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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125461, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505412

RESUMO

The quality of fermented soybeans can be determined by diverse metabolites produced by microorganisms. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was applied to investigate the differences in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of fermented soybeans by different microorganisms [e.g., molds, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and other bacteria]. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for volatile metabolites profiles indicated that the fungi group (mold/yeast) was clearly discriminated from the bacteria group (bacteria/LAB). The metabolic pathways related to the formation of volatile metabolites also differed according to microorganisms. In particular, the formation of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols and esters increased in the fungi group, while that of volatiles derived from fatty acids was superior in the bacteria group. In addition, we could determine the microorganism-specific metabolites using a correlation network analysis. This study can provide the fundamental knowledge on the metabolic differences according to the type of microorganisms in fermented soybeans.

2.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Writing involves multiple processes, drawing on a number of language, cognitive, and print-related skills, and knowledge. According to the Direct and Indirect Effects model of Writing (DIEW; Kim & Park, 2019, Reading and Writing, 32, 1319), these multiple factors have hierarchical, interactive, and dynamic relations. AIMS: I examined the hierarchical relations of language and cognitive skills to written composition as well as the relation of topic knowledge to written composition, using DIEW as a theoretical framework. SAMPLE: One hundred thirty-two English-speaking students in Grade 4 were assessed on written composition, topic knowledge, oral language (vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, discourse-level oral production), higher order cognitions (inference, perspective taking [theory of mind], monitoring), domain-general cognitions (working memory and attention), and transcription skills (spelling and handwriting fluency). METHODS: Structural equation modelling was used to compare hierarchical relations models with a direct or flat relations model. RESULTS: The hierarchical relations model was supported. Discourse oral language skills and transcription skills completely mediated the relations of the other component skills to written composition, and the included component skills explained 82% of variance in written composition. Substantial total effects were found for discourse language, transcription, attention, working memory, vocabulary, theory of mind, and grammatical knowledge. Topic knowledge was moderately related to writing, but this relation became weak once the other skills were accounted for. CONCLUSIONS: Component skills have hierarchical structural relations and make direct and indirect contributions to written composition. Furthermore, the role of topic knowledge in written composition appears constrained by language and transcription skills for developing writers.

3.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2758-2776, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509249

RESUMO

The changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) were investigated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). A total of 144 and 129 compounds were identified in soy sauce with long-term fermentation by SPME and SBSE, respectively. The contents of most compounds, such as acids, aldehydes, benzene and benzene derivatives, esters, lactones, pyrazines, pyrones, and pyrroles, showed a tendency to increase, whereas those of alcohols and ketones decreased according to long-term fermentation. In addition, principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were applied to discriminate soy sauce samples according to fermentation periods and determine key volatile compounds related to long-term fermentation. The initial fermentation stages were mainly associated with some alcohols, ketones, and lactones, whereas the later stages were strongly associated with most esters, some phenols, benzene and benzene derivatives, and pyrroles. Moreover, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (ethyl isovalerate), ethyl pentanoate (ethyl valerate), 1-octen-3-yl acetate, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), ethyl benzoate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethanone (2-acetylpyrrole), and 5-pentyl-2-oxolanone (γ-nonalactone). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study investigated changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) using solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction. In addition, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were determined. These results may help to predict the effective contributors related to long-term fermentation of soy sauce and improve the quality of soy sauce during long-term fermentation.

4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108270, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408740

RESUMO

Aspergillus oryzae is an important microbial starter for making diverse fermented foods due to its high hydrolytic enzyme activities. In this study, two strains of A. oryzae (AOB/AOK) with different activities of hydrolytic enzymes, such as α-amylase, protease and lipase, were cultured under various conditions of temperature, fermentation time, and initial pH. Comparative mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolomic analysis was performed to obtain primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolite data sets. In the results of partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), fatty acids and volatile metabolites derived from fatty acids and amino acids mainly contributed to AOK with higher protease and lipase activities, whereas carbohydrate-derived volatiles, sugars and sugar alcohols were related to main metabolites of AOB with higher α-amylase activity. The temperature and initial pH were critical factors for the generation of primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolites, such as organic acids, fatty acids-derived volatiles, and some amino acids, in both A. oryzae strains. This study demonstrated that the specific culture conditions were closely linked to the formation of primary metabolites and secondary volatile metabolites of A. oryzae.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipase/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370295

