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1.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalizing mental disorders (IMDs) (depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) have been associated with accelerated telomere length (TL) attrition; however, this association has not been investigated in the context of genetic variation that has been found to influence TL. We have previously reported an association between IMDs and accelerated TL attrition among Ugandan HIV+ children and adolescents. This study investigated the moderating effects of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) (rs2736100, rs7726159, rs10069690 and rs2853669) and the telomerase RNA component gene (TERC) (rs12696304, rs16847897 and rs10936599) on the association between IMDs and TL, among Ugandan HIV+ children (aged 5-11 years) and adolescents (aged 12-17 years). RESULTS: We found no significant interaction between IMDs as a group and any of the selected SNPs on TL at baseline. We observed significant interactions of IMDs with TERT rs2736100 (p = 0.007) and TERC rs16847897 (p = 0.012), respectively, on TL at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: TERT rs2736100 and TERC rs16847897 moderate the association between IMDs and TL among Ugandan HIV+ children and adolescents at 12 months. Understanding the nature of this association may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying advanced cellular aging in IMDs.

2.
AIDS Care ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487031

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study explored the efficacy of a lay health worker (LHW)-led physical activity (PA) counselling program for inactive patients with HIV/AIDS and mental health problems living in a Ugandan farming community. In total 49 (35 women) community patients (40.0 ± 11.2 years) followed an 8-week once weekly LHW-led PA counselling program based on a self-determination theory and motivational interviewing framework. Participants completed the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, HIV/AIDS Stress Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2 (WHODAS 2) pre- and immediately post-intervention. Small, significant (P < 0.05) effect sizes were found for reductions in HIV/AIDS-related stress (Cohen's d = 0.26) and in global disability (Cohen's d = 0.46). Large effect sizes were observed for reductions in time spent sedentary (Cohen's d = 1.97) and reductions in depressive (Cohen's d = 2.04) and anxiety (Cohen's d = 1.47) symptoms and increases in time spent active (Cohen's d = 1.98). Greater decrease in sedentary time was associated with greater anxiety symptoms reduction (r = 0.32, P = 0.021). In physically inactive patients with HIV/AIDS and mental health problems, an LHW-led PA counselling program reduced stress, anxiety, depression and disability. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary positive findings.

3.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(2): 170-175, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323069

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and its association with physical activity in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Uganda. Two hundred and ninety-five PLHIV (median [interquartile range] age = 37.0 years [16.0]; 200 women) completed the GAD-7, Physical Activity Vital Sign, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. An adjusted odds ratio for physical inactivity in people with moderate to severe GAD symptoms was calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of moderate to severe GAD symptoms was 9.1%. Those with moderate to severe GAD symptoms had a 16.8 times higher odds (95% CI = 5.0-55.9) for not complying with the physical activity recommendations. The current study shows that moderate to severe GAD symptoms are strongly associated with physical inactivity in PLHIV living in a country such as Uganda.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110444

RESUMO

Background: Research from high income countries indicates that suicide is a major mental health care concern and a leading cause of preventable deaths among children and adolescents. Proper assessment and management of youth suicidality is crucial in suicide prevention, but little is known about its prevalence and associated risk factors in Sub-Saharan Africa. In low income countries there is an increased risk of suicide among persons with HIV/AIDS even in the presence of the highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for youth suicidality among perinatally infected youth living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda. Methods: We studied 392 HIV positive children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) and their caregivers in Kampala and Masaka districts. Caregivers were administered the suicide assessment section of the MINI International Psychiatric Interview. Socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, and psychosocial and clinical factors were assessed and suicidality (suicidal ideation and or suicidal attempt) was the outcome variable. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios adjusting for study site and sex at 95% confidence intervals. Results: Caregivers reported a suicidality rate of 10.7% (CI 8-14.1) in the past one month with higher rates among urban female (12.4%, CI 8.6-17.7) than male (8.7%, CI 5.4-13.8) youth. Lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide was 2.3% (n = 9, CI 1.2-4.4) with the highest rates among urban female youth. Among children, caregivers reported a lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide of 1.5%. The self-reported rate of attempted suicide in the past month was 1.8% (n = 7, CI 0.8-3.7) with lifetime prevalence of 2.8% (n = 11, CI 1.6-5.0). The most common methods used during suicide attempts were cutting, taking overdose of HIV medications, use of organophosphates, hanging, stabbing and self-starvation. Clinical correlates of suicidality were low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.27, CI 1.06-4.87, p = 0.04), HIV felt stigma (OR = 2.10, CI 1.04-3.00, p = 0.02), and major depressive disorder (OR = 1.80, CI 0.48-2.10, p = 0.04). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was protective against suicidality (OR = 0.41, CI 0.18-0.92, p = 0.04). Conclusion: The one-month prevalence of suicidality among CA-HIV was 10.7%.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518588

