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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4219, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144341

RESUMO

Many marine animals have evolved sensory abilities to use electric and magnetic cues in essential aspects of life history, such as to detect prey, predators and mates as well as to orientate and migrate. Potential disruption of vital cues by human activities must be understood in order to mitigate potential negative influences. Cable deployments in coastal waters are increasing worldwide, in capacity and number, owing to growing demands for electrical power and telecommunications. Increasingly, the local electromagnetic environment used by electro- and magneto-sensitive species will be altered. We quantified biologically relevant behavioural responses of the presumed, magneto-receptive American lobster and the electro-sensitive Little skate to electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions of a subsea high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission cable for domestic electricity supply. We demonstrate a striking increase in exploratory/foraging behaviour in skates in response to EMF and a more subtle exploratory response in lobsters. In addition, by directly measuring both the magnetic and electric field components of the EMF emitted by HVDC cables we found that there were DC and unexpectedly AC components. Modelling, restricted to the DC component, showed good agreement with measured results. Our cross-disciplinary study highlights the need to integrate an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic EMF environment together with the responses of sensitive animals when planning future cable deployments and predicting their environmental effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Biodiversidade , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Rajidae/fisiologia , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Palinuridae/efeitos da radiação
2.
Med Mycol ; 56(suppl_1): S188-S204, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767780

RESUMO

In 2014, ISHAM formed a new working group: "Medical Phycology: Protothecosis and Chlorellosis." The purpose of this working group is to help facilitate collaboration and communication among people interested in the pathogenic algae, to share ideas and work together. Here we present reports on recent work we have done in five areas. 1. The history of medical phycology as a branch of science. 2. Aspects of the genetics of Prototheca. 3. Aspects of the proteins of Prototheca. 4. Human infections caused by Prototheca. 5. Dairy cow mastitis caused by Prototheca.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Prototheca , Animais , Chlorella/genética , Chlorella/patogenicidade , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções , Tipagem Molecular , Prototheca/genética , Prototheca/patogenicidade
3.
Angle Orthod ; 87(2): 246-253, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27654627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the long-term skeletodental stability of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis (MSDO) achieved with the use of tooth-borne vs. hybrid distraction appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posttreatment and follow-up orthodontic records were collected for 33 patients. The 14 patients who underwent distraction with a tooth-borne appliance had a mean follow-up of 5.08 years. The 19 patients who underwent distraction with a hybrid appliance had a mean follow-up of 6.07 years. Records included intraoral photographs, study models, postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs, and lateral cephalometric radiographs. Total changes of 16 measurements were analyzed to compare patients who underwent the tooth-borne vs. the hybrid distraction. RESULTS: Both groups shared several similar and significant (P < .05) changes from posttreatment to follow-up records. Cast analysis showed a decrease in intercanine width and arch length and an increase in irregularity index. The postero-anterior cephalometric radiograph showed an increase in the width of the interincisal apices. The lateral cephalometric radiograph showed a decrease in the MP-L1 angle. The only statistically significant difference between the two appliances was the intercentral incisor contact point. CONCLUSION: Changes found are consistent with those found in untreated and orthodontically treated individuals over time. The long-term changes in the current patient sample can be determined to be expected and acceptable. MSDO is a viable treatment option with the use of either a hybrid or tooth-borne appliance.


Assuntos
Mandíbula/anormalidades , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Osteogênese por Distração/instrumentação , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografia Dentária , Tennessee , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(42): 11895-11900, 2016 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698127

