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1.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e39, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are various Helicobacter species colonizing the stomachs of animals. Although Helicobacter species usually cause asymptomatic infection in the hosts, clinical signs can occur due to gastritis associated with Helicobacter in animals. Among them, Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancers. As the standard therapies used to treat H. pylori have proven insufficient, alternative options are needed to prevent and eradicate the diseases associated with this bacterium. Cheonwangbosim-dan (CBD), a traditional herbal formula that is popular in East Asia, has been commonly used for arterial or auricular flutter, neurosis, insomnia, and cardiac malfunction-induced disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the antimicrobial effect of CBD on H. pylori-infected human gastric carcinoma AGS cells and model mice. METHODS: AGS cells were infected with H. pylori and treated with a variety of concentrations of CBD or antibiotics. Mice were given 3 oral inoculations with H. pylori and then dosed with CBD (100 or 500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks or with standard antibiotics for 1 week. One week after the last treatment, gastric samples were collected and examined by histopathological analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Our results showed that CBD treatment of AGS cells significantly reduced the H. pylori-induced elevations of interleukin-8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In the animal model, CBD treatment inhibited the colonization of H. pylori and the levels of malondialdehyde, inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 in gastric tissues. CBD also decreased the phosphorylation levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that CBD might be a prospective candidate for treating H. pylori-induced gastric injury.

2.
J Learn Disabil ; : 22219420908239, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125226

RESUMO

The authors propose an integrative theoretical model of reading called the direct and indirect effects model of reading (DIER) that builds on and extends several prominent theoretical models of reading. According to DIER, the following skills and knowledge are involved in reading comprehension: word reading, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, background knowledge (content knowledge and discourse knowledge), reading affect or socioemotions, higher order cognitions and regulation (e.g., inference, perspective taking, reasoning, and comprehension monitoring), vocabulary, grammatical (morphosyntactic and syntactic) knowledge, phonology, morphology, orthography, and domain-general cognitions (e.g., working memory and attentional control). Importantly, DIER also describes the nature of structural relations-component skills are hypothesized to have (a) hierarchical relations; (b) dynamic (or differential) relations as a function of text, activity (including assessment), and development; and (c) interactive relations. The authors then examined the hierarchical relations hypothesis by comparing a flat or direct relations model with hierarchical relations (or direct and indirect effects) models. Structural equation model results from 201 Korean-speaking first graders supported the hierarchical relations hypothesis and revealed multichanneled direct and indirect effects of component skills. These results are discussed in light of DIER, including instructional and assessment implications for reading development and reading difficulties.

3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 194: 104813, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092536

RESUMO

Theory of mind has received intensive attention in research as an important skill to develop. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates its role in discourse comprehension. In the current study, we examined the mediating role of theory of mind in the relations of foundational language and cognitive skills (working memory, attentional control, vocabulary, and grammatical knowledge) to discourse comprehension using the direct and indirect effects model of text comprehension and production (Kim, 2016) as a theoretical framework, and using longitudinal data from kindergarten to Grade 2. Structural equation model results showed that theory of mind partially mediated the relations in both grades, and the effects (standardized regression weights) were similar in kindergarten and Grade 2. Interestingly, the relations of language and cognitive skills to theory of mind differed in kindergarten versus Grade 2. Language and cognitive skills had moderate to strong longitudinal stability, and these skills in kindergarten were indirectly related to discourse comprehension in Grade 2 via the language and cognitive skills in Grade 2. These results support the mediating role of theory of mind as well as the nature of structural and longitudinal relations among language and cognitive skills and to discourse comprehension.

4.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050669

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) is a major crop cultivated in various regions and consumed globally. The formation of volatile compounds in soybeans is influenced by the cultivar as well as environmental factors, such as the climate and soil in the cultivation areas. This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to analyze the volatile compounds of soybeans cultivated in Korea, China, and North America. The multivariate data analysis of partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were then applied to GC-MS data sets. The soybeans could be clearly discriminated according to their geographical origins on the PLS-DA score plot. In particular, 25 volatile compounds, including terpenes (limonene, myrcene), esters (ethyl hexanoate, butyl butanoate, butyl prop-2-enoate, butyl acetate, butyl propanoate), aldehydes (nonanal, heptanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-hept-2-enal, acetaldehyde) were main contributors to the discrimination of soybeans cultivated in China from those cultivated in other regions in the PLS-DA score plot. On the other hand, 15 volatile compounds, such as 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2,5-dimethylhexan-2-ol, octanal, and heptanal, were related to Korean soybeans located on the negative PLS 2 axis, whereas 12 volatile compounds, such as oct-1-en-3-ol, heptan-4-ol, butyl butanoate, and butyl acetate, were responsible for North American soybeans. However, the multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA) was not able to clearly distinguish soybeans cultivated in Korea, except for those from the Gyeonggi and Kyeongsangbuk provinces.

