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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130623, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320438

RESUMO

Stevioside (ST) is currently considered as a highly-demanded natural and zero-caloric replacer of sucrose with several health-promoting properties. Nonetheless, its bitter aftertaste limits its use in the food industry. Herein, glucosyl steviosides were synthesized using primarily a food-grade lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc kimchii dextransucrase and conversion yield (%) was 40.3%. A glucose moiety was transferred stereo-selectively to ST by α-1,6-linkage and this is the first report about obtaining rebaudioside A (Reb-A) like glucosyl stevioside-2 (STG-2). Glucosyl steviosides revealed greatly improved stability up to 120 °C and remained stable over 32.1% and 58.12% in the pH (1.4) compared with 30.55% of ST. Moreover, the glucosylated steviosides improved the stability, reaching 95% after 30 days and Reb-A like compound (STG-2) especially exhibited higher stability in commercial beverages. Furthermore, the glucosyl steviosides showed over 1.92- and 2.24-fold decreases than that of enzymatically modified ST in the glucose generation rate test.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Leuconostoc/genética , Edulcorantes
2.
Bioact Mater ; 7: 14-25, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466714

RESUMO

Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by administration of corticosteroids is a commonly used method in clinics using anti-inflammatory medicine. Oral administration or intra-articular injection of corticosteroids can reduce the pain and progress of cartilage degeneration, but they are usually insufficient to show local and long-term anti-inflammatory effects because of their fast clearance in the body. In this study, we suggest an injectable anti-OA drug depot system for sustained drug release that provides long-term effective therapeutic advantages. Amphiphilic poly(organophosphazene), which has temperature-dependent nanoparticle forming and sol-gel transition behaviors when dissolved in aqueous solution, was synthesized for triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) delivery. Because hydrophobic parts of the polymer can interact with hydrophobic parts of the TCA, the TCA was encapsulated into the self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles. The TCA-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles (TePNs) were well dispersed in an aqueous solution below room temperature so that they can be easily injected as a sol state into an intra-articular region. However, the TePNs solution transforms immediately to a viscose 3D hydrogel like a synovial fluid in the intra-articular region via the conducted body temperature. An in vitro TCA release study showed sustained TCA release for six weeks. One-time injection of the TePN hydrogel system in an early stage of OA-induced rat model showed a great inhibition effect against further OA progression. The OA-induced knees completely recovered as a healthy cartilage without any abnormal symptoms.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126732, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332475

RESUMO

Bio-heavy oil (BHO) is a renewable fuel, but its efficient use is problematic because its combustion may emit hazardous air pollutants (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, NOx, and SOx). Herein, catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5 zeolite was applied to upgrading BHO to drop-in fuel-range hydrocarbons with reduced contents of hazardous species such as PAH compounds and N- and S-containing species (NOx and SOx precursors). The effects of HZSM-5 desilication and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) addition to the feedstock on hydrocarbon production were explored. The apparent activation energy for the thermal decomposition of BHO was up to 37.5% lowered by desilicated HZSM-5 (DeHZSM-5) compared with HZSM-5. Co-pyrolyzing LLDPE with BHO increased the content of drop-in fuel-range hydrocarbons and decreased the content of PAH compounds. The DeHZSM-5 was effective in producing drop-in fuel-range hydrocarbons from a mixture of BHO and LLDPE and suppressing the formation of N- and S-containing species and PAH compounds. The DeHZSM-5 enhanced the hydrocarbon production by up to 58.5% because of its enhanced porosity and high acid site density compared to its parent HZSM-5. This study experimentally validated that BHO can be upgraded to less hazardous fuel via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis with LLDPE over DeHZSM-5.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Catálise , Substâncias Perigosas , Temperatura Alta
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127222, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560479