RESUMO

Long paleoecological records are critical for understanding evolutionary responses to environmental forcing and unparalleled tools for elucidating the mechanisms that lead to the development of regions of high biodiversity. We use a 1.2-My record from Lake Malawi, a textbook example of biological diversification, to document how climate and tectonics have driven ecosystem and evolutionary dynamics. Before ∼800 ka, Lake Malawi was much shallower than today, with higher frequency but much lower amplitude water-level and oxygenation changes. Since ∼800 ka, the lake has experienced much larger environmental fluctuations, best explained by a punctuated, tectonically driven rise in its outlet location and level. Following the reorganization of the basin, a change in the pacing of hydroclimate variability associated with the Mid-Pleistocene Transition resulted in hydrologic change dominated by precession rather than the high-latitude teleconnections recorded elsewhere. During this time, extended, deep lake phases have abruptly alternated with times of extreme aridity and ecosystem variability. Repeated crossings of hydroclimatic thresholds within the lake system were critical for establishing the rhythm of diversification, hybridization, and extinction that dominate the modern system. The chronology of these changes closely matches both the timing and pattern of phylogenetic history inferred independently for the lake's extraordinary array of cichlid fish species, suggesting a direct link between environmental and evolutionary dynamics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Ciclídeos , Meio Ambiente , Lagos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Geografia , Malaui , Paleontologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29587, 2016 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427431

RESUMO

Interactions between climate, fire and CO2 are believed to play a crucial role in controlling the distributions of tropical woodlands and savannas, but our understanding of these processes is limited by the paucity of data from undisturbed tropical ecosystems. Here we use a 28,000-year integrated record of vegetation, climate and fire from West Africa to examine the role of these interactions on tropical ecosystem stability. We find that increased aridity between 28-15 kyr B.P. led to the widespread expansion of tropical grasslands, but that frequent fires and low CO2 played a crucial role in stabilizing these ecosystems, even as humidity changed. This resulted in an unstable ecosystem state, which transitioned abruptly from grassland to woodlands as gradual changes in CO2 and fire shifted the balance in favor of woody plants. Since then, high atmospheric CO2 has stabilized tropical forests by promoting woody plant growth, despite increased aridity. Our results indicate that the interactions between climate, CO2 and fire can make tropical ecosystems more resilient to change, but that these systems are dynamically unstable and potentially susceptible to abrupt shifts between woodland and grassland dominated states in the future.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(51): 15568-73, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26644580

RESUMO

The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Clima , África Oriental , Animais , Ciclídeos , Mudança Climática/história , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Lagos , Paleontologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5474, 2014 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24969361

RESUMO

The monsoon is a fundamental component of Earth's climate. The Pliocene warm period is characterized by long-term global cooling yet concurrent monsoon dynamics are poorly known. Here we present the first fully quantified and calibrated reconstructions of separate Pliocene air temperature and East Asian summer monsoon precipitation histories on the Chinese Loess Plateau through joint analysis of loess/red clay magnetic parameters with different sensitivities to air temperature and precipitation. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation shows an intensified trend, paradoxically at the same time that climate cooled. We propose a hitherto unrecognized feedback where persistently intensified East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene, triggered by the gradual closure of the Panama Seaway, reinforced late Pliocene Pacific freshening, sea-ice development and ice volume increase, culminating in initiation of the extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciations of the Quaternary Ice Age. This feedback mechanism represents a fundamental reinterpretation of the origin of the Quaternary glaciations and the impact of the monsoon.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(14): 5100-5, 2014 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24706841

RESUMO

The Indo-Pacific warm pool houses the largest zone of deep atmospheric convection on Earth and plays a critical role in global climate variations. Despite the region's importance, changes in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate on orbital timescales remain poorly constrained. Here we present high-resolution geochemical records of surface runoff and vegetation from sediment cores from Lake Towuti, on the island of Sulawesi in central Indonesia, that continuously span the past 60,000 y. We show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems on Sulawesi present during marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene were interrupted by severe drying between ∼33,000 and 16,000 y B.P. when Northern Hemisphere ice sheets expanded and global temperatures cooled. Our record reveals little direct influence of precessional orbital forcing on regional climate, and the similarity between MIS3 and Holocene climates observed in Lake Towuti suggests that exposure of the Sunda Shelf has a weaker influence on regional hydroclimate and terrestrial ecosystems than suggested previously. We infer that hydrological variability in this part of Indonesia varies strongly in response to high-latitude climate forcing, likely through reorganizations of the monsoons and the position of the intertropical convergence zone. These findings suggest an important role for the tropical western Pacific in amplifying glacial-interglacial climate variability.

