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1.
Resuscitation ; 146: 237-246, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While cardiac arrest (CA) patients discharged alive from intensive care unit (ICU) are considered to have good one-year survival but potential neurological impairment, comparisons with other ICU sub-populations non-admitted for CA purpose are still lacking. This study aimed to compare long-term outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between CA patients and patients admitted to ICU for all other causes. METHODS: In 1635 patients discharged alive from 21 European ICUs in an ancillary analysis of a prospective multicentric cohort, we compared CA causes of ICU admission to all other causes of ICU admissions (named non-CAs). The primary endpoint was one-year survival rate after ICU discharge. Secondary endpoints included HRQOL at 3, 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge using the outcome survey short form-36 (SF36). Propensity score matching was used to consider the probability of having CA. RESULTS: Of the 1635 patients, 1561 were included in this study comprised of 1447 non-CAs and 114 CAs. At one-year in the non-matched population, survival rate was greater in the CA group 89% versus the non-CA group 78% (log rank p = 0.0056). In the matched population, this difference persisted between CAs and non-CAs (log rank p = 0.049). The physical component summary of the SF36 scale was higher in the CA group than in the non-CA group at all time points in both non-matched and matched populations. CONCLUSIONS: CA patients discharged alive from ICU have a better one-year survival and a better HRQOL specifically on physical functions than patients admitted to ICU for other causes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367093; registered on June 6, 2011.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): 83-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000-2017). SETTING: Thirty-one French ICUs. PATIENTS: The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were "definite thyroid storm," as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46; p = 0.025) and cardiogenic shock within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77-50.12; p = 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.

3.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 371, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little descriptive data on Stenotrophomonas maltophilia hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in critically ill patients. The optimal modalities of antimicrobial therapy remain to be determined. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology and prognostic factors associated with S. maltophilia pneumonia, focusing on antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: This nationwide retrospective study included all patients admitted to 25 French mixed intensive care units between 2012 and 2017 with hospital-acquired S. maltophilia HAP during intensive care unit stay. Primary endpoint was time to in-hospital death. Secondary endpoints included microbiologic effectiveness and antimicrobial therapeutic modalities such as delay to appropriate antimicrobial treatment, mono versus combination therapy, and duration of antimicrobial therapy. RESULTS: Of the 282 patients included, 84% were intubated at S. maltophilia HAP diagnosis for duration of 11 [5-18] days. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 47 [36-63], and the in-hospital mortality was 49.7%. Underlying chronic pulmonary comorbidities were present in 14.1% of cases. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was considered effective on S. maltophilia according to susceptibility patterns in only 30% of cases. Delay to appropriate antimicrobial treatment had, however, no significant impact on the primary endpoint. Survival analysis did not show any benefit from combination antimicrobial therapy (HR = 1.27, 95%CI [0.88; 1.83], p = 0.20) or prolonged antimicrobial therapy for more than 7 days (HR = 1.06, 95%CI [0.6; 1.86], p = 0.84). No differences were noted in in-hospital death irrespective of an appropriate and timely empiric antimicrobial therapy between mono- versus polymicrobial S. maltophilia HAP (p = 0.273). The duration of ventilation prior to S. maltophilia HAP diagnosis and ICU length of stay were shorter in patients with monomicrobial S. maltophilia HAP (p = 0.031 and p = 0.034 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: S. maltophilia HAP occurred in severe, long-stay intensive care patients who mainly required prolonged invasive ventilation. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was barely effective while antimicrobial treatment modalities had no significant impact on hospital survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03506191.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472039

RESUMO

AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is a protease involved in the degradation of cardiovascular mediators. Its administration has been shown to be associated with impaired cardiac contraction and kidney haemodynamics while its inhibition restored cardiac contraction in a pre-clinical model of severe heart failure in mice. Circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) was found to be elevated in shock. The present study aims to assess the association between cDPP3 and worsening haemodynamics, namely refractory shock, in a cohort of cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an ancillary study of OptimaCC, a prospective, double-blind, multicentre, randomized study assessing efficacy and safety of catecholamines in 57 patients with CS after acute myocardial infarction. cDPP3 was measured in plasma at inclusion, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and haemodynamic and biological parameters were recorded at inclusion. cDPP3 values were higher in refractory CS than non-refractory CS at inclusion (median [interquartile range]; 76.1 [37.9-238.7] ng/mL vs. 32.8 [23.9-47.6] ng/mL, P = 0.014), at 24 h (P < 0.001) and up to 48 h (P = 0.027). Furthermore, cDPP3 at inclusion discriminated CS patients who did develop refractory shock vs. non-refractory with an area under the curve of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.92). The high cDPP3 group (cDPP3 ≥59.1 ng/mL) at inclusion had a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), lower cardiac index and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. More importantly, in CS patients with high cDPP3 at inclusion, those who rapidly decreased cDPP3 at 24 h exhibited a striking reduction in the occurrence of refractory shock and death. CONCLUSION: In CS patients, cDPP3 gives an early prediction of outcome, including development of refractory status and/or survival. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01367743.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1459-1467, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423712

