles, which would be successfully translated to improve vaccine efficacy. These results suggest the strong potential of HA NLG modifications in designing avian influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Vacinas contra Influenza/biossíntese , Células A549 , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Embrião de Galinha , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Furões/imunologia , Furões/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Camundongos , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 502, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648138

RESUMO

To assess distribution of metal contamination and grain size in the sediments of Nakdong River (South Korea), surface sediments were collected from 21 sites and analyzed. Within the study area, sand was typically the dominant grain size. However, because of the reduced flow rate and flow velocity, sites adjacent to weirs were composed of relatively fine sediments. A comparison of sediment metal concentrations with sediment quality guidelines proposed by the USA, Canada, and South Korea revealed that sites adjacent to weirs had concentrations that exceeded the standard values. The enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, and pollution load index calculation results that the sites adjacent to weirs showed high contamination, with Cd accounting for the highest contamination levels. The metals in the study area varies due to the effect of fine sediments; therefore, high concentrations of metals accumulated adjacent to weirs where fine sediments were distributed in greater proportions. Furthermore, Cd exhibited the greatest contribution to metal contamination in the study area and the highest contamination levels were found at NS19 (adjacent to the Haman weir). Thus, the accumulation of fine sediment increased due to the influence of the weirs, thereby increasing the overall amount of metal contamination.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , República da Coreia , Rios
10.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 84, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471517

RESUMO

Clozapine is thought to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenic patients. However, because OCS are often comorbid with schizophrenia regardless of clozapine treatment, it remains unclear whether clozapine can generate OCS de novo. Thus, it has been difficult to establish a causal link between clozapine and OCS in human studies. To address this question, we asked whether chronic treatment with clozapine can induce obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behavior in mice. We injected mice with long-term continuous release pellets embedded with clozapine four times at 60-day intervals and then monitored the mice for signs of OCD-like behavior up to 40 wk. of age. We found clozapine increases grooming behavior as early as 30 wk. of age. We also investigated the effect clozapine on grooming behavior in Sapap3 knockout (KO) mice, which are a well-known animal model of OCD. In Sapap3 heterozygous KO mice, clozapine increases grooming behavior much earlier than in wild-type mice, suggesting a clozapine-OCD gene interaction. Fluoxetine, which is often used in the treatment of OCS and OCD, reduced the grooming behavior induced by clozapine. These data demonstrate that chronic clozapine treatment can generate OCD-like behavior in mice and support the hypothesis that clozapine produces de novo OCS regardless of schizophrenia status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Asseio Animal , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the expression of APOBEC3A (A3A), 3B (A3B) mRNA, and germline APOBEC3A/B deletion polymorphism in patients with breast cancers and to investigate the correlation between their expressions and clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: RNA and DNA samples were extracted from 138 breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal breast tissues. The levels of A3A and A3B mRNA transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Insertion and deletion PCR assays were performed to detect the A3B deletion allele. The serum concentrations of soluble programmed death-ligand 1 (sPD-L1) and interferon gamma were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: A3B mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in triple-negative breast cancers compared to hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancers. Older age of the patient and high ki-67 expression were associated with increased expression levels of A3A and A3B mRNA. Advanced tumor stage, presence of lymph node involvement, and high histological grade were associated with increased expression levels of A3A mRNA. The APOBEC3A/B deletion allele was found in 77 (55.8%) patients. TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were detected in 62 (44.9%) and 31 (22.5%) patients, respectively. The presence of a PIK3CA mutation was associated with lower A3A mRNA expression levels. There was a weak positive relationship between A3A mRNA expression levels and serum sPD-L1 levels. CONCLUSIONS: There was a difference in A3B mRNA expression levels according to breast cancer subtypes, and high levels of A3A and A3B mRNA expressions were associated with an aggressive phenotype. There was a high incidence of APOBEC3A/B deletion allele. Further studies are needed to identify the clinical significance of APOBEC in Asian patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Proteínas/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(7): e2000013, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068937