9.
Angle Orthod ; 84(1): 68-75, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23786596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare, retrospectively, the skeletal and dental effects of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis (MSDO) achieved through the use of tooth-borne versus hybrid distractors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretreatment (T1), predistraction (T2), postdistraction (T3), and posttreatment (T4) orthodontic records were collected and analyzed for 47 patients (20 tooth-borne, 27 hybrid). At each time point, records included intraoral photographs, study models, postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs, and lateral cephalometric radiographs. Submental vertex radiographs were taken at T2, T3, and T4. Changes in a total of 18 measurements were analyzed to compare patients undergoing tooth-borne versus hybrid distraction. RESULTS: The cumulative effects of orthodontics and MSDO produced similar gains in measured arch widths, with a decreased irregularity index in both groups (P > .05). However, there were differences in the timing during which the expansion was achieved. The hybrid distractor group gained space during the distraction phase of treatment. The tooth-borne group showed greater gains during pre- and postdistraction orthodontics. Comparisons of intercanine and interbone marker widths demonstrated a more parallel separation of bone during distraction with the hybrid distractor (P < .001). Distraction with the tooth-borne distractor was disproportionate, with greater separation of the canines in alveolar bone than of the bone markers in basal bone. During postdistraction orthodontics, the tooth-borne distractor group showed statistically greater increases in measurements. CONCLUSION: Both skeletal and dental expansion was achieved with both appliances. Greater skeletal expansion was achieved with a hybrid distractor. Greater dental expansion was achieved with a tooth-borne distractor.


Assuntos
Arco Dental/cirurgia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Osteogênese por Distração/instrumentação , Dente/patologia , Adolescente , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Dente Canino/patologia , Arco Dental/patologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Marcadores Fiduciais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incisivo/patologia , Mandíbula/patologia , Côndilo Mandibular/patologia , Modelos Dentários , Dente Molar/patologia , Ortodontia Corretiva/instrumentação , Osteogênese por Distração/métodos , Fotografia Dentária/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Med Mycol ; 50(7): 673-89, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22571772

RESUMO

We present a Prototheca wickerhamii wound infection case that failed treatment with ketoconazole but was cured with amphotericin-B plus tetracycline. The patient was immunocompetent but had had local steroid injections. We reviewed another 159 cases from the literature. Prototheca has infected many areas of the human body, but most often skin, olecranon bursa, or wounds. Prior treatment with steroids and immune deficiencies are contributing factors. Itraconazole and fluconazole are reasonable initial treatments for patients with mild infections. For serious infections, or for infections that have failed azole treatment, amphotericin-B is the treatment of choice.


Assuntos
Prototheca/isolamento & purificação , Prototheca/patogenicidade , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/etiologia , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2012: 450685, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23319884

RESUMO

Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.


