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1.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiological basis of glioma is poorly understood. We have used genetic markers in a Mendelian Randomisation (MR) framework to examine if lifestyle, cardiometabolic and inflammatory factors influence the risk of glioma. This methodology reduces bias from confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS: We identified genetic instruments for 37 potentially modifiable risk factors and evaluated their association with glioma risk using data from a genome-wide association study of 12,488 glioma patients and 18,169 controls. We used the estimated odds ratio of glioma associated with each of the genetically defined traits to infer evidence for a causal relationship with the following exposures: lifestyle and dietary factors (height, plasma IGF-1, blood carnitine, blood methionine, blood selenium, blood zinc, circulating adiponectin, circulating carotenoids, iron status, serum calcium, vitamin [A1, B12, B6, E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D], fatty acids levels [mono-unsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6] and circulating fetuin-A); cardiometabolic factors (birth weight, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, basal metabolic rate, body fat percentage, body mass index, fasting glucose, fasting proinsulin, HbA1C levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio) were included; inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma IL-6 sRa and serum IgE). RESULTS: After correction for the testing of multiple potential risk factors and excluding associations driven by one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no significant association with glioma risk was observed (i.e. PCorrected > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence supporting any of the 37 factors examined as having a significant influence on glioma risk.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 37, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple myeloma (MM) have identified variants at 23 regions influencing risk, the genes underlying these associations are largely unknown. To identify candidate causal genes at these regions and search for novel risk regions, we performed a multi-tissue transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS). RESULTS: GWAS data on 7319 MM cases and 234,385 controls was integrated with Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) data assayed in 48 tissues (sample sizes, N = 80-491), including lymphocyte cell lines and whole blood, to predict gene expression. We identified 108 genes at 13 independent regions associated with MM risk, all of which were in 1 Mb of known MM GWAS risk variants. Of these, 94 genes, located in eight regions, had not previously been considered as a candidate gene for that locus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the value of leveraging expression data from multiple tissues to identify candidate genes responsible for GWAS associations which provide insight into MM tumorigenesis. Among the genes identified, a number have plausible roles in MM biology, notably APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, or have been previously implicated in other malignancies. The genes identified in this TWAS can be explored for follow-up and validation to further understand their role in MM biology.

4.
Cancer Res ; 79(8): 2065-2071, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709929

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far identified 25 loci associated with glioma risk, with most showing specificity for either glioblastoma (GBM) or non-GBM tumors. The majority of these GWAS susceptibility variants reside in noncoding regions and the causal genes underlying the associations are largely unknown. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel risk loci and candidate causal genes at known GWAS loci using Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) data to predict cis-predicted gene expression in relation to GBM and non-GBM risk in conjunction with GWAS summary statistics on 12,488 glioma cases (6,183 GBM and 5,820 non-GBM) and 18,169 controls. Imposing a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 5.69 × 10-6, we identified 31 genes, including GALNT6 at 12q13.33, as a candidate novel risk locus for GBM (mean Z = 4.43; P = 5.68 × 10-6). GALNT6 resides at least 55 Mb away from any previously identified glioma risk variant, while all other 30 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci and were not significant after conditioning on the known GWAS-identified variants. These data identify a novel locus (GALNT6 at 12q13.33) and 30 genes at 12 known glioma risk loci associated with glioma risk, providing further insights into glioma tumorigenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies new genes associated with glioma risk, increasing understanding of how these tumors develop.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 419, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664635

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 143(10): 2359-2366, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152087

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in the United States. Incidence of GBM increases with age, and younger age-at-diagnosis is significantly associated with improved prognosis. While the relationship between candidate GBM risk SNPs and age-at-diagnosis has been explored, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not previously been stratified by age. Potential age-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs for GBM patients using data from four previous GWAS. Using age distribution tertiles (18-53, 54-64, 65+) datasets were analyzed using age-stratified logistic regression to generate p values, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and then combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,512 total GBM cases, and 10,582 controls used for analysis. Significant associations were detected at two previously identified SNPs in 7p11.2 (rs723527 [p54-63 = 1.50x10-9 , OR54-63 = 1.28, 95%CI54-63 = 1.18-1.39; p64+ = 2.14x10-11 , OR64+ = 1.32, 95%CI64+ = 1.21-1.43] and rs11979158 [p54-63 = 6.13x10-8 , OR54-63 = 1.35, 95%CI54-63 = 1.21-1.50; p64+ = 2.18x10-10 , OR64+ = 1.42, 95%CI64+ = 1.27-1.58]) but only in persons >54. There was also a significant association at the previously identified lower grade glioma (LGG) risk locus at 8q24.21 (rs55705857) in persons ages 18-53 (p18-53 = 9.30 × 10-11 , OR18-53 = 1.76, 95%CI18-53 = 1.49-2.10). Within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) there was higher prevalence of 'LGG'-like tumor characteristics in GBM samples in those 18-53, with IDH1/2 mutation frequency of 15%, as compared to 2.1% [54-63] and 0.8% [64+] (p = 0.0005). Age-specific differences in cancer susceptibility can provide important clues to etiology. The association of a SNP known to confer risk for IDH1/2 mutant glioma and higher prevalence of IDH1/2 mutation within younger individuals 18-53 suggests that more younger individuals may present initially with 'secondary glioblastoma.'