5.
Food Chem ; 312: 126085, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896460

RESUMO

The effects of hydroxycinnamic acids such as cinnamic acid (CNA), p-coumaric acid(CMA), caffeic acid (CFA), and chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the reduction of furan in canned-coffee model systems (CCMS) containing α-dicarbonyls [glyoxal (GO) or methylglyoxal (MGO)] were investigated. The concentration of furan in CCMS containing GO, which was 59.76 µg/L, was reduced by the addition of CFA and CGA to 48.31 µg/L and 41.38 µg/L, respectively; similarly, the furan concentration in model system containing MGO was 45.79 µg/L, and this decreased to 35.41 µg/L (by CFA) and 32.65 µg/L (by CGA), respectively. In addition, the effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on the trapping of GO and MGO were determined. CFA and CGA greatly reduced the concentration of GO to 303.51 µg/L and 267.80 µg/L, respectively (compared to 515.79 µg/L in the control), whereas that of MGO was decreased to 207.01 µg/L and 219.14 µg/L (compared to 417.14 µg/L in the control). The trapping of α-dicarbonyls such as GO and MGO by CFA and CGA could be closely related to furan reduction in CCMS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Furanos/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Café/química , Glioxal/química
6.
Child Dev ; 91(2): 638-660, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657166

RESUMO

Reading skills are foundational for daily lives, academic achievement, and careers. In this study, we systematically reviewed literacy interventions in low- and middle-income countries, and estimated their effects on children's reading skills using a meta-analytic approach. A total of 67 studies (N = 213,464) from 32 countries found in various databases (e.g., PsycINFO, ERIC) and sources (e.g., United States Agency for International Development) met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed an overall effect of .30 across various literacy outcomes. Effects varied for different outcomes, such that largest effects were found in emergent literacy skills (e.g., .40) and the smallest effects in reading comprehension (.25) and oral language skills (.20). Effects also varied as a function of other features such as teacher training support.

7.
Food Chem ; 305: 125461, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505412

RESUMO

The quality of fermented soybeans can be determined by diverse metabolites produced by microorganisms. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was applied to investigate the differences in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of fermented soybeans by different microorganisms [e.g., molds, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and other bacteria]. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for volatile metabolites profiles indicated that the fungi group (mold/yeast) was clearly discriminated from the bacteria group (bacteria/LAB). The metabolic pathways related to the formation of volatile metabolites also differed according to microorganisms. In particular, the formation of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols and esters increased in the fungi group, while that of volatiles derived from fatty acids was superior in the bacteria group. In addition, we could determine the microorganism-specific metabolites using a correlation network analysis. This study can provide the fundamental knowledge on the metabolic differences according to the type of microorganisms in fermented soybeans.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Soja/metabolismo , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Álcoois Graxos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leveduras/metabolismo
8.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Writing involves multiple processes, drawing on a number of language, cognitive, and print-related skills, and knowledge. According to the Direct and Indirect Effects model of Writing (DIEW; Kim & Park, 2019, Reading and Writing, 32, 1319), these multiple factors have hierarchical, interactive, and dynamic relations. AIMS: I examined the hierarchical relations of language and cognitive skills to written composition as well as the relation of topic knowledge to written composition, using DIEW as a theoretical framework. SAMPLE: One hundred thirty-two English-speaking students in Grade 4 were assessed on written composition, topic knowledge, oral language (vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, discourse-level oral production), higher order cognitions (inference, perspective taking [theory of mind], monitoring), domain-general cognitions (working memory and attention), and transcription skills (spelling and handwriting fluency). METHODS: Structural equation modelling was used to compare hierarchical relations models with a direct or flat relations model. RESULTS: The hierarchical relations model was supported. Discourse oral language skills and transcription skills completely mediated the relations of the other component skills to written composition, and the included component skills explained 82% of variance in written composition. Substantial total effects were found for discourse language, transcription, attention, working memory, vocabulary, theory of mind, and grammatical knowledge. Topic knowledge was moderately related to writing, but this relation became weak once the other skills were accounted for. CONCLUSIONS: Component skills have hierarchical structural relations and make direct and indirect contributions to written composition. Furthermore, the role of topic knowledge in written composition appears constrained by language and transcription skills for developing writers.