RESUMO

Background: Little/no research has been conducted in Uganda in particular and sub-Saharan Africa in general on the health professional's perspectives on barriers to treatment seeking for formal health services among orphan children and adolescents with a double burden of HIV/AIDS and mental distress. Aim: To explore health professionals' perspectives on barriers to treatment seeking for formal health services among orphan children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS and mental distress in Masaka, Uganda. Method: Qualitative research design using key informant interviews with health service managers and staff in agencies working with children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS in Masaka district, Uganda. Results: Barriers to treatment seeking reported by health care professionals were quite enormous and are summarized under: family, individual, community and health systems level barriers. The crosscutting finding here is that the societal informal and formal systems of care had been affected by the HIV/AIDs epidemic, and, mental distress aggravates this challenge for the individuals afflicted and families affected by mental distress. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with both HIV/AIDS and mental distress are vulnerable due to constraints at family, community and health systems levels. Effective public health interventions to address the double burden of HIV/AIDS and mental distress will be vital in the study communities addressing the constraints at family, community and institutional level. Public health interventions should aim at increased access and effective utilization of services for both HIV/AIDS and mental health services. Stigma reduction strategies at individual, family and community levels are also recommended.

6.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468877

RESUMO

Purpose: The transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavioral change posits that individuals move through five stages of change when adopting new behaviors: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with HIV/AIDS within a Ugandan fishing community in the different physical activity (PA) stages. We also explored differences in variables, motives, and barriers for PA across the stages.Methods: In total, 256 individuals (77 men, 40.5 ± 10.3 years) completed the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. They were also asked about their most important PA motive and barrier.Results: Seventy-five individuals (29%) were in the (pre-)preparatory stages, 140 (55%) in the action and 41 (16%) in the maintenance stage. Those in the (pre-)preparatory stages had higher PHQ-9 total scores (p < 0.001) and were more likely to report barriers than those in the later stages (p < 0.001). Compared with those in the (pre-)preparatory stage, patients in the action stage experienced less body weakness (p = 0.015).Conclusions: Depression and barriers to PA should be considered in people with HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings when implementing interventions to assist them to become more active.Implications for rehabilitationPeople with HIV/AIDS are among the most physically inactive clinical populations.Clinicians should consider depression when motivating patients with HIV in low resourced settings to become active.Clinicians should consider body weakness when motivating patients with HIV in low resourced settings to become active.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158407

RESUMO

This chapter describes how chronic conflict, warfare, and persecution, as lived experiences, have created significant mental distress in communities on the African continent. There is a growing body of research that highlights increasing mental distress in Africa e.g., about sexuality, health, disease, modernity, climate, politics, culture, religion, ethnicities, race, economies etc. Many of these stresses and uncertainties are driven by political persecution, war, and conflict. This has shaped many African people's attitudes and government policies and an increasing scholarly interest in exploring these "uncertainties and mental distresses in Africa." The chapter will show how trauma, as seen in conflict/post-conflict settings in Africa, causes significant mental stress and associated social problems as well as medically-defined PTSD syndromes, anxiety, and depression which cause much morbidity and retard development in many African communities. Taking a classical look at post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, the chapter explores the presentation of the various physical and mental clinical syndromes related to war-trauma on the African continent and the consequent health-seeking behaviors of the African peoples in this regard. The term "culture-bound PTSD syndromes" will be introduced and discussed in the broader context of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention on the continent and worldwide. It will also discuss the dilemma of the vicious cycles of trauma driven by appetitive aggression in today's Africa which portends to further retard socio-economic development and drives the trans-generational perpetuation of ethnic-based conflicts including genocides. Despite this mass traumatization, the chapter points to the virtual absence of post-conflict mental health policies in almost all African countries, hence leading to discussions of "best-practices" recommendations.