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients admitted for acute heart failure (HF) are at high risk of readmission and death, especially in the 90 days following discharge. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of early optimization of oral HF therapy with beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on 90-day clinical outcomes in patients admitted for acute HF. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, a total of 900 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either 'usual care' or 'high-intensity care'. Patients enrolled in the usual care arm will be discharged and managed according to usual clinical practice at the site. In the high-intensity care arm, doses of oral HF medications - including a BB, ACEi or ARB, and MRA - will be up-titrated to 50% of recommended doses before discharge and to 100% of recommended doses within 2 weeks of discharge. Up-titration will be delayed if the patients develop worsening symptoms and signs of congestion, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, bradycardia, worsening of renal function or significant increase in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide between visits. The primary endpoint is 90-day all-cause mortality or HF readmission. CONCLUSIONS: STRONG-HF is the first study to assess whether rapid up-titration of evidence-based guideline-recommended therapies with close follow-up in a large cohort of patients discharged from an acute HF admission is safe and can affect adverse outcomes during the first 90 days after discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03412201.

6.
J Card Fail ; 25(11): 894-901, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the levels, kinetics, and prognostic value of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of GDF-15 were determined in serial plasma samples (0-120 h) from 177 CS patients in the CardShock study. Kinetics of GDF-15, its association with 90-day mortality, and incremental value for risk stratification were assessed. The median GDF-150h level was 9647 ng/L (IQR 4500-19,270 ng/L) and levels above median were significantly associated with acidosis, hyperlactatemia, renal dysfunction, and higher 90-day mortality (56% vs 28%, P < .001). Serial sampling showed that non-survivors had significantly higher GDF-15 levels at all time points (P < .001 for all). Furthermore, non-survivors displayed increasing and survivors declining GDF-15 levels during the first days in CS. Higher levels of GDF-15 were independently associated with mortality. A GDF-1512h cutoff >7000 ng/L was identified as a strong predictor of death (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.9-3.8, P = .002). Adding GDF-1512h >7000 ng/L to the CardShock risk score improved discrimination and risk stratification for 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 levels are highly elevated in CS and associated with markers of systemic hypoperfusion and end-organ dysfunction. GDF-15 helps to discriminate survivors from non-survivors very early in CS.

8.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(4): 384-390, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166204

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Data and interventional trials regarding vasopressor and inotrope use during cardiogenic shock are scarce. Their use is limited by their side-effects and the lack of solid evidence regarding their effectiveness in improving outcomes. In this article, we review the current use of vasopressor and inotrope agents during cardiogenic shock. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent Cochrane analyses concluded that there was not sufficient evidence to prove that any one vasopressor or inotrope was superior to another in terms of mortality. A recent RCT and a meta-analysis on individual data suggested that norepinephrine may be preferred over epinephrine in patients with cardiogenic shock . For inotrope agents, when norepinephrine fails to restore perfusion, dobutamine represents the first-line agent. Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer agent, which improves acute hemodynamics, albeit with uncertain effects on mortality. SUMMARY: When blood pressure needs to be restored, norepinephrine is a reasonable first-line agent. Dobutamine is the first-line inotrope agent wheraes levosimendan can be used as a second-line agent or preferentially in patients previously treated with beta-blockers. Current information regarding comparative effective outcomes is nonetheless sparse and their use should be limited as a temporary bridge to recovery, mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 177-182, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified ethnic differences in outcomes after episodes of acute heart failure in natives of Asia as compared to those of Europe. Whether these ethnic differences in outcomes would still exist, years after migration to a different geographical and cultural setting remain unclear. We investigated the one-year mortality after an episode of acute heart failure admission in Ontario residents of South Asian and Chinese descent as compared to the General Population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of adult Ontarions who were hospitalized for AHF between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2016. Ethnicity was categorized using validated surname-based algorithms. The primary outcome was all-cause one-year mortality. Mortality rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The relative hazard of death was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Of 82,125 patients, 1287 (1.6%) were Chinese, 1662 (2.0%) were South Asians, and the remaining 79,176 (96.4%) were of the General Population. The risk of mortality was markedly lower amongst South Asians (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI [0.73-0.89]) relative to the General Population. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of mortality between Chinese and the General Population (adjusted HR 1.00 [0.91-1.10]). In addition, guideline-directed medical therapies were associated with similar survival benefit in patients of all three ethnic origins. CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower risk of one-year mortality after acute heart failure hospitalization amongst South Asians compared to Chinese and the General Population, and similar benefit of medical therapy in all three groups. Further studies are needed to explore the etiologies of these ethnic disparities to truly improve outcomes at the population level.