7.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; : e63, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979818

RESUMO

Chromosome conformation capture (3C), coupled with next-generation sequencing (Hi-C), provides a means for deciphering not only the principles underlying genome folding and architecture, but more broadly, the role 3D chromatin structure plays in gene regulation and the replication and repair of DNA. The recently implemented modification, in situ Hi-C, maintains nuclear integrity during digestion and ligation steps, reducing random ligation of Hi-C fragments. Although Hi-C allows for genome-wide characterization of chromatin contacts, it requires high-depth sequencing to discover significant contacts. To address this, Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) enriches standard Hi-C libraries for regions of biological interest, for example by specifically targeting gene promoters, aiding identification of biologically significant chromatin interactions compared to conventional Hi-C, for an equivalent number of sequence reads. Illustrating the application of CHi-C applied to genome-wide analysis of chromatin interactions with promoters, we detail the protocols for in situ Hi-C and CHi-C library generation for sequencing, as well as the bioinformatics tools for data analysis. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7352, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743610

RESUMO

Incidence of glioma is approximately 50% higher in males. Previous analyses have examined exposures related to sex hormones in women as potential protective factors for these tumors, with inconsistent results. Previous glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not stratified by sex. Potential sex-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs and sex chromosome variants for all glioma, GBM and non-GBM patients using data from four previous glioma GWAS. Datasets were analyzed using sex-stratified logistic regression models and combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,831 male cases, 5,216 male controls, 3,206 female cases and 5,470 female controls. A significant association was detected at rs11979158 (7p11.2) in males only. Association at rs55705857 (8q24.21) was stronger in females than in males. A large region on 3p21.31 was identified with significant association in females only. The identified differences in effect of risk variants do not fully explain the observed incidence difference in glioma by sex.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1340, 2018 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632299

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have advanced our understanding of susceptibility to B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL); however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here, we perform a GWAS and conduct a meta-analysis with two existing GWAS, totaling 2442 cases and 14,609 controls. We identify risk loci for BCP-ALL at 8q24.21 (rs28665337, P = 3.86 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.34) and for ETV6-RUNX1 fusion-positive BCP-ALL at 2q22.3 (rs17481869, P = 3.20 × 10-8, OR = 2.14). Our findings provide further insights into genetic susceptibility to ALL and its biology.

10.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 42, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between allergies with glioma risk has been reported in several but not all epidemiological observational studies. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with atopy to assess the relationship with glioma risk using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. METHODS: Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma and hay fever, IgE levels, and self-reported allergy as instrumental variables. We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighting (IVW), maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), weighted median estimate (WME) and mode-based estimate (MBE) methods. Violation of MR assumptions due to directional pleiotropy were sought using MR-Egger regression and HEIDI-outlier analysis. RESULTS: Under IVW, MLE, WME and MBE methods, associations between glioma risk with asthma and hay fever, self-reported allergy and IgE levels were non-significant. An inverse relationship between atopic dermatitis and glioma risk was found by IVW (OR 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.00, P = 0.041) and MLE (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.003), but not by WME (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.01, P = 0.114) or MBE (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02, P = 0.194). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation does not provide strong evidence for relationship between atopy and the risk of developing glioma, but findings do not preclude a small effect in relation to atopic dermatitis. Our analysis also serves to illustrate the value of using several MR methods to derive robust conclusions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioma/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Genótipo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Br J Cancer ; 118(7): 1020-1027, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and related factors have been implicated as possible aetiological factors for the development of glioma in epidemiological observation studies. We used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomisation framework to examine whether obesity-related traits influence glioma risk. This methodology reduces bias from confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS: Genetic instruments were identified for 10 key obesity-related risk factors, and their association with glioma risk was evaluated using data from a genome-wide association study of 12,488 glioma patients and 18,169 controls. The estimated odds ratio of glioma associated with each of the genetically defined obesity-related traits was used to infer evidence for a causal relationship. RESULTS: No convincing association with glioma risk was seen for genetic instruments for body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, type-2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance. Similarly, we found no evidence to support a relationship between obesity-related traits with subtypes of glioma-glioblastoma (GBM) or non-GBM tumours. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence to implicate obesity-related factors as causes of glioma.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(4): 418-428, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382702