8.
AIDS Care ; 32(11): 1429-1437, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192358

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are important mental health concerns among children and adolescents living with HIV (CA-HIV). This study examines clinical correlates and adverse outcomes associated with ADHD, ODD/CD and ADHD + ODD/CD among (N = 1,336) CA-HIV living in Uganda. Being male, higher socio-economic status, emotional disorder, greater caregiver distress and youth-caregiver conflict were associated with a greater risk of behavioral disorders, particularly ADHD + ODD/CD. This group was also five-times more likely to have engaged in sex than their peers and report greater disciplinary problems at school than those without a behavioral disorder. These findings highlight the distinct clinical presentation and adverse outcomes associated with ADHD + ODD/CD among CA-HIV. As more CA-HIV are surviving into adulthood, screening and treatment of mental disorders is needed to ensure they are given the chance to thrive. In addition to youth, interventions should target caregivers due to their impact on youth outcomes.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 24(9): 2588-2596, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078708

RESUMO

Incidence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents with HIV (CA-HIV) in Uganda is described. 1339 CA-HIV attending care were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. MDD was assessed using the DSM-5 referenced Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), with a prevalence for MDD at baseline of 5% (95% CI 3.3-7.3). Kaplan-Meir method was used to estimate incidence of MDD and Cox models were fitted to investigate predictors of incident MDD. Cumulative incidence of MDD over 12 months was 7.6 per 100 person-years 95% CI (6.2-9.4) and a rate of persistent MDD of 10/105 (9.5% CI 3.9-15.1). Significant independent predictors of incident MDD were: highest educational level of CA-HIV (protective), increasing depressive scores and decreasing CD4 Nadir. These finding have implications for what should constitute components of a mental health integration model in HIV youth services and for the future development of individualised mental health care.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
AIDS Care ; 32(6): 758-761, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284727

RESUMO

This study explored the efficacy of physical activity (PA) counseling in inactive patients with HIV/AIDS and a co-morbid mental health disorder living in a Ugandan fishing community. We investigated associations between changes in PA, sedentary behavior, mental health burden and quality of life (QoL) following an 8-week once per week PA counseling program using the self-determination theory and motivational interviewing framework. In total 41 (33 women) patients (39.8 ± 10.9years) completed the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Large effect sizes were found for reductions in time spent sedentary (Cohen's d = 2.85) and reductions in depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 1.47). We also found large effect sizes for increases in time spent walking (Cohen's d = 1.38), in incidental PA such as household chores (Cohen's d = 1.69), and physical health (Cohen's d = 1.38), psychological health (Cohen's d = 0.95), and social relationships. (Cohen's d = 1.39). The more time spent sedentary decreased, the more the psychological health increased (r = -0.33, P = 0.037). In sedentary patients with HIV/AIDS and a co-morbid mental disorder, the mental health burden reduces and QoL improves following PA counseling. Controlled studies are however needed to confirm our findings.

11.
Trop Doct ; 50(1): 30-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594531

RESUMO

Information on major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care settings in sub-Saharan Africa is limited, yet this is required to improve service development. We explored prevalence and factors associated with MDD among adolescents attending a primary care facility in urban Uganda. At Naguru Teenage Information and Health Centre, 281 adolescents were assessed for MDD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-Kid). Prevalence and risk factors were determined using frequencies and regressions, respectively. The prevalence of adolescent MDD was 18.2 %. Vulnerability factors were orphanhood, childhood trauma (particularly emotional abuse and physical neglect) while social support was protective. Considerable burden of clinically significant depression exists in primary care settings in Uganda; this may well contribute to a poor quality of life.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
12.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 2172-2182, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656502

RESUMO

Background: Exercise is nowadays considered as an evidence-based treatment modality in people with mental illness. Nurses and occupational therapists working in low-resourced mental health settings are well-placed to provide exercise advice for people with mental illness. Objectives: We examined the current exercise prescription practices employed by Ugandan health care professionals when working with people with mental illness, and identified perceived barriers to exercise prescription and exercise participation for people with mental illness. Methods: In this study, 31 Ugandan health care professionals 20 men; 31.2 ± 7.1 years completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire- Health Professionals Version EMIQ-HP. Results: The vast majority of the respondents 29/31, 94% reported they prescribed exercise at least "occasionally" to people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used were consistent with those recommended for people with mental illness. Regarding barriers to exercise participation, coping with side effects of psychotropic medication at the individual level and reducing stigma at community level should be prioritized. Conclusion: A health care reform to enable collaboration with exercise professionals, such as exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might increase exercise uptake for people with mental illness, thereby improving health outcomes for this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Terapia por Exercício , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda
14.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 13: 60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516548