11.
Crit Care Med ; 47(3): e263-e265, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal life support could be helpful for severe acute chest syndrome in adults sickle cell disease, because of the frequent hemodynamic compromise in this setting, including acute pulmonary vascular dysfunction and right ventricular failure. The aim of this study was to report the extracorporeal life support experience for severe acute chest syndrome in four referral centers in France. DESIGN: The primary endpoint of this multicentric retrospective study was ICU survival of patients with severe acute chest syndrome managed with extracorporeal life support. Secondary endpoints included comparisons between survivors and nonsurvivors. SETTING: We performed this study between January 2009 and July 2017 in four referral centers in France. PATIENTS: We included adult patients (age > 18 yr) with sickle cell disease, admitted for severe acute chest syndrome and who required extracorporeal life support during the ICU stay. INTERVENTIONS: The study was observational. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Over the 8-year period, 22 patients with sickle cell disease required extracorporeal life support for severe acute chest syndrome, including 10 (45%) veno-venous and 12 (55%) veno-arterial extracorporeal life support. In-ICU mortality was high (73%). Nonsurvivors had a higher severity at extracorporeal life support implantation, as assessed by their Vasoactive-Inotrope Score and number of organ failures. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that outcome is impaired in sickle cell disease patients receiving extracorporeal life support while in severe multiple organ failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate selection criteria in this setting.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda/terapia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Resuscitation ; 133: 12-17, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the effect of two veno-arterial ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) blood-flow strategies in an experimental model of Extracorporeal Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) on macrocirculatory, metabolic and microcirculatory parameters in the first six hours of ECMO initiation. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in 18 pigs by surgical ligature of the left descending coronary artery followed by a low-flow time of 40 min using internal cardiac massage. ECPR was initiated in normothermia with an ECMO blood flow of 30-35 ml.kg-1. min-1 (low-blood-flow group, LBF) or 65-70 ml.kg-1. min-1 (standard-blood-flow group, SBF), with the same mean arterial pressure target of 65 mmHg adjusted with norepinephrine. Macrocirculatory and metabolic parameters were assessed by lactate clearance and carotid blood flow. Microcirculatory parameters were assessed by sublingual microcirculation with Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging and peripheral Near-InfraRed Spectrometry (NIRS). Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured with a multicomplexed ELISA-based array platform. RESULTS: There were no between-group differences at baseline and at ECMO initiation (H0). Lactate clearance at H6 was lower in LBF compared to SBF (6.67[-10.43-18.78] vs. 47.41[19.54-70.69] %, p = 0.04). Carotid blood flow was significantly lower (p<0.005) during the last four hours despite similar mean arterial pressure levels. For microvascular parameters, SDF and NIRS parameters were transitorily impaired at H3 in LBF. IL-6 cytokine level was significantly higher in LBF at the end of the experiment. CONCLUSION: In an experimental porcine model of refractory cardiac arrest treated by ECMO, a low-blood-flow strategy during the first six hours of resuscitation was associated with lower lactate clearance and lower cerebral blood flow with no benefits on ischemia-reperfusion parameters.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Reperfusão/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suínos
15.
Eur Heart J ; 39(47): 4196-4204, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137303

