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1.
Prev Med ; : 106529, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771566

RESUMO

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

4.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(3 Suppl 2): S128-S135, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: About 80% of the 1.1 billion people who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence-based approaches to promote cessation include brief advice from health professionals and referrals through quitlines. This study assesses cessation behaviors and the use of cessation services in the past 12 months among current tobacco smokers in 31 countries who attempted to quit. METHODS: Data came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household-based survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥15 years. Surveys were conducted in 31 countries during 2008-2018; sample sizes ranged from 4,250 (Malaysia) to 74,037 (India), and response rates ranged from 64.4% (Ukraine) to 98.5% (Qatar). In 2019, data from the 31 countries were assessed in June 2019, and indicators included self-reported current (daily or less than daily) tobacco smoking, past-year quit attempts, and cessation methods used in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Current tobacco smoking prevalence ranged from 3.7% (Ethiopia) to 38.2% (Greece). Overall, an estimated 176.8 million adults from the 31 countries made a quit attempt in the past 12 months, with country-level prevalence ranging from 16.4% (Greece) to 54.7% (Botswana). Most individuals who made a quit attempt did so without assistance (median=74.4%). Other methods were less prevalent, including quitlines (median=0.2%) and counseling (median=7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In the assessed countries, the majority of those who currently smoked tobacco and made a quit attempt did so without assistance; very few reported using quitlines, partly because of the lack of quitlines in some countries. In resource-limited settings, quitlines can play a greater role in helping people quit smoking as part of a comprehensive approach.

5.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the chemical composition of JUUL pods collected from a convenience sample of 16 high schools in California to identify possible consumer modification or counterfeit use. METHODS: Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, we quantitatively analyzed the nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG) in JUUL pods (n = 26) collected from California high schools and compared results to commercial 3% (n = 15) and 5% (n = 24) JUUL pods purchased online. RESULTS: Most of the collected JUUL pods (24/26 pods) had a nicotine concentration (43.3 mg/ml, 95% PI: 21.5-65.1) outside the prediction intervals (PI) of the 3% (33.5 mg/ml, 95% PI: 31.8-35.2) and 5% (55.0 mg/ml, 95% PI: 51.5-58.3) commercial JUUL pods. Most (73%) collected JUUL pods had VG concentrations (583.5 mg/ml, PI: 428.9-738.1) lower than the 3% (722.2 mg/ml, PI: 643.0-801.4) and 5% (710.5 mg/ml, PI: 653.1-767.8) commercial JUUL pods. CONCLUSIONS: Used JUUL products collected from high school students or found on school grounds were not chemically consistent with the manufacturer's stated formulations.

6.
Public Health Rep ; : 33354920984155, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies examining the use of smoking cessation treatment and related spending among enrollees with employer-sponsored health insurance are dated and limited in scope. We assessed changes in annual receipt of and spending on cessation medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) among tobacco users with employer-sponsored health insurance from 2010 to 2017. METHODS: We analyzed data on 439 865 adult tobacco users in 2010 and 344 567 adult tobacco users in 2017 from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database. We used a negative binomial regression to estimate changes in receipt of cessation medication (number of fills and refills and days of supply). We used a generalized linear model to estimate spending (total, employers', and out of pocket). In both models, covariates included year, age, sex, residence, and type of health insurance plan. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2017, the percentage of adult tobacco users with employer-sponsored health insurance who received any cessation medication increased by 2.4%, from 15.7% to 16.1% (P < .001). Annual average number of fills and refills per user increased by 15.1%, from 2.5 to 2.9 (P < .001) and days of supply increased by 26.4%, from 81.9 to 103.5 (P < .001). The total annual average spending per user increased by 53.6%, from $286.40 to $440.00 (P < .001). Annual average out-of-pocket spending per user decreased by 70.9%, from $70.80 to $20.60 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of smoking cessation medications is low among smokers covered by employer-sponsored health insurance. Opportunities exist to further increase the use of cessation medications by promoting the use of evidence-based cessation treatments and reducing barriers to coverage, including out-of-pocket costs.