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with poor prognosis and progression to lung fibrosis related to genetic factors as well as environmental factors. In fact, it was discovered that in South Korea many people who used humidifier disinfectants containing polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), died of lung fibrosis. Currently two anti-fibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been approved by the FDA, but unfortunately, do not cure the disease. Since the histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is associated with progression to chronic diseases and with fibrotic phenomena in the kidney, heart and lung tissues, we investigated the anti-fibrotic effects of CG-745, an HDAC inhibitor. After lung fibrosis was induced in two animal models by bleomycin and PHMG instillation, the regulation of fibrosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers was assessed. CG-745 exhibited potent prevention of collagen production, inflammatory cell accumulation, and cytokines release in both models. Additionally, N-cadherin and vimentin expression were lowered significantly by the treatment of CG-745. The anti-fibrotic effects of CG-745 proven by the EMT regulation may suggest a potential therapeutic effect of CG-745 on lung fibrosis.

6.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195658

RESUMO

Rice has been fermented to enhance its application in some foods. Although various microbes are involved in rice fermentation, their roles in the formation of volatile compounds, which are important to the characteristics of fermented rice, are not clear. In this study, diverse approaches, such as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), metabolic pathway-based volatile compound formations, and correlation analysis between volatile compounds and microbes were applied to compare metabolic characteristics according to each microbe and determine microbe-specific metabolites in fermented rice inoculated by molds, yeasts, and lactic acid bacteria. Metabolic changes were relatively more activated in fermented rice inoculated by molds compared to other microbes. Volatile compound profiles were significantly changed depending on each microbe as well as the group of microbes. Regarding some metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, it could be observed that certain formation pathways of volatile compounds were closely linked with the type of microbes. Also, some volatile compounds were strongly correlated to specific microbes; for example, branched-chain volatiles were closely link to Aspergillus oryzae, while Lactobacillus plantarum had strong relationship with acetic acid in fermented rice. This study can provide an insight into the effects of fermentative microbes on the formation of volatile compounds in rice fermentation.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma
7.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987370

RESUMO

Styrene can be formed by the microbial metabolism of bacteria and fungi. In our previous study, styrene was determined as a spoilage marker of Fuji apples decayed by Penicillium expansum, which is responsible for postharvest diseases. In the present study, P. expansum was cultivated in potato dextrose broth added with phenylalanine-which is a precursor of styrene-using different initial pH values and cultivation times. Volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with stir-bar sorptive extraction. The 76 detected volatile compounds included 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methyl butanal, oct-1-en-3-ol, geosmin, nonanal, hexanal, and γ-decalactone. In particular, the formation of 10 volatile compounds derived from phenylalanine (including styrene and 2-phenylethanol) showed different patterns according to pH and the cultivation time. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots indicated that the volatile compounds were affected more by pH than by the cultivation time. These results indicated that an acidic pH enhances the formation of styrene and that pH could be a critical factor in the production of styrene by P. expansum. This is the first study to analyze volatile compounds produced by P. expansum according to pH and cultivation time and to determine their effects on the formation of styrene.


Assuntos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Penicillium/metabolismo , Estireno/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Estireno/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
Food Res Int ; 120: 12-18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000221

RESUMO

Classification and characterization of agricultural products at molecular levels are important but often impractical with genotyping, particularly for soybeans that have numerous types of variety and landraces. Alternatively, metabolic signature, a determinant for nutritional value, can be the good molecular indicator, which reflects cultivation region-dependent factors such as climate and soil. Accordingly, we analyzed the integrative metabolic profiles of Korean soybeans cultivated in 7 different provinces (representative production areas), and explored the potential association with geographic traits. A total of 210 primary and secondary metabolites were profiled using gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) and liquid-chromatography Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). Despite the partial heterogeneity of the soybean varieties, the metabolomic phenotypic analysis based on multivariate statistics inferred the chemical compositional characteristics was primarily governed by the regional specificity. The OPLS-DA model proposed biomarker cluster re-composed with 5 metabolites (tryptophan, malonylgenistin, malonyldaidzin, N-acetylornithine, and allysine) (AUCs = 0.870-1.0). The most distinctive metabolic profiles were identified with the soybeans of Gunsan (middle-western coast) and Daegu (east-southern inland area), which were best characterized by the highest contents of isoflavones and amino acids, respectively. Further interrogation on geographic data suggested the combinatorial association of region-specific metabolic features with general soil texture and climate traits (total rainfall and average annual temperature).

