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1.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 5(6): 488-501, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431783

RESUMO

Finerenone (BAY 94-8862) is a nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in development for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease. This observational trial compared the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of finerenone 10 mg (immediate-release tablet) in adults with mild (creatinine clearance [CLCR ] 50-80 mL/min; n = 8), moderate (CLCR 30 to < 50 mL/min; n = 8), or severe (CLCR < 30 mL/min; n  =  9) renal impairment with those in adults with normal renal function (CLCR > 80 mL/min; n  = 8) over 96 hours postdose. Exposure to finerenone was not affected by mild renal impairment. In participants with moderate or severe renal impairment, exposure to finerenone was increased compared with those with normal renal function (increase in area under the curve for unbound finerenone, 57.1% [outlier excluded] and 46.5%, respectively), with moderate to high interindividual variability. Renal impairment had no consistent effect on the maximum plasma concentration, Cmax (differences in Cmax for unbound finerenone of +12% and -7% with moderate [outlier excluded] and severe impairment vs normal renal function, respectively). Renal elimination of finerenone is minimal. However, changes in exposure may occur because of the effects of renal impairment on nonrenal routes of elimination.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacocinética , Naftiridinas/farmacocinética , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biotransformação , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/efeitos adversos
2.
Eur Heart J ; 37(27): 2105-14, 2016 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27130705

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate oral doses of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone given for 90 days in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Miner Alocorticoid Receptor antagonist Tolerability Study-Heart Failure (ARTS-HF) was a randomized, double-blind, phase 2b multicentre study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01807221). Of 1286 screened patients, 1066 were randomized. Patients received oral, once-daily finerenone (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 15 mg, uptitrated to 5, 10, 15, 20, or 20 mg, respectively, on Day 30) or eplerenone (25 mg every other day, increased to 25 mg once daily on Day 30, and to 50 mg once daily on Day 60) for 90 days. The primary endpoint was the percentage of individuals with a decrease of >30% in plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) from baseline to Day 90. A key exploratory endpoint was a composite clinical endpoint of death from any cause, cardiovascular hospitalizations, or emergency presentation for worsening HF until Day 90. Mean age ranged from 69.2 to 72.5 years in different treatment groups (standard deviation 9.7-10.6 years). Decreases in NT-proBNP of >30% from baseline occurred in 37.2% of patients in the eplerenone group and 30.9, 32.5, 37.3, 38.8, and 34.2% in the 2.5→5, 5→10, 7.5→15, 10→20, and 15→20 mg finerenone groups, respectively (P = 0.42-0.88). Except for the 2.5→5 mg finerenone group, the composite clinical endpoint occurred numerically less frequently in finerenone-treated patients compared with eplerenone; this difference reached nominal statistical significance in the 10→20 mg group (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.35; 0.90; nominal P = 0.02), despite the fact that this phase 2 study was not designed to detect statistical significant differences. A potassium level increase to ≥5.6 mmol/L at any time point occurred in 4.3% of patients, with a balanced distribution among all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Finerenone was well tolerated and induced a 30% or greater decrease in NT-proBNP levels in a similar proportion of patients to eplerenone. The finding of reduced clinical events in the finerenone 10→20 mg group should be further explored in a large outcomes trial.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus , Método Duplo-Cego , Eplerenona , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados
3.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 30(2): 172-84, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604072

RESUMO

The safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the selective nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone were evaluated in healthy male volunteers in two randomized, single-centre studies. Study 1 was a first-in-man, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-escalation study. Fasted participants (n = 45) received single oral doses of finerenone 1-40 mg polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution or placebo. Study 2 was a relative bioavailability study comparing a finerenone 10 mg immediate-release (IR) tablet with finerenone 10 mg PEG solution in the fasted state, investigating the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie meal on the pharmacokinetics of the IR tablet and assessing a further dose escalation to finerenone 80 mg (eight × finerenone 10 mg IR tablets), in an open-label, fourfold crossover design (n = 15). Finerenone was rapidly absorbed from PEG solution (median time to maximum plasma concentration [tmax ]: 0.500-1.00 h), exhibited dose-linear pharmacokinetics and was rapidly eliminated from plasma (geometric mean terminal half-life [t½ ]: 1.70-2.83 h). Finerenone IR tablets demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics (median tmax : 0.750-2.50 h; geometric mean t½ : 1.89-4.29 h) with, however, enhanced bioavailability versus PEG solution (least-squares mean tablet/solution ratio of 187% for area under the plasma-concentration curve [AUC] and maximum plasma concentration [Cmax ]). High-fat/high-calorie food affected the rate but not the extent of finerenone absorption. Finerenone was well tolerated and did not influence clinical laboratory parameters, blood pressure, heart rate, urinary electrolytes or neurohormones, including serum aldosterone and angiotensin II. In conclusion, finerenone has favourable pharmacokinetics and tolerability in healthy men, and is suitable for dosing independent of food intake.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacocinética , Naftiridinas/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Jejum , Interações Alimento-Droga/fisiologia , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Soluções Farmacêuticas/efeitos adversos , Soluções Farmacêuticas/farmacocinética , Soluções Farmacêuticas/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos/efeitos adversos , Comprimidos/farmacocinética , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
JAMA ; 314(9): 884-94, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26325557