10.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2758-2776, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509249

RESUMO

The changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) were investigated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). A total of 144 and 129 compounds were identified in soy sauce with long-term fermentation by SPME and SBSE, respectively. The contents of most compounds, such as acids, aldehydes, benzene and benzene derivatives, esters, lactones, pyrazines, pyrones, and pyrroles, showed a tendency to increase, whereas those of alcohols and ketones decreased according to long-term fermentation. In addition, principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were applied to discriminate soy sauce samples according to fermentation periods and determine key volatile compounds related to long-term fermentation. The initial fermentation stages were mainly associated with some alcohols, ketones, and lactones, whereas the later stages were strongly associated with most esters, some phenols, benzene and benzene derivatives, and pyrroles. Moreover, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (ethyl isovalerate), ethyl pentanoate (ethyl valerate), 1-octen-3-yl acetate, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), ethyl benzoate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethanone (2-acetylpyrrole), and 5-pentyl-2-oxolanone (γ-nonalactone). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study investigated changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) using solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction. In addition, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were determined. These results may help to predict the effective contributors related to long-term fermentation of soy sauce and improve the quality of soy sauce during long-term fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
11.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370295

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with poor prognosis and progression to lung fibrosis related to genetic factors as well as environmental factors. In fact, it was discovered that in South Korea many people who used humidifier disinfectants containing polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), died of lung fibrosis. Currently two anti-fibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been approved by the FDA, but unfortunately, do not cure the disease. Since the histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is associated with progression to chronic diseases and with fibrotic phenomena in the kidney, heart and lung tissues, we investigated the anti-fibrotic effects of CG-745, an HDAC inhibitor. After lung fibrosis was induced in two animal models by bleomycin and PHMG instillation, the regulation of fibrosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers was assessed. CG-745 exhibited potent prevention of collagen production, inflammatory cell accumulation, and cytokines release in both models. Additionally, N-cadherin and vimentin expression were lowered significantly by the treatment of CG-745. The anti-fibrotic effects of CG-745 proven by the EMT regulation may suggest a potential therapeutic effect of CG-745 on lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biguanidas/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Indóis/química , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Piridonas/química , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108270, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408740

RESUMO

Aspergillus oryzae is an important microbial starter for making diverse fermented foods due to its high hydrolytic enzyme activities. In this study, two strains of A. oryzae (AOB/AOK) with different activities of hydrolytic enzymes, such as α-amylase, protease and lipase, were cultured under various conditions of temperature, fermentation time, and initial pH. Comparative mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolomic analysis was performed to obtain primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolite data sets. In the results of partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), fatty acids and volatile metabolites derived from fatty acids and amino acids mainly contributed to AOK with higher protease and lipase activities, whereas carbohydrate-derived volatiles, sugars and sugar alcohols were related to main metabolites of AOB with higher α-amylase activity. The temperature and initial pH were critical factors for the generation of primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolites, such as organic acids, fatty acids-derived volatiles, and some amino acids, in both A. oryzae strains. This study demonstrated that the specific culture conditions were closely linked to the formation of primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolites of A. oryzae.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipase/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341505

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Polycan, a ß-glucan produced from the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, in combination with glucosamine in reducing knee osteoarthritis-associated symptoms. Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of a formulated product composed of 16.7 mg of Polycan and 250 mg of glucosamine (Group A), 16.7 mg of Polycan and 500 mg of glucosamine (Group B), or 500 mg of glucosamine (control group) per capsule, administered as three capsules once per day over a period of 12 weeks, conducted with 100 osteoarthritis patients, aged 35-80 years. The primary outcome measure was osteoarthritis symptoms assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures included rescue medication use (according to data from a patient-reported diary) and other safety indices (body weight, blood pressure, hematological, and biochemistry markers). Results: Compared with the control group, Group B demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the total WOMAC score after 12 weeks of treatment (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in the frequency of rescue medication used in Groups A and B compared with the control group (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in hematology and biochemistry parameters or health indices between the active and the control group. Conclusion: Among patients with mild or moderate osteoarthritis, a daily oral dose of Polycan (50 mg) in combination with glucosamine (750 mg or 1500 mg; Group A or B, respectively) resulted in a better treatment outcome than treatment with glucosamine (1500 mg) alone.

