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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in children. Its high fatality rate and frequent severe sequelae (e.g. brain damage and permanent loss of functioning) place a premium on preventive efforts. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients ≤21 years of age admitted between 2010 and 2017 to a pediatric trauma center was conducted to identify factors associated with drowning admissions, fatal drowning, and severe outcome (ventilator use, ICU admission, or death). Outcomes were modeled and estimated by use of logistic regression and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Drowning accounted for 153/4931 (3.1%) trauma admissions between 2010 and 2017. The risk of death (13.1% vs. 1.5%, p < .01), and severe outcome (24.8% vs. 7.8%, p < .01) was significantly higher for drownings vs. other causes. All 20 drowning deaths occurred among children left unattended. In Poisson regression analysis, weekends, summer breaks, and hotter days were independently associated with a higher probability of drowning admissions. Additionally, in analyses excluding indicators of severity, the odds of severe outcome were higher for children age ≤ 2 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.88 95% CI (1.58, 9.53)], and injury downtime of >5 min or unknown length [AOR = 6.66 95% CI (2.74-16.15)]. Immediate intervention after the discovery was associated with ~70% lower odds of a severe outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning admissions were both more severe and more often fatal compared to other pediatric injury causes of admission. Enhanced and targeted educational messages for parents of young children, focused on prevention behaviors on high-risk days and immediate bystander intervention, may reduce the occurrence and severity of these tragic accidents. TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY: A retrospective multi-year cohort study to identify modifiable factors associated with drowning admissions, severe complications, and death from a large trauma registry database. WHAT'S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional injury that results in severe morbidity and a high rate of mortality. Children are disproportionately affected by drowning and have a higher risk of long term sequelae and death. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This study identified high-risk populations and periods for drowning, the importance of supervision, and the effectiveness of immediate intervention in reducing unfavorable outcomes after drowning. It also highlights a need for heightened local intervention for drowning prevention.

2.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 1049909119900641, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Complicated grief (CG) is severe, prolonged (>12 months) grieving. Complicated grief disproportionately affects older adults and is associated with negative physical/psychological effects. Although treatment options exist, those which do are time-intensive. We report on a randomized clinical trial (RCT) which examined whether accelerated resolution therapy (ART), a novel mind-body therapy, is effective in treating CG, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression among hospice informal caregivers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective 2 group, wait-listed RCT. All participants were scheduled to receive 4 ART sessions. INCLUSION: ≥60 years, inventory of CG >25, and PTSD checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition >33 or Psychiatric Diagnostic Screen Questionnaire PTSD subscale >5. EXCLUSION: Major psychiatric disorder, other current psychotherapy treatment. Depression was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 54 participants was 68.7 (7.2) years, 85% female, and 93% white. Participants assigned to ART reported significantly greater mean (SD) CG reduction (-22.8 [10.3]) versus Wait-list participants (-4.3 [6.0]). Within-participant effect sizes (ESs) for change from baseline to 8-week post-treatment were CG (ES = 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-2.47; P < .0001), PTSD (ES = 2.40 [95% CI: 1.79-3.00]; P < .0001), depression (ES = 1.63 [95% CI: 1.18-2.08; P < .0001). Treatment effects did not substantially differ by baseline symptom levels. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Results suggests that ART presents an effective and less time-intensive intervention for CG in older adults. However, it should undergo further effectiveness testing in a larger, more diverse clinical trial with a focus on determining physiological or behavioral mechanisms of action.