7.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(3): 406-410, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has conducted the national Tips From Former Smokers® public education campaign, which motivates smokers to quit by featuring people living with the real-life health consequences of smoking. Cost effectiveness, from the healthcare sector perspective, of the Tips From Former Smokers® campaign was compared over 2012-2018 with that of no campaign. METHODS: A combination of survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults that includes cigarette smokers and literature-based lifetime relapse rates were used to calculate the cumulative number of Tips From Former Smokers® campaign‒associated lifetime quits during 2012-2018. Then, lifetime health benefits (premature deaths averted, life years saved, and quality-adjusted life years gained) and healthcare sector cost savings associated with these quits were assessed. All the costs were adjusted for inflation in 2018 U.S. dollars. The Tips From Former Smokers® campaign was conducted and the survey data were collected during 2012-2018. Analyses were conducted in 2019. RESULTS: During 2012-2018, the Tips From Former Smokers® campaign was associated with an estimated 129,100 premature deaths avoided, 803,800 life years gained, 1.38 million quality-adjusted life years gained, and $7.3 billion in healthcare sector cost savings on the basis of an estimated 642,200 campaign-associated lifetime quits. The Tips From Former Smokers® campaign was associated with cost savings per lifetime quit of $11,400, per life year gained of $9,100, per premature deaths avoided of $56,800, and per quality-adjusted life year gained of $5,300. CONCLUSIONS: Mass-reach health education campaigns, such as Tips From Former Smokers®, can help smokers quit, improve health outcomes, and potentially reduce healthcare sector costs.

8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 220: 108507, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on prenatal cannabis use and adverse infant outcomes is inconsistent, and findings vary by frequency of use or cigarette use. We assess (1) the prevalence of high frequency (≥once/week), low frequency (

9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(Suppl 1): S96-S99, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320257

RESUMO

Implications In this commentary, we describe the evidence-based approach used to identify the primary cause of EVALI and to curb the 2019 outbreak. We also discuss future research opportunities and public health practice considerations to prevent a resurgence of EVALI.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1792-1796, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237898

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Although the percentage of all U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes has declined substantially since the mid-1960s (1,2), marked disparities persist, and declines have not been consistent across population groups (1,2). Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is as common, and sometimes more so, among adults with a history of epilepsy compared with those without a history of epilepsy, but reasons for this are unclear (3-6). Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy report lower household income, more unemployment and disability, worse psychological health, and reduced health-related quality of life (3,4,6,7). Trends in cigarette smoking among U.S. adults with epilepsy have not been previously assessed. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data among 121,497 U.S. adults from 2010, 2013, 2015, and 2017 to assess current cigarette smoking by epilepsy status. From 2010 through 2017, the age-standardized percentages of current smoking were 24.9% among adults with active epilepsy, 25.9% among adults with inactive epilepsy, and 16.6% among adults with no history of epilepsy. After accounting for differences in data collection intervals and patterns in smoking status among subgroups, CDC found that current cigarette smoking declined significantly from 2010 to 2017 among adults with no history of epilepsy (19.3% to 14.0% [p<0.001]) and inactive epilepsy (29.2% to 16.2% [p = 0.03]), but declines among adults with active epilepsy were not statistically significant (26.4% to 21.8% [p = 0.2]). Epilepsy health and social service providers should promote smoking cessation resources to adults with active epilepsy who smoke cigarettes to help them quit smoking and to reduce their risk of smoking-related disease and death.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E148, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A gradual reduction of cigarette nicotine content to nonaddictive levels has been proposed as an endgame strategy to accelerate declines in combustible tobacco smoking. We assessed manufacturer-reported nicotine yield in cigarettes sold in the United States from 2013 to 2016. METHODS: We merged machine-measured nicotine yield in cigarette smoke and pack characteristics obtained from reports filed by tobacco manufacturers with the Federal Trade Commission for 2013-2016 with monthly Nielsen data on US cigarette sales. Manufacturer-reported, sales-weighted, average annual nicotine yield was assessed, as were nicotine yield sales trends by quartile: markedly low (0.10-0.60 mg/stick), low (0.61-0.80 mg/stick), moderate (0.81-0.90 mg/stick), and high (0.91-3.00 mg/stick). Trends in overall, menthol, and nonmenthol pack sales, by nicotine yield quartiles over the study period and by year, were determined by using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: During 2013-2016, average annual sales-weighted nicotine yield for all cigarettes increased from 0.903 mg/stick (95% CI, 0.882-0.925) in 2013 to 0.938 mg/stick (95% CI, 0.915-0.962) in 2016 (P < .05). For menthol cigarettes, yield increased from 0.943 mg/stick in 2013 (95% CI, 0.909-0.977) to 1.037 mg/stick in 2016 (95% CI, 0.993-1.081), increasing 0.2% each month (P < .05). Most pack sales occurred among high (41.5%) and low (30.7%) nicotine yield quartiles. Cigarette sales for the markedly low quartile decreased by an average of 0.4% each month during 2013-2016 (P < .05). CONCLUSION: During 2013-2016, manufacturer-reported, sales-weighted nicotine yield in cigarettes increased, most notably for menthol cigarettes. Continued monitoring of nicotine yield and content in cigarettes can inform tobacco control strategies.

