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1.
Neuron ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585809

RESUMO

In humans, disruption of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the mechanism by which deficient NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction remains unknown, preventing development of targeted therapies. Here we identified novel protein-coding UPF2 (UP-Frameshift 2) variants in humans with NDD, including speech and language deficits. In parallel, we found that mice lacking Upf2 in the forebrain (Upf2 fb-KO mice) show impaired NMD, memory deficits, abnormal long-term potentiation (LTP), and social and communication deficits. Surprisingly, Upf2 fb-KO mice exhibit elevated expression of immune genes and brain inflammation. More importantly, treatment with two FDA-approved anti-inflammatory drugs reduced brain inflammation, restored LTP and long-term memory, and reversed social and communication deficits. Collectively, our findings indicate that impaired UPF2-dependent NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction and suggest that anti-inflammatory agents may prove effective for treatment of disorders with impaired NMD.

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

3.
J Med Genet ; 56(10): 701-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 15q11.2 deletion is frequently identified in the neurodevelopmental clinic. Case-control studies have associated the 15q11.2 deletion with neurodevelopmental disorders, and clinical case series have attempted to delineate a microdeletion syndrome with considerable phenotypic variability. The literature on this deletion is extensive and confusing, which is a challenge for genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of the 15q11.2 deletion and quantify its contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses on new and previously published case-control studies and used statistical models trained in unselected populations with cognitive assessments. We used new (n=241) and previously published (n=150) data from a clinically referred group of deletion carriers. 15q11.2 duplications (new n=179 and previously published n=35) were used as a neutral control variant. RESULTS: The deletion decreases IQ by 4.3 points. The estimated ORs and respective frequencies in deletion carriers for intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia and epilepsy are 1.7 (3.4%), 1.5 (2%) and 3.1 (2.1%), respectively. There is no increased risk for heart malformations and autism. In the clinically referred group, the frequency and nature of symptoms in deletions are not different from those observed in carriers of the 15q11.2 duplication suggesting that most of the reported symptoms are due to ascertainment bias. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that the deletion should be classified as 'pathogenic of mild effect size'. Since it explains only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance in carriers, it is not worth discussing in the developmental clinic or in a prenatal setting.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 72-84, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001818

RESUMO

Variants in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and overgrowth and CHD8 is one of the causative genes for OGID (overgrowth and ID). We investigated 25 individuals with CHD8 protein truncating variants (PTVs), including 10 previously unreported patients and found a male to female ratio of 2.7:1 (19:7) and a pattern of common features: macrocephaly (62.5%), tall stature (47%), developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (81%), ASDs (84%), sleep difficulties (50%), gastrointestinal problems (40%), and distinct facial features. Most of the individuals in this cohort had moderate-to-severe ID, some had regression of speech (37%), seizures (27%) and hypotonia (27%) and two individuals were non-ambulant. Our study shows that haploinsufficiency of CHD8 is associated with a distinctive OGID syndrome with pronounced autistic traits and supports a sex-dependent penetrance of CHD8 PTVs in humans.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2216-2223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a detailed electroclinical description and expand the phenotype of PIGT-CDG, to perform genotype-phenotype correlation, and to investigate the onset and severity of the epilepsy associated with the different genetic subtypes of this rare disorder. Furthermore, to use computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis in PIGT-CDG and to the compare findings with other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiencies. METHODS: We evaluated 13 children from eight unrelated families with homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in PIGT. RESULTS: All patients had hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and epilepsy. Epilepsy onset ranged from first day of life to two years of age. Severity of the seizure disorder varied from treatable seizures to severe neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathies. The facial gestalt of patients resembled that of previously published PIGT patients as they were closest to the center of the PIGT cluster in the clinical face phenotype space and were distinguishable from other gene-specific phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We expand our knowledge of PIGT. Our cases reaffirm that the use of genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders. Finally, we show that computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis accurately assigned PIGT cases to the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome phenotypic series advocating the additional use of next-generation phenotyping technology.

7.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 693-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859559

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterised by distinctive facial features, heart defects, variable degrees of intellectual disability and other phenotypic manifestations. Although the mode of inheritance is typically dominant, recent studies indicate LZTR1 may be associated with both dominant and recessive forms. Seeking to describe the phenotypic characteristics of LZTR1-associated NS, we searched for likely pathogenic variants using two approaches. First, scrutiny of exomes from 9624 patients recruited by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDDs) study uncovered six dominantly-acting mutations (p.R97L; p.Y136C; p.Y136H, p.N145I, p.S244C; p.G248R) of which five arose de novo, and three patients with compound-heterozygous variants (p.R210*/p.V579M; p.R210*/p.D531N; c.1149+1G>T/p.R688C). One patient also had biallelic loss-of-function mutations in NEB, consistent with a composite phenotype. After removing this complex case, analysis of human phenotype ontology terms indicated significant phenotypic similarities (P = 0.0005), supporting a causal role for LZTR1. Second, targeted sequencing of eight unsolved NS-like cases identified biallelic LZTR1 variants in three further subjects (p.W469*/p.Y749C, p.W437*/c.-38T>A and p.A461D/p.I462T). Our study strengthens the association of LZTR1 with NS, with de novo mutations clustering around the KT1-4 domains. Although LZTR1 variants explain ~0.1% of cases across the DDD cohort, the gene is a relatively common cause of unsolved NS cases where recessive inheritance is suspected.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1667-1671, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783266

RESUMO

The article has been corrected to account for one patient being investigated through genome sequencing rather than exome sequencing as originally published; thus amendments to the Abstract and Methods have been made as well as addition of the relevant authors and acknowledgment.