RESUMO

Since the first reports in 2009, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying germline variants associated with glioma susceptibility. In this review, we describe a chronological history of glioma GWAS, culminating in the most recent study comprising 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We additionally summarize associations at the 27 glioma-risk SNPs that have been reported so far. Future efforts are likely to be principally focused on assessing association of germline-risk SNPs with particular molecular subgroups of glioma, as well as investigating the functional basis of the risk loci in tumor formation. These ongoing studies will be important to maximize the impact of research into glioma susceptibility, both in terms of insight into tumor etiology as well as opportunities for clinical translation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(4); 418-28. ©2018 AACRSee all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer."

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2339, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402980

RESUMO

To examine for a causal relationship between vitamin D and glioma risk we performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from confounding. Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 25(OH)D levels were used as instrumental variables (IVs). We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for 25(OH)D levels with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) methods. A non-significant association between 25(OH)D levels and glioma risk was shown using both the IVW (OR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-1.62, P = 0.201) and MLE (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.98-1.48, P = 0.083) methods. In an exploratory analysis of tumour subtype, an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and glioblastoma (GBM) risk was identified using the MLE method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.89, P = 0.010), but not the IVW method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.37-1.04, P = 0.070). No statistically significant association was shown between 25(OH)D levels and non-GBM glioma. Our results do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between 25(OH)D levels and all forms of glioma risk. More evidence is required to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and risk of GBM.

14.
Acta Neuropathol ; 135(5): 743-755, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460007

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies of glioma have led to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 25 loci influencing risk. Gliomas are heterogeneous, hence to investigate the relationship between risk SNPs and glioma subtype we analysed 1659 tumours profiled for IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. These data allowed definition of five molecular subgroups of glioma: triple-positive (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deletion, TERT promoter mutated); TERT-IDH (IDH mutated, TERT promoter mutated, 1p/19q-wild-type); IDH-only (IDH mutated, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type); triple-negative (IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type) and TERT-only (TERT promoter mutated, IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type). Most glioma risk loci showed subtype specificity: (1) the 8q24.21 SNP for triple-positive glioma; (2) 5p15.33, 9p21.3, 17p13.1 and 20q13.33 SNPs for TERT-only glioma; (3) 1q44, 2q33.3, 3p14.1, 11q21, 11q23.3, 14q12, and 15q24.2 SNPs for IDH mutated glioma. To link risk SNPs to target candidate genes we analysed Hi-C and gene expression data, highlighting the potential role of IDH1 at 2q33.3, MYC at 8q24.21 and STMN3 at 20q13.33. Our observations provide further insight into the nature of susceptibility to glioma.

15.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 2: 1-11, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652614

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The high attrition rate of cancer drug development programs is a barrier to realizing the promise of precision oncology. We have examined whether the genetic insights from genome-wide association studies of cancer can guide drug development and repurposing in oncology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Across 37 cancers, we identified 955 genetic risk variants from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute genome-wide association study catalog. We linked these variants to target genes using strategies that were based on linkage disequilibrium, DNA three-dimensional structure, and integration of predicted gene function and expression. With the use of the Informa Pharmaprojects database, we identified genes that are targets of unique drugs and assessed the level of enrichment that would be afforded by incorporation of genetic information in preclinical and phase II studies. For targets not under development, we implemented machine learning approaches to assess druggability. RESULTS: For all preclinical targets incorporating genetic information, a 2.00-fold enrichment of a drug being successfully approved could be achieved (95% CI, 1.14- to 3.48-fold; P = .02). For phase II targets, a 2.75-fold enrichment could be achieved (95% CI, 1.42- to 5.35-fold; P < .001). Application of genetic information suggests potential repurposing of 15 approved nononcology drugs. CONCLUSION: The findings illustrate the value of using insights from the genetics of inherited cancer susceptibility discovery projects as part of a data-driven strategy to inform drug discovery. Support for cancer germline genetic information for prospective targets is available online from the Institute of Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos
16.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 17(11): 692-704, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29026206