13.
Tob Control ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967986

RESUMO

Much of the progress in reducing cigarette smoking and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality among youth and adults is attributable to population-level strategies previously described in the context of the Tobacco Control Vaccine. The retail environment is used heavily by the tobacco industry to promote and advertise its products, and variations in exposure to and characteristics of the retail environment exist across demographic groups. It is therefore also an essential environment for further reducing smoking, as well as ameliorating racial, ethnic and socioeconomic tobacco-related disparities. This commentary provides an overview of the importance of incorporating strategies focused on the tobacco retailer environment (availability; pricing and promotion; advertising and display; age of sale; and retail licensure) as part of a comprehensive approach to tobacco prevention and control. To reach tobacco endgame targets, such innovative strategies are a complement to, but not a replacement for, long-standing evidence-based components of the Tobacco Control Vaccine.

14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1310-1312, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941408

RESUMO

The use of any tobacco product by youths is unsafe, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) (1). Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is highly addictive, can harm the developing adolescent brain, and can increase risk for future addiction to other drugs (1). E-cigarette use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011 (1,2). Multiple factors have contributed to this increase, including youth-appealing flavors and product innovations (1-3). Amid the widespread use of e-cigarettes and popularity of certain products among youths, on February 6, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented a policy prioritizing enforcement against the manufacture, distribution, and sale of certain unauthorized flavored prefilled pod or cartridge-based e-cigarettes (excluding tobacco or menthol).


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1313-1318, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941416

RESUMO

Since electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the U.S. marketplace in 2007, the landscape has evolved to include different product types (e.g., prefilled cartridge-based and disposable products) and flavored e-liquids (e.g., fruit, candy, mint, menthol, and tobacco flavors), which have contributed to increases in youth use (1,2). E-cigarettes have been the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths since 2014; in 2019, 27.5% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use (3). To assess trends in unit sales of e-cigarettes in the United States by product and flavor type, CDC, CDC Foundation, and Truth Initiative analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014-May 17, 2020, from Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). During this period, total e-cigarette sales increased by 122.2%, from 7.7 million to 17.1 million units per 4-week interval. By product type, the proportion of total sales that was prefilled cartridge products increased during September 2014-August 2019 (47.5% to 89.4%). During August 2019-May 2020, the proportion of total sales that was disposable products increased from 10.3% to 19.8%, while the proportion that was prefilled cartridge products decreased (89.4% to 80.2%). Among prefilled cartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales increased during September 2014-August 2019 (<0.1% to 47.6%); during August 2019-May 2020, mint sales decreased (47.6% to 0.3%), as menthol sales increased (10.7% to 61.8%). Among disposable e-cigarette sales during September 2014-May 2020, the proportion of mint sales increased (<0.1% to 10.5%), although tobacco-flavored (52.2% to 17.2%) and menthol-flavored (30.3% to 10.2%) sales decreased; during the same period, sales of all other flavors combined increased (17.2% to 62.1%). E-cigarette sales increased during 2014-2020, but fluctuations occurred overall and by product and flavor type, which could be attributed to consumer preferences and accessibility. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette sales and use is critical to inform strategies at the national, state, and community levels to minimize the risks of e-cigarettes on individual- and population-level health. As part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce youth e-cigarettes use, such strategies could include those that address youth-appealing product innovations and flavors.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Aromatizantes/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E97, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857030

RESUMO

In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign to encourage people who smoke to quit by showing real-life heath consequences of tobacco use and promoting evidence-based resources for quitting. To assess the campaign's impact on quit attempts and sustained-quit estimates (ie, quits lasting ≥6 mos), CDC analyzed data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of US adults who smoke cigarettes, aged 18 years or older in 2012-2018. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 16.4 million quit attempts and 1,005,419 sustained quits. Continued implementation of cessation campaigns, including the Tips campaign, could accelerate progress toward reducing rates of smoking-related diseases and death.