RESUMO

Thermadapt shape memory polymers (SMPs), utilizing a variety of dynamic covalent bond exchange mechanisms, have been extensively studied in recent years but it is still challenging to address several constraints in terms of limited accuracy and complexity for constructing 3D shape memory structures. Here, an effective and facile preparation of thermadapt SMPs based on elemental sulfur-derived poly(phenylene polysulfide) networks (PSNs) is presented. These SMPs possess intrinsic near-infrared (NIR)-induced photothermal conversion properties for spatiotemporal control of their plasticity and elasticity. The NIR-controllable plasticity and elasticity of the PSNs enable versatile shape manipulation of 3D multi-shape memory structures, including building block assembly, reconfiguration, shape fixing/recovery, and repair.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Sulfetos/química , Enxofre/química , Elasticidade , Raios Infravermelhos , Teste de Materiais , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(6): 1489-1496, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the efficacy of docetaxel and epirubicin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer and assessed the predictive factors for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognostic factors related to relapse-free survival. METHODS: Forty patients who received docetaxel and epirubicinas neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer were evaluated retrospectively. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisted of intravenous injection of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 60 mg/m2 epirubucin on day 1, every 21 days, and two to six cycles. RESULTS: Twenty-five (62.5%) patients showed a partial response, and 15 (37.5%) patients showed a stable disease in the first response evaluation after two or three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the second response evaluation of nine patients who received six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, one patient achieved a complete response, but two patients with hormone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer experienced disease progression. Twenty-five (62.5%) patients experienced downstaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with > 20% pretreatment Ki-67 and decrease of Ki-67 between pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed a trend for better response. In multivariate analysis, advanced pathological stage showed a significant negative effect on relapse-free survival. CONCLUSION: Docetaxel and epirubicin neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed a good response in locally advanced breast cancer. Pretreatment Ki-67 and change of Ki-67 may play a role as predictive factor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Docetaxel , Epirubicina , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 2, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of human activities on the environmental resistome has been documented in many studies, but there remains the controversial question of whether the increased antibiotic resistance observed in anthropogenically impacted environments is just a result of contamination by resistant fecal microbes or is mediated by indigenous environmental organisms. Here, to determine exactly how anthropogenic influences shape the environmental resistome, we resolved the microbiome, resistome, and mobilome of the planktonic microbial communities along a single river, the Han, which spans a gradient of human activities. RESULTS: The bloom of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was evident in the downstream regions and distinct successional dynamics of the river resistome occurred across the spatial continuum. We identified a number of widespread ARG sequences shared between the river, human gut, and pathogenic bacteria. These human-related ARGs were largely associated with mobile genetic elements rather than particular gut taxa and mainly responsible for anthropogenically driven bloom of the downstream river resistome. Furthermore, both sequence- and phenotype-based analyses revealed environmental relatives of clinically important proteobacteria as major carriers of these ARGs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a more nuanced view of the impact of anthropogenic activities on the river resistome: fecal contamination is present and allows the transmission of ARGs to the environmental resistome, but these mobile genes rather than resistant fecal bacteria proliferate in environmental relatives of their original hosts. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genes MDR , Rios/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Metagenoma , República da Coreia , Esgotos/microbiologia
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(6): 1657-1669, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923981

RESUMO

This study aimed to select rivers of priority management through the assessment of heavy metal pollution of sediments. We investigated the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nakdong River in South Korea and used various pollution indices to assess pollution risk and identify factors influencing pollution. The kriging method was used to determine heavy metal distribution. The pollution load index, potential ecological risk index, mean PEL quotient, and the Canada Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment quality index were used as sediment pollution assessment methods. The toxicity evaluation was performed on sites that appeared to be contaminated, by applying existing methods for assessing sediment pollution level and the national standards for evaluating the pollution level. The toxicity test was performed on Hyalella azteca, and a methodology for assessing sediment pollution level was proposed. Ecotoxicity was assessed at seven sites that were found to have heavy metal contaminants. The results showed that sites N1, N8, T28, and T29 were not toxic, while T8, T19, and T21 were. Thus, this study shows that high heavy metal pollution does not necessarily lead to a toxic environment. To assess sediment pollution, an additional assessment of toxicity should be made, along with assessments of existing sediment pollution. Our results demonstrate that streams showing high sediment pollution levels should be granted priority in management. The efforts should particularly focus on Cu at T8, Cr at T19, and Hg at T21.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Rios , Análise Espacial
16.
Exp Neurobiol ; 28(4): 537-546, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495082