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, when added to a renin-angiotensin system blocker, further reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease but may be underused because of a high risk of adverse events. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of different oral doses of the nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone, given for 90 days to patients with diabetes and high or very high albuminuria who are receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted at 148 sites in 23 countries. Patients were recruited from June 2013 to February 2014 and the study was completed in August 2014. Of 1501 screened patients, 823 were randomized and 821 received study drug. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral, once-daily finerenone (1.25 mg/d, n = 96; 2.5 mg/d, n = 92; 5 mg/d, n = 100; 7.5 mg/d, n = 97; 10 mg/d, n = 98; 15 mg/d, n = 125; and 25 mg/d, n = 119) or matching placebo (n = 94) for 90 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the ratio of the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) at day 90 vs at baseline. Safety end points were changes from baseline in serum potassium and estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 64.2 years; 78% were male. At baseline, 36.7% of patients treated had very high albuminuria (UACR ≥300 mg/g) and 40.0% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or lower. Finerenone demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in UACR. The primary outcome, the placebo-corrected mean ratio of the UACR at day 90 relative to baseline, was reduced in the finerenone 7.5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-mg/d groups (for 7.5 mg/d, 0.79 [90% CI, 0.68-0.91; P = .004]; for 10 mg/d, 0.76 [90% CI, 0.65-0.88; P = .001]; for 15 mg/d, 0.67 [90% CI, 0.58-0.77; P<.001]; for 20 mg/d, 0.62 [90% CI, 0.54-0.72; P < .001]). The prespecified secondary outcome of hyperkalemia leading to discontinuation was not observed in the placebo and finerenone 10-mg/d groups; incidences in the finerenone 7.5-, 15-, and 20-mg/d groups were 2.1%, 3.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of the prespecified secondary outcome of an estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease of 30% or more or in incidences of adverse events and serious adverse events between the placebo and finerenone groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with diabetic nephropathy, most receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker, the addition of finerenone compared with placebo resulted in improvement in the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Further trials are needed to compare finerenone with other active medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT1874431.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Naftiridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etnologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Naftiridinas/efeitos adversos , Potássio/sangue
5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 17(2): 224-32, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25678098

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the safety and potential efficacy of the novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and at high risk of hyperkalaemia and worsening renal dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MinerAlocorticoid Receptor antagonist Tolerability Study-Heart Failure (ARTS-HF; NCT01807221) is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator-controlled, six-parallel-group, phase 2b dose-finding study. In total, 1060 patients with HFrEF and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) will be randomized within 7 days of emergency presentation to hospital for worsening chronic HF to receive finerenone (one of five doses in the range 2.5-20.0 mg once daily) or eplerenone (25 mg every second day to 50 mg once daily for 90 days). The primary objective is to investigate the safety and potential efficacy (measured as the percentage of individuals with a decrease in plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] of more than 30% relative to baseline at day 90 ± 2) of different oral doses of finerenone compared with eplerenone. Other objectives are to assess the effects of finerenone on a composite clinical endpoint (death from any cause, cardiovascular hospitalizations, or emergency presentations for worsening chronic HF), and on changes in health-related quality of life from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: ARTS-HF is the first phase 2b clinical trial to investigate the effects of finerenone on plasma NT-proBNP in a high-risk population of patients who have worsening chronic HF with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or CKD presenting at the emergency department.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Eplerenona , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/efeitos adversos , Natriuréticos/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
6.
Am J Nephrol ; 40(6): 572-81, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25591469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Finerenone decreases albuminuria in patients having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and mild-to-moderate (stage 2-3) chronic kidney disease. The MinerAlocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Tolerability Study-Diabetic Nephropathy (ARTS-DN; NCT01874431) is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 2b study. ARTS-DN investigated whether the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone reduces albuminuria without causing major alterations in serum potassium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a clinical diagnosis of DN who were receiving a renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) inhibitor. METHODS: Patients were randomized to oral finerenone 1.25-20 mg or placebo once daily. The primary objectives were to assess the ratio of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio at day 90 to that at baseline in patients receiving finerenone, and to compare it with that in the placebo group. Additional exploratory analyses included evaluating changes from baseline in serum potassium levels, efficacy and safety biomarkers, and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Of 1,501 patients screened, 821 (the sample population) received at least one dose of finerenone/placebo. Baseline characteristics included: male, 77.8%; white, 84.2%; very high albuminuria (formerly macroalbuminuria), 38.4%; high albuminuria (formerly microalbuminuria), 60.3%; median (range) estimated glomerular filtration rate, 66.3 (24.5-130.7) ml/min/1.73 m(2); and systolic blood pressure (mean ± standard deviation), 138.1 ± 14.4 mm Hg. There was a history of cardiovascular disease in 39.6%, diabetic neuropathy in 20.0%, and diabetic retinopathy in 19.9% of patients. CONCLUSION: ARTS-DN is the first phase 2b trial of finerenone in combination with a RAS inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a clinical diagnosis of DN.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Naftiridinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Albuminúria/urina , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/efeitos adversos , Potássio/sangue
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