10.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline WWOX pathogenic variants have been associated with disorder of sex differentiation (DSD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and WWOX-related epileptic encephalopathy (WOREE syndrome). We review clinical and molecular data on WWOX-related disorders, further describing WOREE syndrome and phenotype/genotype correlations. METHODS: We report clinical and molecular findings in 20 additional patients from 18 unrelated families with WOREE syndrome and biallelic pathogenic variants in the WWOX gene. Different molecular screening approaches were used (quantitative polymerase chain reaction/multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification [qPCR/MLPA], array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH], Sanger sequencing, epilepsy gene panel, exome sequencing). RESULTS: Two copy-number variations (CNVs) or two single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were found respectively in four and nine families, with compound heterozygosity for one SNV and one CNV in five families. Eight novel missense pathogenic variants have been described. By aggregating our patients with all cases reported in the literature, 37 patients from 27 families with WOREE syndrome are known. This review suggests WOREE syndrome is a very severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by absence of language development and acquisition of walking, early-onset drug-resistant seizures, ophthalmological involvement, and a high likelihood of premature death. The most severe clinical presentation seems to be associated with null genotypes. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic variants in WWOX are clearly associated with a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We report here the largest cohort of individuals with WOREE syndrome.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

14.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974297

RESUMO

Two distinct syndromes arise from pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene BCOR (BCL-6 corepressor): oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome, which affects females, and a severe microphthalmia ('Lenz'-type) syndrome affecting males. OFCD is an X-linked dominant syndrome caused by a variety of BCOR null mutations. As it manifests only in females, it is presumed to be lethal in males. The severe male X-linked recessive microphthalmia syndrome ('Lenz') usually includes developmental delay in addition to the eye findings and is caused by hypomorphic BCOR variants, mainly by a specific missense variant c.254C > T, p.(Pro85Leu). Here, we detail 16 new cases (11 females with 4 additional, genetically confirmed, affected female relatives; 5 male cases each with unaffected carrier mothers). We describe new variants and broaden the phenotypic description for OFCD to include neuropathy, muscle hypotonia, pituitary underdevelopment, brain atrophy, lipoma and the first description of childhood lymphoma in an OFCD case. Our male X-linked recessive cases show significant new phenotypes: developmental delay (without eye anomalies) in two affected half-brothers with a novel BCOR variant, and one male with high myopia, megalophthalmos, posterior embryotoxon, developmental delay, and heart and bony anomalies with a previously undescribed BCOR splice site variant. Our female OFCD cases and their affected female relatives showed variable features, but consistently had early onset cataracts. We show that a mosaic carrier mother manifested early cataract and dental anomalies. All female carriers of the male X-linked recessive cases for whom genetic confirmation was available showed skewed X-inactivation and were unaffected. In view of the extended phenotype, we suggest a new term of X-linked BCOR-related syndrome.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1272-1281, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904177

RESUMO

Au-Kline syndrome (AKS, OMIM 616580) is a multiple malformation syndrome, first reported in 2015, associated with intellectual disability. AKS has been associated with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K), and to date, only four of these patients have been described in the literature. Recently, an additional patient with a missense variant in HNRNPK was also reported. These patients have striking facial dysmorphic features, including long palpebral fissures, ptosis, deeply grooved tongue, broad nose, and down-turned mouth. Patients frequently also have skeletal and connective tissue anomalies, craniosynostosis, congenital heart malformations, and renal anomalies. In this report, we describe six new patients and review the clinical information on all reported AKS patients, further delineating the phenotype of AKS. There are now a total of 9 patients with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK, one individual with a de novo missense variant in addition to 3 patients with de novo deletions of 9q21.32 that encompass HNRNPK. While there is considerable overlap between AKS and Kabuki syndrome (KS), these additional patients demonstrate that AKS does have a distinct facial gestalt and phenotype that can be differentiated from KS. This growing AKS patient cohort also informs an emerging approach to management and health surveillance for these patients.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(6): 822-826, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573052