3.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Injuries are a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Mechanisms of injuries and presentations are diverse in pediatric injuries and require special attention. Dedicated pediatric trauma care centers are ideal for management of children with injuries simultaneously serving as sources of research data. The objective of the current study was to identify changes in injury mechanisms, modifiable risk factors, and outcomes independently associated with admissions at a large pediatric trauma center in Tampa, Florida. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analysis of 8-years (2010-2017) of pediatric trauma admissions to a large trauma center. Demographic factors and injury characteristics were examined for temporal trends over two year increments. Temporal changes in admissions with major trauma, admission to ICU, and length of stay were examined using logistic regression analysis, and factors associated with independent temporal trends were identified using ordinal logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 4,934 trauma admissions with a predominance of falls (45.1%) and traffic injuries (20.5%). Trends were observed with less frequent head injuries (2010-2011: 35.7% vs 2016-2017: 28.3%, p < .01) and abdominal injuries (2010-2011:10.3% vs 2016-2017: 8.2%, p = .03), and more frequent chest injuries (2010-2011: 9.0% vs 2016-2017: 11.4%, p < .01). Over the study period, evaluated in 2-year increments, higher use of private insurance (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 95% CI: 1.29-1.61) and helicopter transport (AOR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.58 -2.30) was observed. Admissions for drownings (AOR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.10 -2.02) and animal bites (AOR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.46 -2.71) increased during the study period. Improvement in patient outcomes (adjusted for injury severity) were observed with shorter, ≤1 day length of stay (LOS) (AOR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.06 -1.33), reduction in complications (AOR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.33 -0.66), and more admissions without an intensive care unit (ICU) stay (AOR=1.6 95% CI = 1.36 -1.88). CONCLUSIONS: Significant reductions in LOS, ICU stay, and complications were temporally observed despite an increase in admissions with higher use of helicopter transport. These results can most likely be attributed to dedicated pediatric trauma experts and resources available at an integrated pediatric trauma center.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 3(4): e11266, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) has demonstrated efficacy for distraction from pain-related thoughts and exposure to feared movements. Little empirical VR research has focused on chronic pain management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of VR as an adjunctive intervention for Veterans with chronic pain. We designed a hierarchy ranging from low-intensity pain distraction to high-intensity movement-based exposure for this purpose. VR apps were mapped onto the hierarchy. METHODS: Sixteen Veterans receiving inpatient chronic pain rehabilitation participated in daily VR sessions over a 3-week period. Trajectories across the distraction-to-exposure hierarchy and Veteran-reported intensity ratings were described and evaluated over time. Minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs), pre-post effect sizes, and 95% confidence intervals were examined for fear of movement using the Fear of Daily Activities Questionnaire (FDAQ) and Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-VA (POQ-VA; fear scale). This approach was applied to secondary outcomes: POQ-VA (pain intensity, interference, negative affect), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Patient-Specific Functioning Scale (PSFS). Session attendance, completion, and VR experiences were described. RESULTS: Ten of 14 Veterans (71%) who participated in three or more VR sessions completed the distraction-to-exposure hierarchy. Only three trajectories emerged more than once. Due to high completion rates, Veterans that completed the hierarchy could self-select nonhierarchy apps. Veterans rated all hierarchy levels (low, medium, high) near medium intensity. Self-selected activities were rated as high intensity. For kinesiophobia, six Veterans (38%) exceeded the MCID on the FDAQ and a small effect size improvement was observed (Cohen d=-0.35). The confidence interval (95% CI -0.71 to 0.01) indicated the possibility of a null effect. The POQ-VA fear scale yielded no effect (Cohen d=0.06, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.54). For secondary outcomes, Veterans exceeding MCID were calculated with complete data: pain intensity (1/15, 7%), pain catastrophizing (5/14, 36%), and patient-specific functioning (10/15, 67%). Effect sizes were large for patient-specific functioning (Cohen d=1.14, 95% CI 0.50-1.78), medium for mobility interference (Cohen d=-0.56, 95% CI -0.96 to -0.16), and small for pain intensity (Cohen d=-0.40, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.12) and catastrophizing (Cohen d=-0.41, 95% CI -0.79 to -0.02). No effects were observed for interference in daily activities (Cohen d=0.10, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.47) and negative affect (Cohen d=0.07, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.40). Veterans attended 85.2% (98/108) of VR sessions and completed 95% (93/96) of sessions attended. Twenty-minute sessions were rated as too short. No significant adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the feasibility of VR as an adjunct for Veterans with chronic pain. However, the hierarchy will require modification, as evidenced by homogeneous intensity ratings. Veteran-selected activities presented the highest intensity ratings, largest outcome effect size (PSFS), and MCID. This highlights the important role of utilizing Veteran stakeholders in hierarchy modification, design of VR interventions, and outcome selection.