17.
MMWR Suppl ; 69(1): 56-63, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817607

RESUMO

Tobacco product use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the United States. This report used data from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey to assess the following among U.S. high school students: ever use of cigarettes and electronic vapor products, current use (≥1 day during the 30 days before the survey) of tobacco products, frequent use (≥20 days during the 30 days before the survey) among current users of tobacco products, trends in use over time, and usual source of electronic vapor products among current electronic vapor product users. In 2019, a total of 50.1% of U.S. high school students had ever used electronic vapor products, and 24.1% had ever tried cigarette smoking. Current electronic vapor product use was 32.7%, current cigarette smoking was 6.0%, current cigar smoking was 5.7%, and current smokeless tobacco use was 3.8%. Approximately 36.5% of students were current users of any tobacco product, and 8.2% were current users of two or more tobacco products. Frequent use among users of individual products was 32.6% for electronic vapor products, 28.5% for smokeless tobacco, 22.2% for cigarettes, and 18.4% for cigars. Among current electronic vapor product users who were aged ≤17 years, the most commonly reported source was borrowing them from someone else (42.8%). Significant decreases occurred in current cigarette smoking (1991: 27.5%; 2019: 6.0%), cigar smoking (1997: 22.0%; 2019: 5.7%), and smokeless tobacco use (2017: 5.5%; 2019: 3.8%). However, significant increases occurred in current electronic vapor product use (2015: 24.1%; 2019: 32.7%) and any tobacco product use (2017: 19.5%; 2019: 36.5%). Although current cigarette smoking, cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use has decreased among high school students, the increased prevalence of electronic vapor product use among youths is concerning. Continued surveillance for all tobacco product use is warranted for guiding and evaluating public health policy at the local, state, tribal, and national levels.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1219-1232, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since August, 2019, US public health officials have been investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). A spectrum of histological patterns consistent with acute to subacute lung injury has been seen in biopsies; however, autopsy findings have not been systematically characterised. We describe the pathological findings in autopsy and biopsy tissues submitted to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the evaluation of suspected EVALI. METHODS: Between Aug 1, 2019, and Nov 30, 2019, we examined lung biopsy (n=10 individuals) and autopsy (n=13 individuals) tissue samples received by the CDC, submitted by 16 US states, from individuals with: a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use; respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms; and either pulmonary infiltrates or opacities on chest imaging, or sudden death from an undetermined cause. We also reviewed medical records, evaluated histopathology, and performed infectious disease testing when indicated by histopathology and clinical history. FINDINGS: 21 cases met surveillance case definitions for EVALI, with a further two cases of clinically suspected EVALI evaluated. All ten lung biopsies showed histological evidence of acute to subacute lung injury, including diffuse alveolar damage or organising pneumonia. These patterns were also seen in nine of 13 (69%) autopsy cases, most frequently diffuse alveolar damage (eight autopsies), but also acute and organising fibrinous pneumonia (one autopsy). Additional pulmonary pathology not necessarily consistent with EVALI was seen in the remaining autopsies, including bronchopneumonia, bronchoaspiration, and chronic interstitial lung disease. Three of the five autopsy cases with no evidence of, or a plausible alternative cause for acute lung injury, had been classified as confirmed or probable EVALI according to surveillance case definitions. INTERPRETATION: Acute to subacute lung injury patterns were seen in all ten biopsies and most autopsy lung tissues from individuals with suspected EVALI. Acute to subacute lung injury can have numerous causes; however, if it is identified in an individual with a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use, and no alternative cause is apparent, a diagnosis of EVALI should be strongly considered. A review of autopsy tissue pathology in suspected EVALI deaths can also identify alternative diagnoses, which can enhance the specificity of public health surveillance efforts. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(7): e200756, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421164

RESUMO

Importance: To date, limited information is available on the characteristics of adolescents with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Objective: To inform public health and clinical practice by describing differences in demographics, substance use behaviors, and clinical characteristics of EVALI among adolescents compared with adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Surveillance data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2019 EVALI outbreak were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% CIs and to test differences between 360 hospitalized or deceased adolescents vs 859 young adults and 936 adults with EVALI (N = 2155). Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographics, substance use behaviors, and clinical characteristics. Results: Included in this cross-sectional study were 360 hospitalized or deceased adolescents (age range, 13-17 years; 67.9% male) vs 859 young adults (age range, 18-24 years; 72.4% male) and 936 adults (age range, 25-49 years; 65.6% male) with EVALI. Adolescents diagnosed as having EVALI reported using any nicotine-containing (62.4%), any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing (81.7%), and both (50.8%) types of e-cigarette or vaping products. Informal sources for obtaining nicotine-containing and THC-containing e-cigarette or vaping products were more commonly reported by adolescents (50.5% for nicotine and 96.5% for THC) than young adults (19.8% for nicotine [aPR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.78-3.46] and 86.9% for THC [aPR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18]) or adults (24.3% for nicotine [aPR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.49-2.84] and 75.1% for THC [aPR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.40]). Mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders were commonly reported; a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was almost 4 times more likely among adolescents (18.1%) than adults (4.9%) (aPR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.92-7.26). A history of asthma was more likely to be reported among adolescents (43.6%) than adults (28.3%) (aPR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.05). Gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms were more common in adolescents (90.9% and 97.3%, respectively) than adults (75.3% and 94.5%, respectively) (aPR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13-1.28 and aPR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06, respectively). Because of missing data, percentages may not be able to be calculated from data provided. Conclusions and Relevance: Public health and clinical professionals should continue to provide information to adolescents about the association between EVALI and THC-containing e-cigarette or vaping product use, especially those products obtained through informal sources, and that the use of any e-cigarette or vaping product is unsafe. Compared with adults, it appears that adolescents with EVALI more frequently have a history of asthma and mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and report nonspecific problems, including gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms; therefore, obtaining a confidential substance use history that includes e-cigarette or vaping product use is recommended.

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