9.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917562

RESUMO

The production of rice-based beverages fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can increase the consumption of rice in the form of a dairy replacement. This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile components in rice fermented by 12 different LABs. Volatile compounds of fermented rice samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME), while nonvolatile compounds were determined using gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) after derivatization. The 47 identified volatile compounds included acids, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, ketones, alcohols, benzene and benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, and terpenes, while the 37 identified nonvolatile components included amino acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates. The profiles of volatile and nonvolatile components generally differed significantly between obligatorily homofermentative/facultatively heterofermentative LAB and obligatorily heterofermentative LAB. The rice sample fermented by Lactobacillus sakei (RTCL16) was clearly differentiated from the other samples on principal component analysis (PCA) plots. The results of PCA revealed that the rice samples fermented by LABs could be distinguished according to microbial strains.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillales/classificação , Oryza/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida
10.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657166

RESUMO

Reading skills are foundational for daily lives, academic achievement, and careers. In this study, we systematically reviewed literacy interventions in low- and middle-income countries, and estimated their effects on children's reading skills using a meta-analytic approach. A total of 67 studies (N = 213,464) from 32 countries found in various databases (e.g., PsycINFO, ERIC) and sources (e.g., United States Agency for International Development) met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed an overall effect of .30 across various literacy outcomes. Effects varied for different outcomes, such that largest effects were found in emergent literacy skills (e.g., .40) and the smallest effects in reading comprehension (.25) and oral language skills (.20). Effects also varied as a function of other features such as teacher training support.

11.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(2): 596-603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize Koreans' perceptions of attractive and healthy-looking lips.A survey was conducted among 258 women and 72 men who were asked to view illustrations of various examples of the 4 lip-related ratios (lip thickness-to-width ratio [LTW]; upper-to-lower vermillion ratio [ULR]; upper vermillion thickness-to-upper lip height ratio [VUL]; and lip-to-nose width ratio [LNW]) and to choose which they thought were attractive or healthy-looking.The LTW ratios most often identified as attractive were LTW-1/3 (lip thickness is 1/3 of lip width, 40.0%) and LTW-2/5 (47.3%). The LTW value most often identified as healthy-looking was LTW-2/5 (54.3%). The most attractive ULR ratio was ULR-4/5 (upper vermillion thickness is 4/5 of the lower vermillion, 49.4%). The most healthy-looking ULR ratio was ULR-4/5 (47.0%). The most attractive VUL ratio was VUL-1/2 (thickness of the upper vermillion is 1/2 of upper lip height, 60.3%). The most healthy-looking VUL ratio was VUL-1/2 (61.0%). The most attractive LNW ratio was LNW-3/2 (lip width is 3/2 of nose width, 42.1%). LNW-3/2 was also the most preferred in all age groups below 50 years, while those over 50 preferred LNW-4/3 (55.0%). The most healthy-looking LNW ratios were LNW-3/2 (35.2%) and LNW-4/3 (32.1%). LNW-3/2 was the most preferred in all age groups below 50, while those over 50 preferred LNW-4/3 (40.0%). It therefore seems that older people preferred a narrower lip width than younger people.The results of this study can be applied in lip augmentations or aesthetic lip surgery.


Assuntos
Estética/psicologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Cefalometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366381

RESUMO

Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KJJ81 isolated from nuruk is an amylolytic yeast that is widely used as a microbial starter in various fermented foods. Volatile and nonvolatile metabolites of S. fibuligera KJJ81 were investigated according to different carbon sources and cultivation times using a nontargeted metabolomic approach. Partial-least-squares discriminant analysis was applied to determine the major metabolites, which were found to be closely related to the clustering and discrimination of S. fibuligera KJJ81 samples. Some volatile metabolites derived from phenylalanine, such as 2-phenylethanol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl phenylacetate, were predominantly found in cultivation medium containing glucose (YPD medium). In addition, the level of 2-phenylethanol increased continuously with the cultivation time. In terms of nonvolatile metabolites, carbohydrates (mannose, arabitol, and mannitol), fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid), organic acids (oxalic acid and succinic acid), and amino acids (isoleucine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, phenylalanine, and threonine) were the main contributors to S. fibuligera KJJ81 samples cultivated in YPD medium according to cultivation time. These results show that the formation of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites of S. fibuligera KJJ81 can be significantly affected by both the carbon sources and the cultivation time.