5.
Am J Crit Care ; 28(6): 471-476, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-intensive care syndrome-family (PICS-F) refers to acute and chronic psychological effects of critical care on family members of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Evidence suggests that increased distress during the ICU stay increases risk of PICS-F. Sensation Awareness Focused Training (SAF-T) is a new, promising stress management intervention, but the feasibility of such training during the ICU stay for family caregivers who are acting as the surrogate decision-maker for patients who are undergoing mechanical ventilation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess feasibility and acceptability of SAF-T to inform a future larger randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial of SAF-T (n = 5) versus a control (n = 5) group was conducted at a level 1 trauma center. Participants assigned to SAF-T completed 1 session daily for 3 days. Measures included enrollment rate, data completion rate, acceptability of SAF-T, and symptoms of PICS-F. Scales used included Perceived Stress, Hospital Anxiety and Depression, Impact of Event, and National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery. RESULTS: Mean age was 58 (SD, 12) years; 70% of participants were female. Predetermined feasibility criteria were met in enrollment rate (67%), outcome measures completion rate (> 90%), and SAF-T acceptability (100% of doses completed during the ICU stay) without adverse events. Stress scores after SAF-T were significantly lower than scores before SAF-T (z = -3.5, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: SAF-T intervention during the ICU stay is feasible, acceptable, and may improve family caregivers' post-ICU outcomes. Larger clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of SAF-T in preventing PICS-F seem warranted.

6.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(3): 238-247, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men. Limited research exists evaluating the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) among military women with PTSD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using US Department of Defense (DoD) data comprised of all active-duty women giving birth to their first, liveborn singleton infant using DoD-sponsored health insurance from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008 (n = 34 176). Birth hospitalisation records, maternal mental health visits, and Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and Reassessment (PDHRA) screenings were included. The HDP outcome (yes vs no) was defined using ICD-9-CM codes in the maternal birth hospitalisation record. Women fit into one of four PTSD exposure categories (confirmed, probable, possible, none). Confirmed cases had a PTSD ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. Probable/possible cases were classified using PDHA screening items. We used multiple log-linear regression to assess PTSD (confirmed, any vs none) and the risk of HDP overall, and then explored effect modification by military service and demographic variables. We assessed the risk of HDP among deployed mothers with PTSD (confirmed, probable/possible vs none) who completed a PDHA, and explored effect modification by race/ethnicity. We also assessed risk of HDP with differing PTSD lead times. RESULTS: Overall, PTSD was not associated with HDP except among mothers whose PTSD was diagnosed ≥1 year prior to conception (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Post-traumatic stress disorder preceding conception by at least a year appeared to confer an increased risk of HDP, but further research is needed using more thorough PTSD assessment.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mil Med ; 184(11-12): e626-e631, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The United States has been actively involved in major armed conflicts over the last 15 years. As a result, a significant proportion of active duty service personnel and returning veterans have endured combat, putting them at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disabling disorder that may occur after exposure to a traumatic event. Current therapies often require long-term, time-intensive and costly commitment from the patient and have variable degrees of success. There remains an ongoing need for better therapies, including complementary medicine approaches that can effectively reduce PTSD symptoms. While anecdotal evidence suggests that routine practice of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) can reduce symptoms of PTSD, there have been no formal studies to address this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board (#PRO00019430). Male US active duty service members and veterans from the Tampa area participated in a 5-month (40 sessions) BJJ training program. Before beginning and again midway through and upon completion of training the participants completed several validated self-report measures that addressed symptoms of PTSD and other co-morbid conditions. Effect size and 95% confidence intervals were determined using a within-person single-group pretest-posttest design. RESULTS: Study participants demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in their PTSD symptoms as well as decreased symptoms of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety and decreased alcohol use; effect sizes varied from 0.80 to 1.85. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this first-of-kind pilot study suggest that including BJJ as a complementary treatment to standard therapy for PTSD may be of value. It will be necessary to validate these promising results with a larger subject cohort and a more rigorous experimental design before routinely recommending this complementary therapy.