RESUMO

Background: Mental, neurological and substance use disorders are a public health burden in Uganda. Mental health service user involvement could be an important strategy for advocacy and improving service delivery, particularly as Uganda redoubles its efforts to integrate mental health into primary health care (PHC). However, little is known on the most effective way to involve service users in mental health system strengthening. Methods: This was a qualitative key informant interview study. At national level, 4 interviews were conducted with national level health workers and 3 service user organization representatives. At the district level, 2 interviews were conducted with district level health workers and 5 service user organization representatives. Data were analyzed using content thematic analysis. Findings: Overall, there was low mental service user participation in health system strengthening at both national and district levels. Health system strengthening activities included policy development, implementation of programs and research. Informants mentioned several barriers to service user involvement in mental health system strengthening. These were grouped into three categories: institutional, community and individual level factors. Institutional level barriers included: limited funding to form, train and develop mental health service user groups, institutional stigma and patronage by founder members of user organizations. Community level barriers included: abject poverty and community stigma. Individual level barriers included: low levels of awareness and presence of self-stigma. Informants also recommended some strategies to enhance service user involvement. Conclusion: The Uganda Ministry of Health should develop a strategy to improve service user participation in mental health system strengthening. This requires an appreciation of the importance of service users in improving service delivery. To address the barriers to service user involvement identified in this study requires concerted efforts by the Uganda Ministry of Health and the district health services, specifically with regard to attitudes of health workers, dealing with stigma at all levels, raising awareness about the rights of service users to participate in health systems strengthening activities, building capacity and financial empowerment of service user organizations.

15.
Front Genet ; 10: 705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428136

RESUMO

Introduction: Internalizing mental disorders (IMDs) in HIV+ children and adolescents are associated with impaired quality of life and non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment. Telomere length is a biomarker of cellular aging, and shorter telomere length has been associated with IMDs. However, the nature of this association has yet to be elucidated. Objective: We determined the longitudinal association between IMDs and relative telomere length (rTL) and the influence of chronic stress among Ugandan perinatally HIV-infected youth (PHIY). Methods: IMDs (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder) and IMDs were assessed using the locally adapted Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5. In 368 PHIY with any IMD and 368 age- and sex-matched PHIY controls without any psychiatric disorder, rTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to generate the three chronic stress classes (mild, moderate, and severe). t-tests were used to assess the difference between baseline and 12 month rTL and the mean difference in rTL between cases and controls both at baseline and at 12 months. Linear regression analysis was used to model the effects of chronic stress on the association between IMDs and rTL, controlling for age and sex. Results: We observed longer rTL among cases of IMDs compared with controls (p < 0.001). We also observed a statistically significant reduction in rTL between baseline and 12 months in the combined sample of cases and controls (p < 0.001). The same statistical difference was observed when cases and controls were individually analyzed (p < 0.001). We found no significant difference in rTL between cases and controls at 12 months (p = 0.117). We found no significant influence of chronic stress on the association between IMDs and rTL at both baseline and 12 months. Conclusion: rTL is longer among cases of IMDs compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We observed a significant attrition in rTL over 12 months, which seems to be driven by the presence of any IMDs. There is a need for future longitudinal and experimental studies to understand the mechanisms driving our findings.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354539

RESUMO

Background: HIV-infected children and adolescents (CA-HIV) face significant mental health challenges related to a broad range of biological and psychosocial factors. Data are scarce on the agreement and discrepancy between caregivers and CA-HIV regarding emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) in CA-HIV. Objectives: We determined agreement between self- versus caregiver- reported EBPs and describe factors associated with informant discrepancy among caregiver-youth dyads who participated in the "Mental health among HIV-infected CHildren and Adolescents in KAmpala and Masaka, Uganda" (CHAKA) study. Methods: In a cross-sectional sample, caregiver-reported EBPs were assessed with the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), and self-reported problems were evaluated with the Youth Inventory-4 (YI-4) in 469 adolescents aged 12-17 years and the Child Inventory-4 (CI-4) in 493 children aged 8-11 years. Adolescents were questioned about experiences of HIV stigma. Caregiver psychological distress was assessed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Linear regression models were applied to identify variables associated with discrepancy scores. Results: Self-reported emotional problems (EPs) were present in 28.8% of adolescents and 36.9% of children, and 14.5% of adolescents self-reported behavioral problems (BPs). There was only a modest correlation (r ≤ 0.29) between caregiver- and CA-HIV-reported EBPs, with caregivers reporting more EPs whereas adolescents reported more BPs. Informant discrepancy between adolescents and caregivers for BPs was associated with adolescent age and caregiver's employment and HIV status. Among adolescents, EP discrepancy scores were associated with adolescent's WHO HIV clinical stage, caregiver level of education, and caregivers caring for other children. Among children, EP discrepancy scores were associated with child and caregiver age, caregiver level of education, and caregiver self-rated health status. HIV stigma and caregiver psychological distress were also associated with discrepancy, such that adolescents who experienced HIV stigma rated their EPs as more severe than their caregivers did and caregivers with increased psychological distress rated EBPs as more severe than CA-HIV self-rated. Conclusions: EBPs are frequently endorsed by CA-HIV, and agreement between informants is modest. Informant discrepancy is related to unique psychosocial and HIV-related factors. Multi-informant reports enhance the evaluation of CA-HIV and informant discrepancies can provide additional insights into the mental health of CA-HIV.