14.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 28(4): 1037-1045, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275703

RESUMO

This study investigated the differences and changes in the volatile profiles of buckwheat soksungjang (BS) inoculated with multiple microbial starters (Lactobacillus brevis + Aspergillus oryzae, BS-LA vs. Lactobacillus brevis + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, BS-LB) during fermentation using SPME coupled with GC-MS and partial least square-discriminant analysis. BS samples fermented for 5 weeks could be differentiated from other BS samples with shorter fermentation periods, and the BS-LA and BS-LB samples fermented for 5 weeks were separated. Acids, benzenes, and esters were main volatile compounds in both BS samples, however, their differences and changes were varied. The increase of 3-methylbutanoic acid was bigger in BS-LB than BS-LA, while the contents of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were relatively higher in BS-LA than BS-LB. Furthermore, the contents of esters of BS-LA significantly increased during fermentation. These results indicate that the volatile profiles of BS samples depend on the fermentation periods and the combination of microbial starters.

15.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195658

RESUMO

Rice has been fermented to enhance its application in some foods. Although various microbes are involved in rice fermentation, their roles in the formation of volatile compounds, which are important to the characteristics of fermented rice, are not clear. In this study, diverse approaches, such as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), metabolic pathway-based volatile compound formations, and correlation analysis between volatile compounds and microbes were applied to compare metabolic characteristics according to each microbe and determine microbe-specific metabolites in fermented rice inoculated by molds, yeasts, and lactic acid bacteria. Metabolic changes were relatively more activated in fermented rice inoculated by molds compared to other microbes. Volatile compound profiles were significantly changed depending on each microbe as well as the group of microbes. Regarding some metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, it could be observed that certain formation pathways of volatile compounds were closely linked with the type of microbes. Also, some volatile compounds were strongly correlated to specific microbes; for example, branched-chain volatiles were closely link to Aspergillus oryzae, while Lactobacillus plantarum had strong relationship with acetic acid in fermented rice. This study can provide an insight into the effects of fermentative microbes on the formation of volatile compounds in rice fermentation.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma
16.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987370

RESUMO

Styrene can be formed by the microbial metabolism of bacteria and fungi. In our previous study, styrene was determined as a spoilage marker of Fuji apples decayed by Penicillium expansum, which is responsible for postharvest diseases. In the present study, P. expansum was cultivated in potato dextrose broth added with phenylalanine-which is a precursor of styrene-using different initial pH values and cultivation times. Volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with stir-bar sorptive extraction. The 76 detected volatile compounds included 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methyl butanal, oct-1-en-3-ol, geosmin, nonanal, hexanal, and γ-decalactone. In particular, the formation of 10 volatile compounds derived from phenylalanine (including styrene and 2-phenylethanol) showed different patterns according to pH and the cultivation time. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots indicated that the volatile compounds were affected more by pH than by the cultivation time. These results indicated that an acidic pH enhances the formation of styrene and that pH could be a critical factor in the production of styrene by P. expansum. This is the first study to analyze volatile compounds produced by P. expansum according to pH and cultivation time and to determine their effects on the formation of styrene.


Assuntos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Penicillium/metabolismo , Estireno/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Estireno/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
17.
Food Res Int ; 120: 12-18, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000221