RESUMO

This study proposes a method to valorize hazardous waste such as used COVID-19 face mask via catalytic gasification over Ni-loaded ZSM-5 type zeolites. The 25% Ni was found as an optimal loading on ZSM-5 in terms of H2 production. Among different zeolites (ZSM-5(30), ZSM-5(80), ZSM-5(280), mesoporous (m)-ZSM-5(30), and HY(30)), 25% Ni/m-ZSM-5(30) led to the highest H2 selectivity (45.04 vol%), most likely because of the highest Ni dispersion on the m-ZSM-5(30) surface, high porosity, and acid site density of the m-ZSM-5(30). The content of N-containing species (e.g., caprolactum and nitriles) in the gasification product was also reduced, when steam was used as gasifying agent, which is the source of potentially hazardous air pollutants (e.g., NOx). The increase in the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio resulted in lower tar conversion and lower H2 generation. At comparable conditions, steam gasification of the mask led to ~15 vol% higher H2 selectivity than air gasification. Overall, the Ni-loaded zeolite catalyst can not only suppress the formation of hazardous substances but also enhance the production of hydrogen from the hazardous waste material such as COVID-19 mask waste.

5.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829084

RESUMO

In this study, the optimization and modeling of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble curcuminoids prepared using novel steviol glycosides (SGs) was carried out using four independent process variables at varying levels-X1: microwave power (50-200 W), X2: stevioside concentration (50-200 mg/mL), X3: curcumin concentration (20-200 mg/mL), and X4: time (1-10 min)-in response surface methodology configuration. Moreover, the effects of stevioside, as the most cost-effective natural solubilizer, were also evaluated. The water solubility of curcuminoids increased from 11 to 1320 mg/L with the addition of stevioside as a natural solubilizer. Moreover, microwave heating synergistically with stevioside addition significantly (p < 0.05) increased the solubility up to 5400 mg/L. Based on the results, the optimum conditions providing the maximum solubilization of 16,700 mg/L were 189 W microwave power, 195 g/L stevioside concentration, 183 g/L curcuminoid concentration, and 9 min of incubation time. Moreover, MAE of curcuminoids using SGs might render a significant advantage for its wide-scale application to solubilizing the multitude of insoluble functional flavonoids in fruits, plants, and food materials.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832313

RESUMO

The development of novel anode materials for high energy density is required. Alloying Si with other metals is a promising approach to utilize the high capacity of Si. In this work, we optimized the composition of a Si-Ti-Al ternary alloy to achieve excellent electrochemical performance in terms of capacity, cyclability, and rate capability. The detailed internal structures of the alloys were characterized through their atomic compositions and diffraction patterns. The lithiation process of the alloy was monitored using real-time scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the mechanical stability of the optimized alloy was strongly enhanced compared to that of the pure silicon material.

7.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 153: 109941, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785432

RESUMO

Compound K (C-K) and Rh2, which are present at low levels in ginseng and ginseng extracts, have higher intestinal absorption rates than other ginsenosides. Here, we attempted to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to C-K using a ß-glucosidase from Penicillium decumbens. Ten commercially available enzymes were screened to identify enzymes that can convert ginsenoside Rb1 to C-K, resulting in the selection of a P. decumbens-derived ß-glucosidase. ß-Glucosidase showed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C; its substrate specificity for ginsenoside Rb1 was investigated. The main glucoside-hydrolyzing pathways were as follows: ginsenoside Rb1 or Rd → gypenoside XVII → F2 → C-K and ginsenoside Rg3 → Rh2. The P. decumbens-derived ß-glucosidase was used to generate C-K and Rh2 using protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides as substrates. Additionally, to apply this enzyme to the commercialized red ginseng extract products, the contents of C-K and Rh2 in the total ginsenosides significantly (p < 0.05) increased up to 36-fold and 8.9-fold, respectively, higher than prior to subjecting to biotransformation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the dual biotransformation of C-K and Rh2 by a food-grade commercial enzyme. This study demonstrates that the use of a specific ß-glucosidase may increase C-K and Rh2 contents in the ginseng extract through a simple biotransformation process and, thus, enhance its health benefits.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770024