Assuntos
Árvores de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Energia Renovável , Vento , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 141(1): 60-70, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22196186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term skeletal and dental stability of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis (MSDO) with a tooth-borne and bone-borne hybrid distractor. To differentiate the effects of MSDO from the orthodontic movement and relapse, each phase of treatment was analyzed. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were included in the study, ranging in age from 12.0 to 30.9 years at the initiation of treatment (mean, 15.8 ± 4.8 years). Of this group, 16 patients were recalled at a mean of 7.5 ± 0.9 years (range, 6.3-9.6 years) after distraction for long-term analysis of skeletal and dental changes. Orthodontic records were taken at 5 times: T1, pretreatment; T2, predistraction; T3, postdistraction; T4, posttreatment, and T5, postretention. The data were statistically analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: There were significant increases in all interdental transverse measurements except the mandibular intersecond molar distance from T1 to T4. The largest overall expansion was achieved between the mandibular second premolars (4.32 ± 0.60 mm), followed by the interfirst premolar (3.44 ± 0.44 mm), the interfirst molar (2.60 ± 0.65 mm), and the intercanine (1.87 ± 0.44 mm) widths. The overall amount of transverse dental expansion was substantially less when analyzed from the time of the mandibular symphyseal osteotomy to posttreatment (T2-T4). From T3 to T4, there were significant decreases between the mandibular intersecond premolars (-3.10 ± 0.52 mm), interfirst premolars (-3.90 ± 0.35 m), intercanines (-4.47 ± 0.38 mm), and intercentral incisors (-5.60 ± 0.32 mm). There were no significant changes in bicondylar, bigonial, and biantigonial widths. At the long-term follow-up, there were no significant changes in the interdental or skeletal measurements between T4 and T5, except for interincisor apices. The irregularity index significantly decreased during the orthodontic treatment but significantly increased in the long-term follow-up period (T4-T5). After the MSDO, T3 to T5, the results indicated symphyseal basal bone skeletal stability. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the expansion of the mandibular arch with MSDO and conventional orthodontic mechanics produces no statistically significant transverse changes from posttreatment to long-term follow-up. The risks of using a surgical procedure and MSDO to achieve additional expansion should be evaluated by the clinician and compared with more traditional orthodontic methods.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/cirurgia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Osteogênese por Distração/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Cefalometria , Criança , Queixo/cirurgia , Arco Dental/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/terapia , Ortodontia Corretiva , Prevenção Secundária , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Hepatol ; 56(2): 313-9, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21703177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interferon-alfa (IFN)-related cytopenias are common and may be dose-limiting. We performed a genome wide association study on a well-characterized genotype 1 HCV cohort to identify genetic determinants of peginterferon-α (pegIFN)-related thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and leukopenia. METHODS: 1604/3070 patients in the IDEAL study consented to genetic testing. Trial inclusion criteria included a platelet (Pl) count ≥80×10(9)/L and an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1500/mm(3). Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human610-quad BeadChip. The primary analyses focused on the genetic determinants of quantitative change in cell counts (Pl, ANC, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils) at week 4 in patients >80% adherent to therapy (n=1294). RESULTS: 6 SNPs on chromosome 20 were positively associated with Pl reduction (top SNP rs965469, p=10(-10)). These tag SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium with 2 functional variants in the ITPA gene, rs1127354 and rs7270101, that cause ITPase deficiency and protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia (HA). rs1127354 and rs7270101 showed strong independent associations with Pl reduction (p=10(-12), p=10(-7)) and entirely explained the genome-wide significant associations. We believe this is an example of an indirect genetic association due to a reactive thrombocytosis to RBV-induced anemia: Hb decline was inversely correlated with Pl reduction (r=-0.28, p=10(-17)) and Hb change largely attenuated the association between the ITPA variants and Pl reduction in regression models. No common genetic variants were associated with pegIFN-induced neutropenia or leucopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Two ITPA variants were associated with thrombocytopenia; this was largely explained by a thrombocytotic response to RBV-induced HA attenuating IFN-related thrombocytopenia. No genetic determinants of pegIFN-induced neutropenia were identified.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/genética , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/genética , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pirofosfatases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(44): 17895-900, 2011 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22011576

RESUMO

A more thorough understanding of regional to hemispheric hydroclimate variability and associated climate patterns is needed in order to validate climate models and project future conditions. In this study, two annually laminated (varved) sediment records spanning the last millennium were analyzed from Rhode Island and New York. Lamination thickness time series from the two locations are significantly correlated to hydroclimate indicators over the period of instrument overlap, demonstrating their usefulness in reconstructing past conditions. Both records are correlated to climate teleconnection indices, most strongly the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, suggesting regional to hemispheric influences on hydroclimate. Such a linkage is interpreted to be due to tropospheric circulation patterns in which positive PNA periods are associated with meridional circulation, leading to the dominance of southern moist air masses in the Northeast United States. Alternatively, the zonal flow over North America associated with negative PNA periods produces dominant dry continental air masses over the region. A composite record from the two locations reveals variability of hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation over the late Holocene and shows similarities to previously published reconstructions of the circumpolar vortex and of the Aleutian Low-pressure system, supporting the hypothesized PNA linkage. The record is correlated to continental-scale droughts, many of which have been reconstructed in the American Southwest. These results demonstrate the PNA's influence on hydroclimate over North America, and suggest that this teleconnected pattern may have a significant role in continental drought dynamics.