RESUMO

Defective glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biogenesis can cause a spectrum of predominantly neurological problems. For eight genes critical to this biological process, disease associations are not yet reported. Scanning exomes from 7,833 parent-child trios and 1,792 singletons from the DDD study for biallelic variants in this gene-set uncovered a rare PIGH variant in a boy with epilepsy, microcephaly, and behavioral difficulties. Although only 2/2 reads harbored this c.1A > T transversion, the presence of ∼25 Mb autozygosity at this locus implied homozygosity, which was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. A similarly-affected sister was also homozygous. FACS analysis of PIGH-deficient CHO cells indicated that cDNAs with c.1A > T could not efficiently restore expression of GPI-APs. Truncation of PIGH protein was consistent with the utilization of an in-frame start-site at codon 63. In summary, we describe siblings harboring a homozygous c.1A > T variant resulting in defective GPI-anchor biogenesis and highlight the importance of exploring low-coverage variants within autozygous regions.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (130)2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286390

RESUMO

Birth defects that involve the cerebral cortex - also known as malformations of cortical development (MCD) - are important causes of intellectual disability and account for 20-40% of drug-resistant epilepsy in childhood. High-resolution brain imaging has facilitated in vivo identification of a large group of MCD phenotypes. Despite the advances in brain imaging, genomic analysis and generation of animal models, a straightforward workflow to systematically prioritize candidate genes and to test functional effects of putative mutations is missing. To overcome this problem, an experimental strategy enabling the identification of novel causative genes for MCD was developed and validated. This strategy is based on identifying candidate genomic regions or genes via array-CGH or whole-exome sequencing and characterizing the effects of their inactivation or of overexpression of specific mutations in developing rodent brains via in utero electroporation. This approach led to the identification of the C6orf70 gene, encoding for a putative vesicular protein, to the pathogenesis of periventricular nodular heterotopia, a MCD caused by defective neuronal migration.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Eletroporação/métodos , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Animais , Química Encefálica , DNA/sangue , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/sangue , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Gravidez , Ratos
19.
Natl Med J India ; 30(4): 187-192, 2017 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms may persist in a retained aganglionic segment of the colon after corrective (pull-through) surgery in Hirschsprung disease (HD). Thus, it is important to assess the proximal doughnut for innervation abnormalities intraoperatively by frozen sections stained with conventional haematoxylin and eosin stain and supported by rapid acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. When the doughnut is proximal to the sigmoid colon, AChE is not useful and requires ratification by yet another rapid technique and hence this study. METHODS: Two pathologists independently evaluated fresh doughnuts from the proximal bowel clinically assumed to be of normal innervation intraoperatively and chosen for anastomosis in patients with HD along with controls using AChE and synaptophysin (SY) immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: From 38 patients with HD, 28 doughnuts (63.7%) showed normal innervation with intense SY activity in the mucosa, the muscularis and the ganglion cells. The circumferential aganglionic doughnuts (abnormal innervation) (n= 6, 13.6%) showed neither SY-positive fibres in the mucosa nor in the muscularis. The abnormal transition zone doughnuts (n=10, 22.7%) showed involvement of three quadrants of the doughnut in one, two quadrants in three and one quadrant in six with decreased SY-positive fibres in the muscularis and scattered ganglion cells with a statistically significant measure of agreement of (κ=0.973) between the two. CONCLUSION: The pattern, intensity and distribution of SY-positive fibres in the muscularis propria of the doughnut of the proximal bowel chosen intraoperatively for anastomosis in HD can identify sectors with abnormal innervation allowing the surgeon to seek normal innervation status more proximally to avoid complications.


Assuntos
Colo/inervação , Doença de Hirschsprung/cirurgia , Sinaptofisina/fisiologia , Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doença de Hirschsprung/metabolismo , Doença de Hirschsprung/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sinaptofisina/análise
20.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 20(4): 277-287, 2017 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727975

RESUMO

Background The reliability of intraoperative evaluation of ganglion cells in the appendix as a guide to a diagnosis of total colonic aganglionosis is unclear. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of appendicular innervation in colonic Hirschsprung disease (HD) and TCA. Methods Prospective, systematic study of ganglion cells and the neural plexii in appendices from cases (HD and TCA) and age matched controls with frozen and paraffin sections, rapid acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and immunohistochemistry. Results A total of 48 appendices (28 controls, 20 cases; 19 frozen) were evaluated. Of these 48, 30 were neonates. Ganglion cell clusters were smaller in controls (28) and HD (6) than those in the rectum, distorted at places and mimicked lymphocytes and endothelial cells, especially in neonates. Complete study of 13 appendices in TCA showed absence of ganglion cells, hypertrophic nerves, AChE activity, and calretinin staining. In 2/13 TCA, an erroneous frozen section identification of ganglia was later corrected based on AChE histochemistry and a panel of IHC stains. Ileal biopsies guided the placement of a ganglionic ileostomy in all. One case each of skip segment aganglionosis in a TCA and variable hypoganglionosis in long segment colonic HD is reported. Conclusion Intraoperative characterization of appendicular innervation as a guide to the diagnosis of TCA is unreliable, in part because of the possibility of skip segment disease/variable hypoganglionosis. We propose terminal ileal biopsies for diagnosis and leveling of aganglionosis. AChE on frozen/calretinin on paraffin tissue is the best approach to avoid diagnostic errors.

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