8.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794315

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of self-reported clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on longitudinal changes in brain amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers (Aß42, T-tau, and P-tau) in cognitively normal (NL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) elderly. METHODS: Longitudinal study with mean follow-up time of 2.52 ± 0.51 years. Data were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Participants included 516 NL, 798 MCI, and 325 AD elderly. Main outcomes were annual rate of change in brain amyloid burden (i.e. longitudinal increases in florbetapir PET uptake or decreases in CSF Aß42 levels); and tau protein aggregation (i.e. longitudinal increases in CSF total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]). Adjusted multilevel mixed effects linear regression models with randomly varying intercepts and slopes was used to test whether the rate of biomarker change differed between participants with and without OSA. RESULTS: In NL and MCI groups, OSA+ subjects experienced faster annual increase in florbetapir uptake (B = .06, 95% CI = .02, .11 and B = .08, 95% CI = .05, .12, respectively) and decrease in CSF Aß42 levels (B = -2.71, 95% CI = -3.11, -2.35 and B = -2.62, 95% CI = -3.23, -2.03, respectively); as well as increases in CSF T-tau (B = 3.68, 95% CI = 3.31, 4.07 and B = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.58, 2.86, respectively) and P-tau (B = 1.221, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.42 and B = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.22, 2.27, respectively); compared with OSA- participants. No significant variations in the biomarker changes over time were seen in the AD group. CONCLUSIONS: In both NL and MCI, elderly, clinical interventions aimed to treat OSA are needed to test if OSA treatment may affect the progression of cognitive impairment due to AD.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e022221, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability and knowledge of various contraceptive methods, consistent utilisation in women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) within the reproductive age group remains below the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Family Planning 2020 goals. This study examines the association between sociodemographic factors and contraceptive use including the effect of clustering tendencies of these factors on contraceptive usage among WLWHA in Kenya. METHODS: Weighted multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to determine the association of sociodemographic factors on contraception use among WLWHA using the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. Spatial autocorrelation techniques were used to explore clustering tendencies of these factors on contraception utilisation. Our study population included 304 HIV positive women, aged 15-49 years. RESULTS: Among 304 HIV-positive women in our study population, 92 (30.3%) reported using one method of contraception. Contraceptive use was significantly associated with wealth and education after adjustment for other sociodemographic variables. Women classified as having low and middle wealth index were less likely to use contraceptives (OR=0.17, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.43; OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.98, respectively) compared with women classified as having high wealth index. Similarly, women with primary education only were less likely to use contraceptives compared with women with secondary or higher education (OR=0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.98). Spatial autocorrelation revealed significant positive clusters with weak clustering tendencies of non-contraceptive use among different levels of wealth index and education within different regions of Kenya. CONCLUSION: These findings underscores the need for intervention programmes to further target socially disadvantaged WLWHA, which is necessary for achieving the SDGs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Soropositividade para HIV , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Quênia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
10.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(4): 693-702, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137607

RESUMO

Genetic variations of breast cancer survivors (BCS) may contribute to level of residual symptoms, such as depression, stress, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to investigate whether particular single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) moderated symptom improvement resulting from the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR[BC]) program. An overarching goal of personalized medicine is to identify individuals as risk for disease and tailor interventions based on genetic profiles of patients with diseases including cancer. BCS were recruited from Moffitt Cancer Center and University of South Florida's Breast Health Program and were randomized to either the 6-week MBSR(BC) program (n = 92) or Usual Care (n = 93). Measures of symptoms, demographic, and clinical history data were attained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. A total of 10 SNPs from eight genes known to be related to these symptoms were studied using genomic DNA extracted from blood. Our results were examined for effect sizes, consistency, and statistical significance (p < .05). Three SNPs (rs4680 in COMT, rs6314 in HTR2A, and rs429358 in APOE) emerged as having the strongest (though relatively weak) and most consistent effects in moderating the impact of the MBSR program on symptom outcomes. Although effects were generally weak, with only one effect withstanding multiple comparisons correction for statistical significance, this translational behavioral research may help start the identification of genetic profiles that moderate the impact of MBSR(BC). The ultimate goal of this study is the development of personalized treatment programs tailored to the genetic profile of each patient.