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of exposure to indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms in children. Sixty-four children (40 boys and 24 girls) with moderate-to-severe AD, aged under 18 years were enrolled in the study. They were followed up from February 2019 through November 2020. Exposure to indoor PM2.5 in each household of the enrolled children and their AD symptoms were measured daily. The generalized linear mixed model was utilized for statistical analysis. Subdivision analysis was performed by stratifying the patients by age, sex, season, severity, the presence of family allergic diseases, sensitization, and indoor environment conditions including temperature and relative humidity. A total of 9,321 person-days of AD symptom data were collected. The average PM2.5 concentration was 28.7 ± 24.3 µg/m3, with the highest value in winter (47.1 ± 29.6 µg/m3). The overall effect of PM2.5 on AD symptoms was not statistically significant. However, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in indoor PM2.5 concentration increased AD symptom scores by 16.5% (95% CI: 6.5, 27.5) in spring and12.6% (95% CI: 4.3, 21.5) in winter, 6.7% (95% CI: 2.3, 11.3) at indoor temperatures of <25.5 °C, and by 15.0% (95% CI: 3.5, 27.7) with no use of an air purifier. The harmful effect of PM2.5 in boys, in children aged ≥6 years, and in children with inhalant allergen sensitization was significant, showing an increase in AD symptoms of 4.9% (95% CI: 1.4, 8.6), 12.0% (95% CI: 5.3, 19.1), and 7.0% (95% CI: 1.9, 12.3) per 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5, respectively. Furthermore, children with inhalant allergen sensitization plus severe symptoms (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD ≥ 30.7, median value) showed more harmful effects from exposure to PM2.5 (15.7% (95% CI: 4.5, 28.1) increase in AD symptom scores per 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5 increase). Indoor exposure to PM2.5 exacerbated AD symptoms in children in spring, winter, and at indoor temperatures of < 25.5 °C. In particular, this harmful effect was prominent in children with inhalant allergen sensitization and severe symptoms. Minimizing exposure to indoor PM2.5 is needed for the proper management of AD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estações do Ano
9.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 153: 109939, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798448

RESUMO

Rubusoside, which is used as a natural sweetener or a solubilizing agent for water-insoluble functional materials, is currently expensive to produce owing to the high cost of the membrane-based technologies needed for its extraction and purification from the sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee). Therefore, this study was carried out to screen for lactic acid bacteria that possess enzymes capable of bio-transforming stevioside into rubusoside. Subsequently, one such rubusoside-producing enzyme was isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum GS100. Located on the bacterial cell surface, this enzyme was stable at pH 4.5-6.5 and 30-40 °C, and it produced rubusoside as a major product through its stevioside-hydrolyzing activity. Importantly, the enzyme showed higher ß-glucosidase activity toward the ß-linked glucosidic bond of stevioside than toward other ß-linked glucobioses. Under optimal conditions, 70 U/L of the rubusoside-producing enzyme could produce 69.03 mM rubusoside from 190 mM stevioside. The ß-glucosidase activity on the cell surface was high at 35 h of culture. This is the first report detailing the production of rubusoside from stevioside by an enzyme derived from a food-grade lactic acid bacterium. The application of this ß-glucosidase could greatly reduce the cost of rubusoside production, hence benefiting all industries that use this natural product.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807575

RESUMO

While valley polarization with strong Zeeman splitting is the most prominent characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors under magnetic fields, enhancement of the Zeeman splitting has been demonstrated by incorporating magnetic dopants into the host materials. Unlike Fe, Mn, and Co, V is a distinctive dopant for ferromagnetic semiconducting properties at room temperature with large Zeeman shifting of band edges. Nevertheless, little known is the excitons interacting with spin-polarized carriers in V-doped TMDs. Here, we report anomalous circularly polarized photoluminescence (CPL) in a V-doped WSe2 monolayer at room temperature. Excitons couple to V-induced spin-polarized holes to generate spin-selective positive trions, leading to differences in the populations of neutral excitons and trions between left and right CPL. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we elucidate the origin of excitons and trions that are inherently distinct for defect-mediated and impurity-mediated trions. Ferromagnetic characteristics are further confirmed by the significant Zeeman splitting of nanodiamonds deposited on the V-doped WSe2 monolayer.