13.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322229

RESUMO

Purpose: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run study of the KROG 17-06 protocol. Materials and Methods: Two steps tested hippocampus contouring variability and radiation therapy planning compliance. In the first step, the variation of the hippocampus delineation was investigated for two representative cases using the Dice similarity coefficients. In the second step, the participating institutions were requested to generate a HS-WBRT with SIB treatment plan for another representative case. The compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol was evaluated. Results: In the first step, the median Dice similarity coefficients of the hippocampus contours for two other dummy run cases changed from 0.669 (range, 0.073 to 0.712) to 0.690 (range, 0.522 to 0.750) and from 0.291 (range, 0.219 to 0.522) to 0.412 (range, 0.264 to 0.598) after providing the hippocampus contouring feedback. In the second step, with providing additional plan priority and extended dose constraints to the target volumes and normal structures, we observed the improved compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol. Conclusion: The dummy run studies demonstrated the notable inter-institutional variability in delineating the hippocampus and treatment plan generation, which could be decreased through feedback from the trial center.

14.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 28(8): 1260-1269, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301311

RESUMO

Production of good Koji primarily depends upon the selection of substrate materials and fermentative microflora, which together influence the characteristic flavor and aroma. Herein, we performed comparative metabolomic analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and primary metabolites for Koji samples fermented individually with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Aspergillus oryzae. The VOCs and primary metabolites were analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). In particular, alcohols, ketones, and furans were mainly detected in Bacillus-fermented Koji (Bacillus Koji, BK), potentially due to the increased levels of lipid oxidation. A cheesy and rancid flavor was characteristic of Bacillus Koji, which is attributable to high content of typical 'off-flavor' compounds. Furthermore, the umami taste engendered by 2-methoxyphenol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and glutamic acid was primarily detected in Bacillus Koji. Alternatively, malty flavor compounds (2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal) and sweet flavor compounds (monosaccharides and maltol) were relatively abundant in Aspergillus-fermented Koji (Aspergillus Koji, AK). Hence, we argue that the VOC profile of Koji is largely determined by the rational choice of inocula, which modifies the primary metabolomes in Koji substrates, potentially shaping its volatolome as well as the aroma characteristics.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
15.
Read Writ ; 31(7): 1591-1618, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174374

RESUMO

We investigated developmental trajectories of and the relation between reading and writing (word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and written composition), using longitudinal data from students in Grades 3 to 6 in the US. Results revealed that word reading and spelling were best described as having linear growth trajectories whereas reading comprehension and written composition showed nonlinear growth trajectories with a quadratic function during the examined developmental period. Word reading and spelling were consistently strongly related (.73 ≤ rs ≤ .80) whereas reading comprehension and written composition were weakly related (.21 ≤ rs ≤ .37). Initial status and linear slope were negatively and moderately related for word reading (-.44) whereas they were strongly and positively related for spelling (.73). Initial status of word reading predicted initial status and growth rate of spelling; and growth rate of word reading predicted growth rate of spelling. In contrast, spelling did not predict word reading. When it comes to reading comprehension and writing, initial status of reading comprehension predicted initial status (.69), but not linear growth rate, of written comprehension. These results indicate that reading-writing relations are stronger at the lexical level than at the discourse level and may be a unidirectional one from reading to writing at least between Grades 3 and 6. Results are discussed in light of the interactive dynamic literacy model of reading-writing relations, and component skills of reading and writing development.

16.
Food Chem ; 269: 347-354, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100445

RESUMO

Volatile compounds, including γ-lactones, in brown and white rice fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The contents of most esters, alcohols, lactones and some aldehydes were higher in brown rice samples containing higher amount of free fatty acids after fermentation. In particular, the contents of γ-lactones increased more in fermented brown rice containing high amounts of fatty acids than in fermented white rice, suggesting that γ-decalactone and γ-nonalactone were formed from oleic acid and linoleic acid during rice fermentation. In addition, the contents of γ-decalactone in fermented brown rice samples with added 4-hydroxydecanoic acid and ricinoleic acid were determined. The content of γ-decalactone in fermented brown rice samples with added 4-hydroxydecanoic acid was considerably higher than that in the control after fermentation, indicating that 4-hydroxydecanoic acid could be an effective intermediate for the formation of γ-decalactone in rice during fermentation.