11.
Mil Med ; 183(9-10): e314-e321, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, disabling psychiatric disorder prevalent among U.S. service members and veterans. First-line treatments for PTSD endorsed in the 2017 Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DoD) Clinical Practice Guideline for PTSD emphasize individual, manualized trauma-focused psychotherapies that have a primary component of exposure and/or cognitive restructuring. These include prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, cognitive processing therapy (CPT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and others. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging trauma-focused therapy not specifically referenced in the guideline, but one that is consistent with the recommendations and is derived directly from EMDR. One randomized clinical trial and multiple observational studies have suggested that ART can be delivered in an average of just four treatment sessions. This commentary reviews the clinical, empirical, and theoretical rationale for use of ART as a potential first-line PTSD treatment modality in VA and DoD facilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical protocol of ART is summarized into discrete procedural steps. The theoretical rationale as to how ART may help clients process traumatic memories and resolve symptoms of PTSD is also discussed, including how repeated sets of smooth pursuit horizontal eye movements may facilitate a relaxation response and assist with processing emotionally intrusive memories. Herein, we review primary treatment results from four published studies of ART, including mean symptom score reductions on the 17-item PCL (PTSD checklist) after treatment with ART, along with effect sizes and percentage of treatment responders. Finally, the ART protocol is compared directly against specific recommended elements of trauma-focused therapy described in the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline. RESULTS: The four published studies of ART reviewed (n = 291) included adult civilians and service members/veterans; the mean age was 42.3 ± 12.3 yr and 28.9% were female. Among 237 treatment completers (81.4% of the combined cohort), the mean number of ART sessions received was 3.9 ± 1.1. Across the four studies, mean treatment-related reductions in PCL scores ranged from 15.6 ± 13.2 to 25.6 ± 11.3, with a pooled mean reduction on the PCL of 20.6 ± 15.0. Effect sizes were large and ranged from 1.18 to 2.26 (p< 0.0005) across studies, with a pooled effect size of 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.56, p < 0.0001). Using the clinical cutpoint of >10-point reduction on the PCL instrument, clinically significant change (response) ranged from 63.8% to 100.0% across the four studies, with a pooled treatment response rate of 74.7%. Results were nominally attenuated when conservatively assuming no treatment response for non-completers. CONCLUSION: The ART protocol contains the core therapeutic elements and aligns closely with the current VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline. It has a plausible theoretical rationale and an evolving empirical research base that includes four studies with peer-reviewed publications, one of which was a randomized controlled trial. These features, along with the brevity of the treatment protocol, no requirement for narration, and high provider satisfaction rates, provide a rationale for the potential use of ART as a first-line PTSD treatment modality for active duty and veteran military personnel.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Defense/organização & administração , United States Department of Defense/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(4): 935-942, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2.5 and BC using land use regression models. Correlates of PM2.5 and BC were assessed using linear regression models. Associations with clinical outcomes were determined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors. Data were available on 1717 participants (66% women; 45% blacks; 59±8 years). Blacks had significantly higher exposure to PM2.5 (mean 16.1±0.75 versus 15.7±0.73µg/m3; P=0.001) and BC (1.19±0.11 versus 1.16±0.13abs; P=0.001) compared with whites. Exposure to PM2.5, but not BC, was independently associated with higher blood glucose and worse arterial endothelial function. PM2.5 was associated with a higher risk of incident CVD events and all-cause mortality combined for median follow-up of 8.3 years. Blacks had 1.45 (95% CI, 1.00-2.09) higher risk of combined CVD events and all-cause mortality than whites in models adjusted for relevant covariates. This association was modestly attenuated with adjustment for PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 exposure was associated with elevated blood glucose, worse endothelial function, and incident CVD events and all-cause mortality. Blacks had a higher rate of incident CVD events and all-cause mortality than whites that was only partly explained by higher exposure to PM2.5.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da População Urbana
13.
Vasc Med ; 23(4): 331-339, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537350