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an agnostic approach for investigating the genetic basis of complex diseases. In oncology, GWAS of nearly all common malignancies have been performed, and over 450 genetic variants associated with increased risks have been identified. As well as revealing novel pathways important in carcinogenesis, these studies have shown that common genetic variation contributes substantially to the heritable risk of many common cancers. The clinical application of GWAS is starting to provide opportunities for drug discovery and repositioning as well as for cancer prevention. However, deciphering the functional and biological basis of associations is challenging and is in part a barrier to fully unlocking the potential of GWAS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Cell Rep ; 20(11): 2556-2564, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903037

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells. Genome-wide association studies have shown that variation at 5q15 influences MM risk. Here, we have sought to decipher the causal variant at 5q15 and the mechanism by which it influences tumorigenesis. We show that rs6877329 G > C resides in a predicted enhancer element that physically interacts with the transcription start site of ELL2. The rs6877329-C risk allele is associated with reduced enhancer activity and lowered ELL2 expression. Since ELL2 is critical to the B cell differentiation process, reduced ELL2 expression is consistent with inherited genetic variation contributing to arrest of plasma cell development, facilitating MM clonal expansion. These data provide evidence for a biological mechanism underlying a hereditary risk of MM at 5q15.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Diploide , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Risco , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(5): 789-794, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346443

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of glioma susceptibility, but individual studies have had limited power to identify risk loci. We performed a meta-analysis of existing GWAS and two new GWAS, which totaled 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We identified five new loci for glioblastoma (GBM) at 1p31.3 (rs12752552; P = 2.04 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22), 11q14.1 (rs11233250; P = 9.95 × 10-10, OR = 1.24), 16p13.3 (rs2562152; P = 1.93 × 10-8, OR = 1.21), 16q12.1 (rs10852606; P = 1.29 × 10-11, OR = 1.18) and 22q13.1 (rs2235573; P = 1.76 × 10-10, OR = 1.15), as well as eight loci for non-GBM tumors at 1q32.1 (rs4252707; P = 3.34 × 10-9, OR = 1.19), 1q44 (rs12076373; P = 2.63 × 10-10, OR = 1.23), 2q33.3 (rs7572263; P = 2.18 × 10-10, OR = 1.20), 3p14.1 (rs11706832; P = 7.66 × 10-9, OR = 1.15), 10q24.33 (rs11598018; P = 3.39 × 10-8, OR = 1.14), 11q21 (rs7107785; P = 3.87 × 10-10, OR = 1.16), 14q12 (rs10131032; P = 5.07 × 10-11, OR = 1.33) and 16p13.3 (rs3751667; P = 2.61 × 10-9, OR = 1.18). These data substantiate that genetic susceptibility to GBM and non-GBM tumors are highly distinct, which likely reflects different etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioma/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Glioblastoma/classificação , Glioma/classificação , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
20.
Gastroenterology ; 152(1): 75-77.e4, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713038

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing analysis has accelerated searches for genes associated with risk for colorectal cancer (CRC); germline mutations in NTHL1, RPS20, FANCM, FAN1, TP53, BUB1, BUB3, LRP6, and PTPN12 have been recently proposed to increase CRC risk. We attempted to validate the association between variants in these genes and development of CRC in a systematic review of 11 publications, using sequence data from 863 familial CRC cases and 1604 individuals without CRC (controls). All cases were diagnosed at an age of 55 years or younger and did not carry mutations in an established CRC predisposition gene. We found sufficient evidence for NTHL1 to be considered a CRC predisposition gene-members of 3 unrelated Dutch families were homozygous for inactivating p.Gln90Ter mutations; a Canadian woman with polyposis, CRC, and multiple tumors was reported to be heterozygous for the inactivating NTHL1 p.Gln90Ter/c.709+1G>A mutations; and a man with polyposis was reported to carry p.Gln90Ter/p.Gln287Ter; whereas no inactivating homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were detected in controls. Variants that disrupted RPS20 were detected in a Finnish family with early-onset CRC (p.Val50SerfsTer23), a 39-year old individual with metachronous CRC (p.Leu61GlufsTer11 mutation), and a 41-year-old individual with CRC (missense p.Val54Leu), but not in controls. We therefore found published evidence to support the association between variants in NTHL1 and RPS20 with CRC, but not of other recently reported CRC susceptibility variants. We urge the research community to adopt rigorous statistical and biological approaches coupled with independent replication before making claims of pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Desoxirribonuclease (Dímero de Pirimidina)/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
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