RESUMO

Silent information regulator 2 (Sirtuin2 / SIRT2) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that regulates the cellular oxidative stress response. It modulates transcriptional silencing and protein stability through deacetylation of target proteins including histones. Previous studies have shown that SIRT2 plays a role in mood disorders and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we report that chronic stress suppresses SIRT2 expression in the hippocampus. Molecular and biochemical analyses indicate that the stress-induced decrease in the SIRT2 expression downregulates synaptic plasticity-related genes in the hippocampus through the increase of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (Ehmt2) (also known as G9a). shRNA-mediated knockdown of SIRT2 in the dentate gyrus alters the expression of synaptic plasticity- related genes in a way similar to those induced by chronic stress, and produces depression-like behaviors. Our results indicate that SIRT2 plays an important role in the response to stress, thereby modulating depression-like behaviors.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(3): 693-701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of adjuvant modalities for elderly Asian breast cancer patients using population-based data from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry database. METHODS: We identified 53,582 patients who underwent curative surgery between January 2005 and December 2010. The primary end point was the comparison of overall survival between the administration or omission of adjuvant treatment modalities, including endocrine treatment, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, in the elderly group (older than 75 years) compared with the control group (younger than 75 years). RESULTS: Of the 53,582 patients analyzed, the total number of elderly patients was 901 (1.7%), and the number of control patients was 52,681 (98.3%). Although elderly patients were found to have larger tumor sizes (p = 0.024) and higher pathological stages (p < 0.001) than the control group, elderly patients were less likely to undergo adjuvant treatment compared to the control group. However, use of endocrine treatment in elderly patients with HR-positive breast cancer is associated with improved overall survival (OS) (adjusted OR 0.417; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.240-0.726; p = 0.002). Furthermore, chemotherapy was associated with a significant improvement in OS in patients with stage II and III breast cancer (adjusted OR 0.657; 95% CI 0.462-0.934; p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Endocrine treatment and chemotherapy for elderly patients are associated with improved OS. Therefore, personalized decision-making based on the potential survival benefit of adjuvant treatment modalities should be made with the careful counseling of all elderly patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Causas de Morte , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia Adjuvante , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960468

RESUMO

In this study, thermally conductive composite films were fabricated using an anisotropic boron nitride (BN) and hybrid filler system mixed with spherical aluminum nitride (AlN) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles in a polyimide matrix. The hybrid system yielded a decrease in the through-plane thermal conductivity, however an increase in the in-plane thermal conductivity of the BN composite, resulting from the horizontal alignment and anisotropy of BN. The behavior of the in-plane thermal conductivity was theoretically treated using the Lewis⁻Nielsen and modified Lewis⁻Nielsen theoretical prediction models. A single-filler system using BN exhibited a relatively good fit with the theoretical model. Moreover, a hybrid system was developed based on two-population approaches, the additive and multiplicative. This development represented the first ever implementation of two different ceramic conducting fillers. The multiplicative-approach model yielded overestimated thermal conductivity values, whereas the additive approach exhibited better agreement for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of a binary-filler system.

19.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(1): 402-407, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510612

RESUMO

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome is a spectrum of disorders characterized by unique phenotypic features including multiple hamartomas caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome are representative diseases, and both have several common clinical features and differences. Because PTEN mutations are associated with an increased risk of malignancy including breast, thyroid, endometrial, and renal cancers, cancer surveillance is an important element of disease management. We report a germline mutation of the PTEN (c.723dupT, exon 7) identified in a young woman with a simultaneous occurrence of breast cancer, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and follicular neoplasm. This case suggests that it is critical for clinicians to recognize the phenotypic features associated with these syndromes to accurately diagnose them and provide preventive care.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/genética , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/terapia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Dermatofibrossarcoma/genética , Dermatofibrossarcoma/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/terapia , Humanos
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(40): 34625-34633, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216038

RESUMO

Controlling the anisotropy of two-dimensional materials with orientation-dependent heat transfer characteristics is a possible solution to resolve severe thermal issues in future electronic devices. We demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the in-plane thermal conductivity of stretchable poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanohybrid films containing small amounts (below 10 wt %) of hexagonal boron nitride ( h-BN) nanoplatelets. The h-BN nanoplatelets were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA polymer solution by ultrasonication without additional surface modification. The mixture was used to prepare thermally conductive nanocomposite films. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the resulting PVA/ h-BN nanocomposite films increased to 6.4 W/mK when the strain was increased from 0 to 100% in the horizontal direction. More specifically, the thermal conductivity of a PVA/ h-BN composite film with 10 wt % filler loading can be improved by up to 32 times as compared to pristine PVA. This outstanding thermal conductivity value is significantly larger than that of materials currently used in in-plane thermal management systems. This result is attributed to the anisotropic alignment of h-BN particles in the PVA chain matrix during stretching, enhancing phonon conductive paths and hence improving the thermal conductivity and thermal properties of PVA/ h-BN nanocomposite films. These polymer nanocomposites have low cost as the amount of expensive conductive fillers is reduced and can be potentially used as high-performance materials for thermal management systems such as heat sink and thermal interface materials, for future electronic and electrical devices.

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