17.
Trop Doct ; 49(3): 170-177, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885057

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major global health challenge and postnatal women may be at an increased risk for this disorder. Very few studies have tested this hypothesis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), so it is uncertain whether risk factors implicated elsewhere in the world are relevant in SSA. We explored prevalence and risk factors for MDD and depressive symptomatology among postnatal mothers in Kampala. Three hundred postnatal mothers at Nsambya Hospital were assessed for MDD using the DSM IV-based MINI; prevalence and risk factors were determined using frequencies and regressions, respectively. Four women (1.33%) had MDD; however, 94 (31%) had 'sub-threshold' or depressive symptomatology, with which partner violence is particularly associated. MDD is rare among postnatal women in a paying hospital in Kampala; however, the high prevalence of depressive symptomatology suggests susceptibility to MDD. Longitudinal studies should investigate this hypothesis and the susceptibility due to partner violence should guide appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(4): 415-425, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the rates, types and comorbidity of emotional and behavioural disorders among perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents attending care at five HIV youth clinics in Central and Southwestern Uganda. METHODS: 1339 CA-HIV attending care at HIV youth clinics in Uganda were interviewed using the DSM-5-based Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5; caregiver reported) and the Youth Inventory-4R (YI-4R; youth reported). Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity for psychiatric disorders were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: According to caregiver or youth report, the prevalence of 'any DSM-5 psychiatric disorder' was 17.4% (95% CI 15.4-19.5%), while that of 'any behavioural disorder' was 9.6% (95% CI 8.1-11.2%) and that of 'any emotional disorder' was 11.5% (95% CI 9.9-13.3%). The most prevalent behavioural disorder was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (5.3%), while the most prevalent emotional disorder was separation anxiety disorder (4.6%). The statistically significant risk factors were: for behavioural disorders, sex (more among males than females) and age group (more among adolescents than among children); for emotional disorders, age group (more among adolescents than among children) and the caregiver's highest educational attainment (more among CA-HIV with caregivers with secondary education and higher, than among CA-HIV with caregivers with no formal education or only primary level education). About a quarter (24.5%) of CA-HIV with at least one emotional disorder and about a third (33.5%) of the CA-HIV with at least one behavioural disorder had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSION: There was a considerable burden of psychiatric disorders among CA-HIV that spanned a broad spectrum and showed considerable comorbidity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/virologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 34, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders and their associated correlates and relations with clinical and behavioural problems among children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS (CA-HIV). METHODS: This study involved a sample of 1070 CA-HIV/caregiver dyads who were evaluated at their 6-month follow-up visit as part of their participation in the longitudinal study, 'Mental health among HIV infected CHildren and Adolescents in KAmpala and Masaka, Uganda (the CHAKA study)'. Participants completed an extensive battery of measures that included a standardized DSM-5- referenced rating scale, the parent version (5-18 years) of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5). Using logistic regression, we estimated the prevalence of neurological disorders and characterised their associations with negative clinical and behavioural factors. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of at least one neurological disorders was 18.5% (n = 198; 95% CI, 16.2-20.8). Enuresis / encopresis was the most common (10%), followed by motor/vocal tics (5.3%); probable epilepsy was the least prevalent (4%). Correlates associated with neurological disorders were in two domains: socio-demographic factors (age, ethnicity and staying in rural areas) and HIV-related factors (baseline viral load suppression). Enuresis/encopresis was associated with psychiatric comorbidity. Neurological disorders were associated with earlier onset of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.26-13.1, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Neurological disorders impact lives of many children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to integrate the delivery of mental and neurological health services into routine clinical care for children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(1): 233-249, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299212

RESUMO

This study examined the reasons for suicide attempts among patients in Ghana. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 30 informants who had been hospitalized for attempted suicide. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the transcribed narratives, and five main themes emerged: 1) lack of support; 2) abandonment; 3) shame; 4) existential struggles; and 5) supernatural reasons. There were gender differences with abandonment reported by only women and shame associated with economic difficulties reported only by men. Findings are discussed within the context of a socio-cultural theory of suicide behaviour, and implications for the prevention of suicide and care of suicidal persons are suggested.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Vergonha , Apoio Social , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Causalidade , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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