17.
Sci Stud Read ; 22(5): 367-383, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078981

RESUMO

The goal was to investigate the nature of online comprehension monitoring, its predictors, and its relation to reading comprehension. Questions were concerned with (1) beginning readers' sensitivity to inconsistencies, (2) predictors of online comprehension monitoring, and (3) the relation of online comprehension monitoring to reading comprehension over and above word reading and listening comprehension. Using eye-tracking technology, online comprehension monitoring was measured as the amount of time spent rereading target implausible words and looking back at surrounding contexts. Results from 319 second graders revealed that children spent greater time fixating on inconsistent than consistent words and engaged in more frequent lookbacks. Comprehension monitoring was explained by both word reading and listening comprehension. However, comprehension monitoring did not uniquely predict reading comprehension after accounting for word reading and listening comprehension. These results provide insight into the nature of comprehension monitoring and its role in reading comprehension for beginning readers.

18.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1180, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050483

RESUMO

Background: Most studies in the field of reading have focused on the linguistic and cognitive factors. Less is known about the affective aspects of reading in young readers, such as self-perceptions of reading, and reading anxiety. Aims: This study aimed to shed light on the direct and indirect relations between reading and related skills (working memory, emergent literacy skills, word reading accuracy and rate, and gender) as sources of reading affect (reading self-concept and anxiety). Sample: A total of 115 Hebrew speaking second graders participated in this study. Methods: A set of measures assessing reading accuracy and rate, emergent literacy skills (phonological fluency, rapid automatized naming and working memory) and reading affect questionnaires (reading self-concept and reading anxiety) were administered to the participants. Results: Path analysis was used as the primary analytic approach. Results indicated a negative moderate relation between reading self-concept and reading anxiety. The relations of working memory and emergent literacy to reading self-concept and reading anxiety were indirect via word reading accuracy and reading rate. Girls reported higher reading anxiety and lower reading self-concept, despite higher performance in reading accuracy and no difference in reading rate. Conclusion: The current results support the importance of examining reading affect and potential sources of reading affect. Results suggest that reading self-concept and reading anxiety and their related skills should be considered in designing reading intervention and instructions.

19.
J Food Sci ; 83(8): 2083-2091, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035301

RESUMO

Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been used as one of key ingredients in certain fermented foods due to it providing a unique hot and spicy sensation. In this study, volatile compounds-including degradation compounds of carotenoids-in fermented red pepper inoculated with Lactobacillus parabuchneri were investigated. In total, the contents of certain alcohols, benzene and its derivatives, esters, hydrocarbons, lactones, pyrazines, and terpenes were increased in red pepper inoculated with L. parabuchneri, while those of aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, and ketones decreased during the fermentation period. The contents of some degradation compounds of carotenoids (ß-ionone, ß-cyclocitral, α-ionone, and ß-damascenone) increased significantly with the fermentation period. In particular, the content of ß-damascenone-which could form by the degradation of neoxanthin-increased gradually during fermentation, but this compound was not detected in 0-day samples. These findings indicate that the contents of certain volatiles-including degradation compounds of carotenoids-in fermented red pepper inoculated with L. parabuchneri can change markedly during the fermentation process. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study investigated the changes of volatiles and carotenoids degradation compounds in fermented red pepper inoculated with Lactobacillus parabuchneri during fermentation. These results could be used to improve the quality of red pepper-based products and in the development of certain fermented foods, including Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste) and kimchi.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Capsicum/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Ésteres/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Cetonas/análise , Norisoprenoides/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Terpenos/análise , Xantofilas/metabolismo
20.
Arch Craniofac Surg ; 19(2): 135-138, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788696

RESUMO

Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by progressive shrinkage and degeneration of the tissues usually on only one side of the face. It is usually difficult to restore the facial contour due to skin tightness. In this case report, we report a forehead reconstruction with custom-made three-dimensional (3D) titanium implant of a Parry-Romberg syndrome patient who was treated with multiple fat grafts but had limited effect. A 36-year-old man presented with hemifacial atrophy. The disease progressed from 5 to 16 years old. The patient had alopecia on frontal scalp and received a surgery using tissue expander. The alopecia lesion was covered by expanded scalp flap done 22 years ago. Also, he was treated with fat grafts on depressed forehead 17 years ago. However, it did not work sufficiently, and there was noted depressed forehead. We planned to make 3D titanium implant to cover the depressed area (from the superior orbital rim to the vertex). During the operation, we confirmed that the custom-made 3D implant accurately fit for the depressed area without any dead spaces. Previously depressed forehead and glabella were elevated, and the forehead contour was improved cosmetically. A custom-made 3D titanium implant is widely used for skull reconstruction and bring good results. In our case, the depressed forehead of a Parry-Romberg syndrome patient was improved by a 3D titanium implant.

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