15.
Hepatology ; 54(1): 70-8, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21488082

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Black Americans are disproportionally infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are less likely than whites to respond to treatment with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). The impact of race on HCV treatment eligibility is unknown. We therefore performed a retrospective analysis of a phase 3B multicenter clinical trial conducted at 118 United States community and academic medical centers to evaluate the rates of and reasons for HCV treatment ineligibility according to self-reported race. In all, 4,469 patients were screened, of whom 1,038 (23.2%) were treatment ineligible. Although blacks represented 19% of treated patients, they were more likely not to be treated due to ineligibility and/or failure to complete required evaluations (40.2%) than were nonblack patients (28.5%; P < 0.001). After the exclusion of persons not treated due to undetectable HCV RNA or nongenotype 1 infection, blacks were 65% less likely than nonblacks to be eligible for treatment (28.1% > 17.0%; relative risk, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-1.87; P < 0.001). Blacks were more likely to be ineligible due to neutropenia (14% versus 3%, P < 0.001), anemia (7% versus 4%, P = 0.02), elevated glucose (8% versus 3%, P < 0.001), and elevated creatinine (5% versus 1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Largely due to a higher prevalence of neutropenia and uncontrolled medical conditions, blacks were significantly less likely to be eligible for HCV treatment. Increased access to treatment may be facilitated by less conservative neutrophil requirements and more effective care for chronic diseases, namely, diabetes and renal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Definição da Elegibilidade/tendências , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/etnologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
Anal Chem ; 82(17): 7119-26, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20684521

RESUMO

The reliability of chronology is a prerequisite for meaningful paleoclimate reconstructions from sedimentary archives. The conventional approach of radiocarbon dating bulk organic carbon in lake sediments is often hampered by the old carbon effect, i.e., the assimilation of ancient dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from carbonate bedrocks or other sources. Therefore, radiocarbon dating is ideally performed on organic compounds derived from land plants that use atmospheric CO(2) and rapidly delivered to sediments. We demonstrate that lignin phenols isolated from lake sediments using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can serve as effective (14)C dating materials for establishing chronology during the late Quaternary. We developed a procedure to purify lignin phenols, building upon a published method. By isolating lignin from standard wood reference substances, we show that our method yields pure lignin phenols and consistent ages as the consensus ages and that our procedure does not introduce radiocarbon contamination. We further demonstrate that lignin phenol ages are compatible with varve counted and macrofossil dated sediment horizons in Steel Lake and Fayetteville Green Lake. Applying the new method to lake sediment cores from Lake Qinghai demonstrates that lignin phenol ages in Lake Qinghai are consistently younger than bulk total organic carbon (TOC) ages which are contaminated by old carbon effect. We also show that the age offset between lignin and bulk organic carbon differs at different Lake Qinghai sedimentary horizons, suggesting a variable hard water effect at different times and that a uniform age correction throughout the core is inappropriate.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lignina/química , Fenóis/química , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Gastroenterology ; 139(1): 120-9.e18, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20399780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We recently identified a polymorphism upstream of interleukin (IL)-28B to be associated with a 2-fold difference in sustained virologic response (SVR) rates to pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin therapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive, adherent patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. We sought to confirm the polymorphism's clinical relevance by intention-to-treat analysis evaluating on-treatment virologic response and SVR. METHODS: HCV-1 patients were genotyped as CC, CT, or TT at the polymorphic site, rs12979860. Viral kinetics and rates of rapid virologic response (RVR, week 4), complete early virologic response (week 12), and SVR were compared by IL-28B type in 3 self-reported ethnic groups: Caucasians (n = 1171), African Americans (n = 300), and Hispanics (n = 116). RESULTS: In Caucasians, the CC IL-28B type was associated with improved early viral kinetics and greater likelihood of RVR (28% vs 5% and 5%; P < .0001), complete early virologic response (87% vs 38% and 28%; P < .0001), and SVR (69% vs 33% and 27%; P < .0001) compared with CT and TT. A similar association occurred within African Americans and Hispanics. In a multivariable regression model, CC IL-28B type was the strongest pretreatment predictor of SVR (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-6.7). RVR was a strong predictor of SVR regardless of IL-28B type. In non-RVR patients, the CC IL-28B type was associated with a higher rate of SVR (Caucasians, 66% vs 31% and 24%; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In treatment-naive HCV-1 patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, a polymorphism upstream of IL-28B is associated with increased on-treatment and sustained virologic response and effectively predicts treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Interferons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Carga Viral
18.
Environ Manage ; 45(4): 793-806, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20119722

