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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigation of signaling pathways altered by recurrent gene mutations and their clinical impact in a consecutive cohort of patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The heterogeneous clinical course and genetic complexity of CLL warrant improved molecular prognostication. However, the prognostic value of recurrent mutations at the time of diagnosis remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We sequenced samples from 314 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients with CLL to investigate the clinical impact of 56 recurrently mutated genes assessed by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 70% of patients with enrichment among IGHV unmutated cases. With 6.5 years of follow-up, 15 mutated genes investigated at the time of diagnosis demonstrated significant impact on time to first treatment (TTFT). Carrying driver mutations was associated with shorter TTFT and poor overall survival. For outcome from CLL diagnosis, the number of signaling pathways altered by driver mutations stratified patients better than the number of driver mutations. Moreover, we demonstrated gradual impact on TTFT with increasing number of altered pathways independent of CLL-IPI risk. Thus, a 25-gene, pathway-based biomarker assessing recurrent mutations refines prognostication in CLL, in particular for CLL-IPI low- and intermediate-risk patients. External validation emphasized that a broad gene panel including low burden mutations was key for the biomarker based on altered pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We propose to include the number of pathways altered by driver mutations as a biomarker together with CLL-IPI in prospective studies of CLL from time of diagnosis for incorporation into clinical care and personalized follow-up and treatment.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 379, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsupervised machine learning methods (deep learning) have shown their usefulness with noisy single cell mRNA-sequencing data (scRNA-seq), where the models generalize well, despite the zero-inflation of the data. A class of neural networks, namely autoencoders, has been useful for denoising of single cell data, imputation of missing values and dimensionality reduction. RESULTS: Here, we present a striking feature with the potential to greatly increase the usability of autoencoders: With specialized training, the autoencoder is not only able to generalize over the data, but also to tease apart biologically meaningful modules, which we found encoded in the representation layer of the network. Our model can, from scRNA-seq data, delineate biological meaningful modules that govern a dataset, as well as give information as to which modules are active in each single cell. Importantly, most of these modules can be explained by known biological functions, as provided by the Hallmark gene sets. CONCLUSIONS: We discover that tailored training of an autoencoder makes it possible to deconvolute biological modules inherent in the data, without any assumptions. By comparisons with gene signatures of canonical pathways we see that the modules are directly interpretable. The scope of this discovery has important implications, as it makes it possible to outline the drivers behind a given effect of a cell. In comparison with other dimensionality reduction methods, or supervised models for classification, our approach has the benefit of both handling well the zero-inflated nature of scRNA-seq, and validating that the model captures relevant information, by establishing a link between input and decoded data. In perspective, our model in combination with clustering methods is able to provide information about which subtype a given single cell belongs to, as well as which biological functions determine that membership.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Análise por Conglomerados , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
3.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263571

RESUMO

Genomic screening of cancer patients for predisposing variants is traditionally based on age at onset, family history and type of cancer. Whereas the clinical guidelines have proven efficient in identifying families exhibiting classical attributes of hereditary cancer, the frequency of patients with alternative presentations is unclear. We identified and characterized germline variants in 636 patients with advanced solid cancer using whole exome sequencing. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic germline variants among 168 genes associated with hereditary cancer were considered. These variants were identified in 17.8% of the patients and within a wide range of cancer types. In particular, patients with mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, urothelial cancer, and cancer of unknown primary origin displayed high frequencies of pathogenic variants. Variants were predominantly found in DNA-repair pathways and about half were within genes involved in homologous recombination repair. Twenty-two BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline variants were identified in 12 different cancer types, of which 10 (45%) were not previously identified in these patients based on the current clinical guidelines. Loss of heterozygosity and somatic second hits were identified in several of the affected genes, supporting possible causality for cancer development. A potential treatment target based on the pathogenic germline variant could be suggested in 25 patients (4%). The study demonstrates a high frequency of pathogenic germline variants in the homologous recombination pathway in patients with advanced solid cancers. We infer that genetic screening in this group of patients may reveal high-risk families and identify patients with potential PARP inhibitor sensitive tumors.