RESUMO

Aims: The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains ill defined in pulmonary embolism (PE). We investigated outcomes in patients with high-risk PE undergoing ECMO according to initial therapeutic strategy. Methods and results: From 01 January 2014 to 31 December 2015, 180 patients from 13 Departments in nine centres with high-risk PE were retrospectively included. Among those undergoing ECMO, we compared characteristics and outcomes according to adjunctive treatment strategy (systemic thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or no reperfusion therapy). Primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome was 90-day major bleeding. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were treated without ECMO; 52 (mean age 47.6 years) underwent ECMO. Overall 30-day mortality was 48.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 41-56] (87/180); 43% (95% CI 34-52) (55/128) in those treated without ECMO vs. 61.5% (95% CI 52-78) (32/52) in those with ECMO (P = 0.008). In patients undergoing ECMO, 30-day mortality was 76.5% (95% CI 57-97) (13/17) for ECMO + fibrinolysis, 29.4% (95% CI 51-89) (5/17) for ECMO + surgical embolectomy, and 77.7% (95% CI 59-97) (14/18) for ECMO alone (P = 0.004). Among patients with ECMO, 20 (38.5%, 95% CI 25-52) had a major bleeding event in-hospital; without significant difference across groups. Conclusion: In patients with high-risk PE, those with ECMO have a more severe presentation and worse prognosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with failed fibrinolysis and in those with no reperfusion seems to be associated with particularly unfavourable prognosis compared with ECMO performed in addition to surgical embolectomy. Our findings suggest that ECMO does not appear justified as a stand-alone treatment strategy in PE patients, but shows promise as a complement to surgical embolectomy.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Ecocardiografia , Embolectomia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(9): 1460-1469, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thrombocytopenia is a frequent and serious adverse event in patients treated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for refractory cardiogenic shock. Similarly to postcardiac surgery patients, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) could represent the causative underlying mechanism. However, the epidemiology as well as related mortality regarding HIT and VA-ECMO remains largely unknown. We aimed to define the prevalence and associated 90-day mortality of HIT diagnosed under VA-ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients under VA-ECMO from 20 French centers between 2012 and 2016. Selected patients were hospitalized for more than 3 days with high clinical suspicion of HIT and positive anti-PF4/heparin antibodies. Patients were classified according to results of functional tests as having either Confirmed or Excluded HIT. RESULTS: A total of 5797 patients under VA-ECMO were screened; 39/5797 met the inclusion criteria, with HIT confirmed in 21/5797 patients (0.36% [95% CI] [0.21-0.52]). Fourteen of 39 patients (35.9% [20.8-50.9]) with suspected HIT were ultimately excluded because of negative functional assays. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia tended to be more frequent in Excluded HIT at the time of HIT suspicion (p = 0.073). The platelet course was similar between Confirmed and Excluded HIT (p = 0.65). Mortality rate was 33.3% [13.2-53.5] in Confirmed and 50% [23.8-76.2] in Excluded HIT (p = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of HIT among patients under VA-ECMO is extremely low at 0.36% with an associated mortality rate of 33.3%, which appears to be in the same range as that observed in patients treated with VA-ECMO without HIT. In addition, HIT was ultimately ruled out in one-third of patients with clinical suspicion of HIT and positive anti-PF4/heparin antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Pipecólicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(2): 173-182, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents could have certain specific effects in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) after myocardial infarction, which may influence outcome. Although norepinephrine and epinephrine are currently the most commonly used agents, no randomized trial has compared their effects, and intervention data are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper was to compare in a prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized study, the efficacy and safety of epinephrine and norepinephrine in patients with CS after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The primary efficacy outcome was cardiac index evolution, and the primary safety outcome was the occurrence of refractory CS. Refractory CS was defined as CS with sustained hypotension, end-organ hypoperfusion and hyperlactatemia, and high inotrope and vasopressor doses. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were randomized into 2 study arms, epinephrine and norepinephrine. For the primary efficacy endpoint, cardiac index evolution was similar between the 2 groups (p = 0.43) from baseline (H0) to H72. For the main safety endpoint, the observed higher incidence of refractory shock in the epinephrine group (10 of 27 [37%] vs. norepinephrine 2 of 30 [7%]; p = 0.008) led to early termination of the study. Heart rate increased significantly with epinephrine from H2 to H24 while remaining unchanged with norepinephrine (p < 0.0001). Several metabolic changes were unfavorable to epinephrine compared with norepinephrine, including an increase in cardiac double product (p = 0.0002) and lactic acidosis from H2 to H24 (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CS secondary to acute myocardial infarction, the use of epinephrine compared with norepinephrine was associated with similar effects on arterial pressure and cardiac index and a higher incidence of refractory shock. (Study Comparing the Efficacy and Tolerability of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in Cardiogenic Shock [OptimaCC]; NCT01367743).