RESUMO

Creating a habitat classification and mapping system for marine and coastal ecosystems is a daunting challenge due to the complex array of habitats that shift on various spatial and temporal scales. To meet this challenge, several countries have, or are developing, national classification systems and mapping protocols for marine habitats. To be effectively applied by scientists and managers it is essential that classification systems be comprehensive and incorporate pertinent physical, geological, biological, and anthropogenic habitat characteristics. Current systems tend to provide over-simplified conceptual structures that do not capture biological habitat complexity, marginalize anthropogenic features, and remain largely untested at finer scales. We propose a multi-scale hierarchical framework with a particular focus on finer scale habitat classification levels and conceptual schematics to guide habitat studies and management decisions. A case study using published data is included to compare the proposed framework with existing schemes. The example demonstrates how the proposed framework's inclusion of user-defined variables, a combined top-down and bottom-up approach, and multi-scale hierarchical organization can facilitate examination of marine habitats and inform management decisions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/classificação , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Animais , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Classificação , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Rhode Island , Água do Mar/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 78(4): 347-52, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20006371

RESUMO

Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent added to a wide array of consumer goods and personal care products. Through its use, it is introduced into municipal sewer systems where it is only partially removed during wastewater treatment. In this study, triclosan was measured in dated sediment cores from four urbanized estuaries in order to reconstruct temporal and spatial trends of accumulation. Measurable concentrations of triclosan first appeared in each of the sediment cores near 1964, which corresponds with the US patent issuance date of triclosan. The presence of triclosan at each of the study sites at or near the patent date indicates that long-term preservation is occurring in estuarine sediments. Temporal trends of triclosan at each location are unique, reflecting between site variability. Concentrations at one site climbed to as high as 400ngg(-1), due in part, to local commercial production of triclosan. At two locations, levels of triclosan rise towards the surface of each core, suggesting increasing usage in recent years. One location adjacent to a major combined sewer overflow had high sediment concentrations of triclosan, confirming their potential as a source of triclosan to estuaries.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Triclosan/toxicidade , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inseticidas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes do Solo , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual , Urbanização , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
20.
Chemosphere ; 73(11): 1824-31, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18805563

RESUMO

In aquatic systems where metal contaminated sediments are present, the potential exists for metals to be released to the water column when sediment resuspension occurs. The release and partitioning behavior of sediment-bound heavy metals is not well understood during resuspension events. In this study, the release of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from sediments during resuspension was evaluated using reference sediments with known physical and chemical properties. Sediment treatments with varying quantities of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), total organic carbon (TOC), and different grain size distributions were resuspended under controlled conditions to evaluate their respective effects on dissolved metal concentrations. AVS had the greatest effect on limiting release of dissolved metals, followed by grain size and TOC. Predictions of dissolved concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were developed based on the formulated sediment Sigma(metal)/AVS ratios with Sigma(metal) being the total sediment metal concentration. Predicted values were compared to measured dissolved metal concentrations in contaminated field sediments resuspended under identical operating conditions. Metal concentrations released from the field sediments were low overall, in most cases lower than predicted values, reflecting the importance of other binding phases. Overall, results indicate that for sulfidic sediments, low levels of the study metals are released to the dissolved phase during short-term resuspension.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Laboratórios , Metais/química , Valores de Referência , Solubilidade , Suspensões
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