RESUMO

Classification and characterization of agricultural products at molecular levels are important but often impractical with genotyping, particularly for soybeans that have numerous types of variety and landraces. Alternatively, metabolic signature, a determinant for nutritional value, can be the good molecular indicator, which reflects cultivation region-dependent factors such as climate and soil. Accordingly, we analyzed the integrative metabolic profiles of Korean soybeans cultivated in 7 different provinces (representative production areas), and explored the potential association with geographic traits. A total of 210 primary and secondary metabolites were profiled using gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) and liquid-chromatography Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). Despite the partial heterogeneity of the soybean varieties, the metabolomic phenotypic analysis based on multivariate statistics inferred the chemical compositional characteristics was primarily governed by the regional specificity. The OPLS-DA model proposed biomarker cluster re-composed with 5 metabolites (tryptophan, malonylgenistin, malonyldaidzin, N-acetylornithine, and allysine) (AUCs = 0.870-1.0). The most distinctive metabolic profiles were identified with the soybeans of Gunsan (middle-western coast) and Daegu (east-southern inland area), which were best characterized by the highest contents of isoflavones and amino acids, respectively. Further interrogation on geographic data suggested the combinatorial association of region-specific metabolic features with general soil texture and climate traits (total rainfall and average annual temperature).

18.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917562

RESUMO

The production of rice-based beverages fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can increase the consumption of rice in the form of a dairy replacement. This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile components in rice fermented by 12 different LABs. Volatile compounds of fermented rice samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME), while nonvolatile compounds were determined using gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) after derivatization. The 47 identified volatile compounds included acids, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, ketones, alcohols, benzene and benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, and terpenes, while the 37 identified nonvolatile components included amino acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates. The profiles of volatile and nonvolatile components generally differed significantly between obligatorily homofermentative/facultatively heterofermentative LAB and obligatorily heterofermentative LAB. The rice sample fermented by Lactobacillus sakei (RTCL16) was clearly differentiated from the other samples on principal component analysis (PCA) plots. The results of PCA revealed that the rice samples fermented by LABs could be distinguished according to microbial strains.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillales/classificação , Oryza/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida
19.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(3): 1001-1010, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run procedures of the KROG 17-06 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two steps tested hippocampus contouring variability and radiation therapy planning compliance. In the first step, the variation of the hippocampus delineation was investigated for two representative cases using the Dice similarity coefficients. In the second step, the participating institutions were requested to generate a HS-WBRT with SIB treatment plan for another representative case. The compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the first step, the median Dice similarity coefficients of the hippocampus contours for two other dummy run cases changed from 0.669 (range, 0.073 to 0.712) to 0.690 (range, 0.522 to 0.750) and from 0.291 (range, 0.219 to 0.522) to 0.412 (range, 0.264 to 0.598) after providing the hippocampus contouring feedback. In the second step, with providing additional plan priority and extended dose constraints to the target volumes and normal structures, we observed the improved compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol. CONCLUSION: The dummy run studies demonstrated the notable inter-institutional variability in delineating the hippocampus and treatment plan generation, which could be decreased through feedback from the trial center.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Irradiação Craniana/métodos , Hipocampo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada
20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(2): 596-603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize Koreans' perceptions of attractive and healthy-looking lips.A survey was conducted among 258 women and 72 men who were asked to view illustrations of various examples of the 4 lip-related ratios (lip thickness-to-width ratio [LTW]; upper-to-lower vermillion ratio [ULR]; upper vermillion thickness-to-upper lip height ratio [VUL]; and lip-to-nose width ratio [LNW]) and to choose which they thought were attractive or healthy-looking.The LTW ratios most often identified as attractive were LTW-1/3 (lip thickness is 1/3 of lip width, 40.0%) and LTW-2/5 (47.3%). The LTW value most often identified as healthy-looking was LTW-2/5 (54.3%). The most attractive ULR ratio was ULR-4/5 (upper vermillion thickness is 4/5 of the lower vermillion, 49.4%). The most healthy-looking ULR ratio was ULR-4/5 (47.0%). The most attractive VUL ratio was VUL-1/2 (thickness of the upper vermillion is 1/2 of upper lip height, 60.3%). The most healthy-looking VUL ratio was VUL-1/2 (61.0%). The most attractive LNW ratio was LNW-3/2 (lip width is 3/2 of nose width, 42.1%). LNW-3/2 was also the most preferred in all age groups below 50 years, while those over 50 preferred LNW-4/3 (55.0%). The most healthy-looking LNW ratios were LNW-3/2 (35.2%) and LNW-4/3 (32.1%). LNW-3/2 was the most preferred in all age groups below 50, while those over 50 preferred LNW-4/3 (40.0%). It therefore seems that older people preferred a narrower lip width than younger people.The results of this study can be applied in lip augmentations or aesthetic lip surgery.


Assuntos
Estética/psicologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Cefalometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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