4.
Cancer Discov ; 9(7): 962-979, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068365

RESUMO

Mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are common in many cancer types, including the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtype known as complex karyotype AML (CK-AML). Here, we identify a gain-of-function (GOF) Trp53 mutation that accelerates CK-AML initiation beyond p53 loss and, surprisingly, is required for disease maintenance. The Trp53R172H mutation (TP53R175H in humans) exhibits a neomorphic function by promoting aberrant self-renewal in leukemic cells, a phenotype that is present in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) even prior to their transformation. We identify FOXH1 as a critical mediator of mutant p53 function that binds to and regulates stem cell-associated genes and transcriptional programs. Our results identify a context where mutant p53 acts as a bona fide oncogene that contributes to the pathogenesis of CK-AML and suggests a common biological theme for TP53 GOF in cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates how a GOF p53 mutant can hijack an embryonic transcription factor to promote aberrant self-renewal. In this context, mutant Trp53 functions as an oncogene to both initiate and sustain myeloid leukemia and suggests a potential convergent activity of mutant Trp53 across cancer types.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 813.

5.
Haematologica ; 104(4): 789-796, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514802

RESUMO

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, TP53 mutations and deletion of chromosome 17p are well-characterized biomarkers associated with poor progression-free and overall survival following chemoimmunotherapy. Patients harboring low burden TP53 mutations with variant allele frequencies of 0.3-15% have been shown to have similar dismal outcome as those with high burden mutations. We here describe a highly sensitive deep targeted next-generation sequencing assay allowing for the detection of TP53 mutations as low as 0.2% variant allele frequency. Within a consecutive, single center cohort of 290 newly diagnosed patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion of chromosome 17p was the only TP53 aberration significantly associated with shorter overall survival and treatment-free survival. We were unable to demonstrate any impact of TP53 mutations, whether high burden (variant allele frequency >10%) or low burden (variant allele frequency ≤10%), in the absence of deletion of chromosome 17p. In addition, the impact of high burden TP53 aberration (deletion of chromosome 17p and/or TP53 mutation with variant allele frequency >10%) was only evident for patients with IGHV unmutated status; no impact of TP53 aberrations on outcome was seen for patients with IGHV mutated status. In 61 patients at time of treatment, the prognostic impact of TP53 mutations over 1% variant allele frequency could be confirmed. This study furthers the identification of a clinical significant limit of detection for robust TP53 mutation analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Multicenter studies are needed for validation of ultra-sensitive TP53 mutation assays in order to define and implement a technical as well as a clinical lower limit of detection.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(D1): D881-D885, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395307

RESUMO

BloodSpot is a gene-centric database of mRNA expression of haematopoietic cells. The web-based interface to the database includes three concomitant levels of visualization for a gene query; foremost is the expression across hematopoietic cell types, second is analysis of survival of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia patients based on gene expression, and lastly, the expression visualized in an interactive developmental tree. With the introduction of single cell data we have now also included an unbiased dimensionality reduction method to show gene expression over the continuum of haematopoiesis. The webserver includes a few select analysis functionalities, like Student's t-test, identification of correlating genes and lookup of whole genetic signatures, with the aim of making generation and testing of hypotheses quick and intuitive. The visualizations have been updated to accommodate new datatypes and the database has been largely expanded with RNA-sequencing datasets, both purified in bulk and at single cell resolution, increasing the number of single samples more than 10 fold, while keeping simplicity in presentation. The database should be of interest for any researcher within leukaemia, haematopoiesis, cellular development, or stem cells. The database is freely available at www.bloodspot.eu.

7.
Oncotarget ; 9(66): 32570-32579, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220966

RESUMO

Purpose: We evaluated longitudinal tracking of BRAF V600E in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a marker of treatment response to BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) combination therapies in non-melanoma solid tumors included in the Copenhagen Prospective Personalized Oncology (CoPPO) program. Experimental design: Patients with BRAF V600E-mutated tumors were treated with combination therapies including BRAFi. Quantification of mutant cfDNA from plasma was determined and correlated to clinical outcomes. Exome sequencing was performed to identify possible resistance mutations. Results: Twenty-three patients had BRAF-mutated tumors out of 455 patients included in CoPPO and 17 started BRAFi combination (EGFRi/MEKi) therapy. Tumor responses were achieved in 8 out of 16 evaluable patients and the median overall- and progression-free survival (OS and PFS) was 15 and 4.8 months, respectively. Longitudinal measurements of BRAF V600E-mutant cfDNA indicated disease progression prior to radiological evaluation and a reduction in the mutant fraction of more than 50% after 4 and 12 weeks of therapy was associated with a significantly longer PFS (p=0.003 and p=0.029) and OS (p=0.029 and p=0.017). Furthermore, the baseline mutant fraction and total level of cfDNA positively correlated with tumor burden (p=0.026 and p=0.024). Finally, analysis of cfDNA at progression revealed novel mutations potentially affecting the MAPK pathway. Conclusion: BRAFi combination therapies showed a response rate of 50% in BRAF V600E-mutated non-melanoma tumors. The fraction of BRAF-mutant cfDNA represent a sensitive indicator for clinical outcomes with plasma collected at week 4 and 12 as crucial time points for monitoring response and disease progression.