11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739364

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped strain (R2A-3T) was isolated from the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Centrodinium punctatum and identified as a novel genus and new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The optimum conditions for growth of the strain were at 25 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and 92 core genes sets revealed that strain R2A-3T belongs to the family Nevskiaceae in the class Gammaproteobacteria and represented an independent taxon separated from other genera. The 16S rRNA gene of strain R2A-3T showed the highest sequence similarity to Polycyclovorans algicola TG408T (95.2%), Fontimonas thermophila HA-01T (94.1%) and Sinimarinibacterium flocculans NH6-24T (93.2%), and less than 92.8 % similarity to other genera in the family Nevskiaceae. The genome length of strain R2A-3T was 3608892 bp with 65.2 mol% G+C content. Summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c) was the major fatty acid (>10 %). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were detected as the major polar lipids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. According to its phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic features, strain R2A-3T represents a new species in the new genus of the family Nevskiaceae. It is recommended to name it Flagellatimonas centrodinii gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is R2A-3T (=KCTC 82469T=GDMCC 1.2523T).


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona
12.
JACS Au ; 1(9): 1399-1411, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604850

RESUMO

Gluing dynamic, wet biological tissue is important in injury treatment yet difficult to achieve. Polymeric adhesives are inconvenient to handle due to rapid cross-linking and can raise biocompatibility concerns. Inorganic nanoparticles adhere weakly to wet surfaces. Herein, an aqueous suspension of guanidinium-functionalized chitin nanoparticles as a biomedical adhesive with biocompatible, hemostatic, and antibacterial properties is developed. It glues porcine skin up to 3000-fold more strongly (30 kPa) than inorganic nanoparticles at the same concentration and adheres at neutral pH, which is unachievable with mussel-inspired adhesives alone. The glue exhibits an instant adhesion (2 min) to fully wet surfaces, and the glued assembly endures one-week underwater immersion. The suspension is lowly viscous and stable, hence sprayable and convenient to store. A nanomechanic study reveals that guanidinium moieties are chaotropic, creating strong, multifaceted noncovalent bonds with proteins: salt bridges comprising ionic attraction and bidentate hydrogen bonding with acidic moieties, cation-π interactions with aromatic moieties, and hydrophobic interactions. The adhesion mechanism provides a blueprint for advanced tissue adhesives.

13.
Small ; : e2103632, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677915

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic reactions are known to take place at the catalyst/electrolyte interface. Whereas recent studies of size-dependent activity in nanoparticles and thickness-dependent activity of thin films imply that the sub-surface layers of a catalyst can contribute to the catalytic activity as well, most of these studies consider actual modification of the surfaces. In this study, the role of catalytically active sub-surface layers was investigated by employing atomic-scale thickness control of the La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (LSMO) films and heterostructures, without altering the catalyst/electrolyte interface. The activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) shows a non-monotonic thickness dependence in the LSMO films and a continuous screening effect in LSMO/SrRuO3 heterostructures. The observation leads to the definition of an "electrochemically-relevant depth" on the order of 10 unit cells. This study on the electrocatalytic activity of epitaxial heterostructures provides new insight in designing efficient electrocatalytic nanomaterials and core-shell architectures.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695946