Assuntos
Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(6): e020220, 2018 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Establishing a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) after a long intensive care unit (ICU) stay can be a challenge for nurses, as these patients may present vascular access issues. The aim of this study was to compare an ultrasound-guided method (UGM) versus the landmark method (LM) for the placement of a PIVC in ICU patients who no longer require a central intravenous catheter (CIVC). DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, prospective, open-label, single-centre study. SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 114 awake patients hospitalised in ICU fulfilling the following criteria: (1) with a central venous catheter that was no longer required, (2) needing a PIVC to replace the central venous catheter and (3) with no apparent or palpable veins on upper limbs after tourniquet placement. INTERVENTION: Placement of a PIVC using an UGM. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Number of attempts for the establishment of a PIVC in the upper limbs. RESULTS: 57 patients were respectively included in both the UGM group and LM group. Stasis oedema in the upper limbs was the main cause of poor venous access identified in 80% of patients. Both the number of attempts (2 (1-4), p=0.911) and catheter lifespan ((3 (1-3) days and 3 (2-3) days, p=0.719) were similar between the two groups. Catheters in the UGM group tended to be larger (p=0.059) and be associated with increased extravasation (p=0.094). CONCLUSION: In ICU patients who no longer require a CIVC, use of an UGM for the establishment of a PIVC is not associated with a reduction in the number of attempts compared with LM. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02285712; Results.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Punções/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(6): 847-856, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catecholamines have been the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). Recently, use of epinephrine has been associated with detrimental outcomes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association between epinephrine use and short-term mortality in all-cause CS patients. DESIGN: We performed a meta-analysis of individual data with prespecified inclusion criteria: (1) patients in non-surgical CS treated with inotropes and/or vasopressors and (2) at least 15% of patients treated with epinephrine administrated alone or in association with other inotropes/vasopressors. The primary outcome was short-term mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Fourteen published cohorts and two unpublished data sets were included. We studied 2583 patients. Across all cohorts of patients, the incidence of epinephrine use was 37% (17-76%) and short-term mortality rate was 49% (21-69%). A positive correlation was found between percentages of epinephrine use and short-term mortality in the CS cohort. The risk of death was higher in epinephrine-treated CS patients (OR [CI] = 3.3 [2.8-3.9]) compared to patients treated with other drug regimens. Adjusted mortality risk remained striking in epinephrine-treated patients (n = 1227) (adjusted OR = 4.7 [3.4-6.4]). After propensity score matching, two sets of 338 matched patients were identified and epinephrine use remained associated with a strong detrimental impact on short-term mortality (OR = 4.2 [3.0-6.0]). CONCLUSIONS: In this very large cohort, epinephrine use for hemodynamic management of CS patients is associated with a threefold increase of risk of death.


Assuntos
Epinefrina , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pontuação de Propensão , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
20.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 52, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486781

RESUMO

Vasoplegia is a ubiquitous phenomenon in all advanced shock states, including septic, cardiogenic, hemorrhagic, and anaphylactic shock. Its pathophysiology is complex, involving various mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells such as G protein-coupled receptor desensitization (adrenoceptors, vasopressin 1 receptors, angiotensin type 1 receptors), alteration of second messenger pathways, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and increased production of nitric oxide. This review, based on a critical appraisal of the literature, discusses the main current treatments and future approaches. Our improved understanding of these mechanisms is progressively changing our therapeutic approach to vasoplegia from a standardized to a personalized multimodal treatment with the prescription of several vasopressors. While norepinephrine is confirmed as first line therapy for the treatment of vasoplegia, the latest Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines also consider that the best therapeutic management of vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasopressors could be a combination of multiple vasopressors, including norepinephrine and early prescription of vasopressin. This new approach is seemingly justified by the need to limit adrenoceptor desensitization as well as sympathetic overactivation given its subsequent deleterious impacts on hemodynamics and inflammation. Finally, based on new pathophysiological data, two potential drugs, selepressin and angiotensin II, are currently being evaluated.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacocinética , Vasoplegia/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/farmacocinética , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Choque/complicações , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasoplegia/etiologia , Vasoplegia/fisiopatologia
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