8.
Acta Oncol ; 57(1): 51-57, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis enables classification of breast tumors into molecular subtypes. BRCA1/2 predisposed patients are more likely to suffer from a basal-like subtype and this group of patients displays a more distinct phenotype and genotype. Hence, in-depth characterization of this separate entity is needed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 1560 tumors from patients with primary breast cancer. Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and associated with basic clinical characteristics and aggregated expression levels in the hallmark gene sets. RESULTS: Of the 1560 samples, 168 were classified basal-like and 120 patients were screened for BRCA1/2 mutations, resulting in 19 BRCA1/2 carriers, 95 non-carriers and six patients carried variants of unknown significance. The BRCA1/2 carriers were significantly younger and there were no carriers above 60 years of age. The tumors showed a loss in DNA-repair profile, as well as an upregulation in proliferative cancer signaling pathways. A robust molecular signature for identification of the BRCA1/2 - carriers was infeasible in the current cohort. Patients with a basal like breast cancer had the lowest median age and the largest median tumor size. They were almost exclusively diagnosed in disease stage III. CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like subtype is indeed a separate entity compared with other molecular breast cancer subtypes and the clinical course for this patient group should reflect the aggressiveness of this cancer. Taken together, patients being diagnosed with a basal-like breast cancer are in the youngest segment of breast cancer patients and are mainly diagnosed in stage III disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Fatores Etários , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Via de Sinalização Wnt
9.
Acta Oncol ; 57(1): 58-66, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis enables classification of breast tumors into molecular subtypes that correlate with prognosis and effect of therapy. We evaluated the clinical benefits of molecular subtyping compared to our current diagnostic practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 524 tumors from women with primary breast cancer (n = 508). Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and compared to conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedures. RESULTS: More than 99% of tumors were eligible for molecular classification and final reports were available prior to the multidisciplinary conference. Using a prognostic standard mortality rate index (PSMRi) developed by the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 39 patients were assigned with an intermediate risk and among these 16 (41%) were furthermore diagnosed by the multi-gene signature assigned with a luminal A tumor and consequently spared adjuvant chemotherapy. There was overall agreement between mRNA derived and IHC hormone receptor status, whereas IHC Ki67 protein proliferative index proved inaccurate, compared to the mRNA derived index. Forty-one patients with basal-like (basL) subtypes were screened for predisposing mutations regardless of clinical predisposition. Of those 17% carried pathogenic mutations. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome based subtyping of breast tumors evidently reduces the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and improves identification of women with predisposing mutations. The results imply that transcriptome profiling should become an integrated part of current breast cancer management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Medição de Risco/métodos , Transcriptoma , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma in Situ/genética , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Carcinoma in Situ/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
10.
Br J Haematol ; 179(2): 308-322, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748566

RESUMO

Rare inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) are a common cause of bleeding tendency. To ensure a correct diagnosis, specialized laboratory analyses are necessary. This study reports the results of an upfront diagnostic strategy using targeted whole exome sequencing. In total, 156 patients with a significant bleeding assessment tool score participated in the study, of which a third had thrombocytopenia. Eighty-seven genes specifically associated with genetic predisposition to bleeding were analysed by whole exome sequencing. Variants were classified according to the five-tier scheme. We identified 353 germline variants. Eight patients (5%) harboured a known pathogenic variant. Of the 345 previously unknown variants, computational analyses predicted 99 to be significant. Further filtration according to the Mendelian inheritance pattern, resulted in 59 variants being predicted to be clinically significant. Moreover, 34% (20/59) were assigned as novel class 4 or 5 variants upon targeted functional testing. A class 4 or 5 variant was identified in 30% of patients with thrombocytopenia (14/47) versus 11% of patients with a normal platelet count (12/109) (P < 0·01). An IBD diagnosis has a major clinical impact. The genetic investigations detailed here extricated our patients from a diagnostic conundrum, thus demonstrating that continuous optimization of the diagnostic work-up of IBD is of great benefit.


Assuntos
Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Exoma , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
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