RESUMO

Today, a lot of research on autonomous driving technology is being conducted, and various vehicles with autonomous driving functions, such as ACC (adaptive cruise control) are being released. The autonomous vehicle recognizes obstacles ahead by the fusion of data from various sensors, such as lidar and radar sensors, including camera sensors. As the number of vehicles equipped with such autonomous driving functions increases, securing safety and reliability is a big issue. Recently, Mobileye proposed the RSS (responsibility-sensitive safety) model, which is a white box mathematical model, to secure the safety of autonomous vehicles and clarify responsibility in the case of an accident. In this paper, a method of applying the RSS model to a variable focus function camera that can cover the recognition range of a lidar sensor and a radar sensor with a single camera sensor is considered. The variables of the RSS model suitable for the variable focus function camera were defined, the variable values were determined, and the safe distances for each velocity were derived by applying the determined variable values. In addition, as a result of considering the time required to obtain the data, and the time required to change the focal length of the camera, it was confirmed that the response time obtained using the derived safe distance was a valid result.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Radar , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696048

RESUMO

The primary goal of this study is to develop a mathematical model that can establish a transfer function relationship between the "external" pulse pressures measured by a tonometer and the "internal" pulse pressure in the artery. The purpose of the model is to accurately estimate and rebuild the internal pulse pressure waveforms using arterial tonometry measurements. To develop and validate a model without human subjects and operators for consistency, this study employs a radial pulse generation system, a robotic tonometry system, and a write model with an artificial skin and vessel. A transfer function model is developed using the results of the pulse testing and the mechanical characterization testing of the skin and vessel. To evaluate the model, the pulse waveforms are first reconstructed for various reference pulses using the model with tonometry data. They are then compared with pulse waveforms acquired by internal measurement (by the built-in pressure sensor in the vessel) the external measurement (the on-skin measurement by the robotic tonometry system). The results show that the model-produced pulse waveforms coinciding well with the internal pulse waveforms with small relative errors, indicating the effectiveness of the model in reproducing the actual pulse pressures inside the vessel.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Manometria , Pulso Arterial , Artéria Radial
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102911, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713632

RESUMO

The confined defects in 2D van der Waals (vdW)-layered semiconductors can be easily tailored using charge doping, strain, or an electric field. Nevertheless, gate-tunable magnetic order via intrinsic defects has been rarely observed to date. Herein, a gate-tunable magnetic order via resonant Se vacancies in WSe2 is demonstrated. The Se-vacancy states are probed via photocurrent measurements with gating to convert unoccupied states to partially occupied states associated with photo-excited carrier recombination. The magneto-photoresistance hysteresis is modulated by gating, which is consistent with the density functional calculations. The two energy levels associated with Se vacancies split with increasing laser power, owing to the robust Coulomb interaction and strong spin-orbit coupling. The findings offer a new approach for controlling the magnetic properties of defects in optoelectronic and spintronic devices using vdW-layered semiconductors.

17.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(4): 588-595, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642279

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Although prolonged post-operative ileus (PPOI) is an important factor for the prolonged length of post-operative hospital stay, there is still a lack of effective predictive and therapeutic methods for PPOI. Previous studies reported that increased inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), are associated with malignancies. The aim of our study is to elucidate the association between peri-operative inflammatory markers and PPOI after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: We enrolled patients who received gastrectomy for gastric cancer from June 2013 to January 2016 at a single tertiary referral center in Seoul, Korea. We evaluated peri-operative inflammatory markers, including CRP level, NLR, and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of enrolled patients. We compared these data between control group and PPOI group. Results: A total of 390 subjects were enrolled in this study, and 132 patients (33.8%) showed PPOI. In univariate analysis, preoperative CRP level and NLR, post-operative day (POD) 1 CRP level, NLR, and PLR, and POD3 CRP level, NLR, and PLR were significantly associated with PPOI. In multivariate analysis, preoperative NLR (P = 0.014), POD1 NLR (P = 0.019), POD3 CRP (P = 0.004), and POD3 NLR (P = 0.008) were independent risk factors for PPOI. Conclusions: Peri-operative inflammatory markers, such as CRP level and NLR, are useful predictive factors for PPOI who received gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs can be preventive and therapeutic agents for PPOI.

18.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(4): 639-649, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642285

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The aim of this study is to identify the alteration in intestinal permeability with regard to the development of post-operative ileus (POI). Moreover, we investigated drug repositioning in the treatment of POI. Methods: An experimental POI model was developed using guinea pigs. To measure intestinal permeability, harvested intestinal membranes of the ileum and proximal colon was used in an Ussing chamber. To identify the mechanisms associated with altered permeability, we measured leukocyte count and expression of calprotectin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and mast cell tryptase. We compared control, POI, and drug groups (mosapride [0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, orally], glutamine [500 mg/kg, orally], or ketotifen [1 mg/kg, orally] with regard to these parameters. Results: Increased permeability after surgery significantly decreased after administration of mosapride, glutamine, or ketotifen. Leukocyte counts increased in the POI group and decreased significantly after administration of mosapride (0.3 mg/kg) in the ileum, and mosapride (0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg), glutamine, or ketotifen in the proximal colon. Increased expression of calprotectin after surgery decreased after administration of mosapride (0.3 mg/kg), glutamine, or ketotifen in the ileum and proximal colon, and mosapride (1 mg/kg) in the ileum. The expression of claudin-1 decreased significantly and that of claudin-2 increased after operation. After administration of glutamine, the expression of both proteins was restored. Finally, mast cell tryptase levels increased in the POI group and decreased significantly after administration of ketotifen. Conclusions: The alteration in intestinal permeability is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of POI. We repositioned 3 drugs (mosapride, glutamine, and ketotifen) as novel therapeutic agents for POI.

19.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112350, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474899

RESUMO

At the initial stage of wound healing, growth factors stimulate tissue regeneration by interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to rapid wound repair and structural support. Chicken eggshell membrane (ESM) is a low-cost and highly functional ECM biomaterial for tissue regeneration. However, natural ESM has limitations for tissue engineering purposes because it is difficult to control the size, shape, and biocompatibility of the surfaces. To overcome this, blends of synthetic materials and natural ESMs, such as soluble eggshell membrane protein, are combined for biomaterial applications. Unfortunately, it is difficult to pattern fibrous structure. Here, we modified the natural chicken ESM through weak acid treatment to promote wound healing and skin regeneration without loss of fibrous structure. Treatment of citric acid and acetic acid reacted the amine or amide group with carboxyl groups (R-COOH) and achieved hydrophilicity for adherence of proliferating regenerative cells. Our in vitro study revealed that the modified ESM scaffolds significantly promoted human dermal fibroblasts adhesion, viability, proliferation, and cytokine secretion, compared with natural ESM. In addition, the modified ESM accelerated skin regeneration and enhanced the wound healing process even at early stages in an in vivo rat wound model. Collectively, the modified ESM performed best for promoting skin regeneration, cytokine secretion, epidermal cell proliferation, and controlling the inflammatory response both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Casca de Ovo , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Matriz Extracelular , Fibroblastos , Ratos , Pele , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização
20.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564426

RESUMO

Barley sprouts are known to have several effective physiological activities. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of a barley sprout hot water extract (BSE) was confirmed. Saponarin was quantitatively analyzed in BSE using HPLC, and the inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation into adipocytes was confirmed by Oil Red O staining, TG assay, and Western blotting. In addition, the inhibitory effect of BSE on adipocyte growth was confirmed through glucose uptake and lipolysis of adipocytes. C57/BL/6N mice were induced to obesity with a high-fat diet, and BSE was administered to confirm the effect on an animal model. Weight gain, morphological changes in adipose tissue, changes in the food efficiency ratio, and blood biochemical changes were observed, and an improvement effect on fatty liver was confirmed. As a result, the anti-obesity effect of BSE was confirmed in vitro, and it was confirmed that this effect was also effective in vivo and that it could be helpful in the treatment of obesity-related diseases.

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