RESUMO

Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants. OSA severity was measured in 765 individuals using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Endothelial dysfunction was measured using the Endo-PAT device, expressed as Framingham reactive hyperemia index (F_RHI). Coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical CAD, was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. There were 498 (65%) female participants, 282 (37%) black individuals, and 204 (26%) participants with moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥15). In univariate models, moderate/severe OSA was associated with lower F_RHI and higher CAC, as well as several traditional CVD risk factors including older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, higher body mass index, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In a multivariable model, individuals with moderate/severe OSA had 10% lower F_RHI and 35% higher CAC, which did not reach statistical significance ( p=0.08 for both comparisons). There was no significant interaction of race on the association of OSA with F_RHI or CAC ( p-value >0.1 for all comparisons). In a community-based cohort comprised of black and white participants, moderate/severe OSA was modestly associated with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic CAD. These associations did not vary by race.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Microcirculação , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etnologia , Calcificação Vascular/etnologia , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia
14.
Psychooncology ; 27(2): 524-531, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of delivering the mobile mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer (mMBSR(BC)) program using an iPad and to evaluate its impact on symptom improvement. METHODS: A single group, pre-posttest design was implemented among female stages 0-III breast cancer survivors (BCS) who completed treatment. Data were collected at baseline and week 6 on measures of psychological and physical symptoms and quality of life. The mMBSR(BC) program is a standardized, stress-reducing intervention that combines sitting and walking meditation, body scan, and yoga and is designed to deliver weekly 2-hour sessions for 6 weeks using an iPad. RESULTS: The mean age of the 15 enrolled BCS was 57 years; one participant was non-Hispanic black, and 14 were non-Hispanic white. Of the 13 who completed the study, there were significant improvements from baseline to 6 weeks post-mMBSR(BC) in psychological and physical symptoms of depression, state anxiety, stress, fear of recurrence, sleep quality, fatigue, and quality of life (P's < .05). Effect sizes for improvements of multiple symptoms ranged from medium to large. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary support that the mMBSR(BC) program may be feasible and acceptable, showing a clinical impact on decreasing psychological and physical symptoms. This mobile-based program offers a delivery of a standardized MBSR(BC) intervention to BCS that is convenient for their own schedule while decreasing symptom burden in the survivorship phase after treatment for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Ioga
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 110, 2017 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantifying the cumulative effect of social risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can help to better understand the sources of disparities in health outcomes. METHOD AND RESULTS: Data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (HeartSCORE) study were used to create an index of cumulative social risk (CSR) and quantify its association with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. CSR was defined by assigning a score of 1 for the presence of each of 4 social factors: i) racial minority status (Black race), ii) single living status, iii) low income, and iv) low educational level. Hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using Cox-regression models, adjusted for CVD risk factors. Over a median follow-up period of 8.3 years, 127 incident events were observed. The incidence of the primary outcome for subgroups of participants with 0, 1, and ≥2 CSR scores was 5.31 (95% CI, 3.40-7.22), 10.32 (7.16-13.49) and 17.80 (12.94-22.67) per 1000 person-years, respectively. Individuals with CSR score of 1 had an adjusted HR of 1.85 (1.15-2.97) for incident primary outcomes, compared to those with score of 0. The corresponding HR for individuals with CSR score of 2 or more was 2.58 (1.60-4.17). CONCLUSION: An accumulation of social risk factors independently increased the likelihood of CVD events and deaths in a cohort of White and Black individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa Solteira , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Biol Res Nurs ; 19(4): 456-464, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this substudy of a large randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (Breast Cancer) (MBSR[BC]) program compared to usual care (UC) in normalizing blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines among breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHOD: A total of 322 BCS were randomized to either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a UC. At baseline and 6 and 12 weeks, 10 ml of venous blood and demographic and clinical data were collected and/or updated. Plasma cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α, transforming growth factor [TGF] ß1, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor [sTNFR] 1) were assayed. Linear mixed models were used to assess cytokine levels across three time points (baseline and 6 and 12 weeks) by group (MBSR[BC] vs. UC). RESULTS: Of the six measured cytokines, three were nondetectable at rates greater than 50% (IL-10, IL-1ß, TGF-ß1) and, because of overall low prevalence, were not analyzed further. For the remaining cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, sTNFR1), results showed that TNFα and IL-6 increased during the follow-up period (between 6 and 12 weeks) rather than during the MBSR(BC) training period (between baseline and 6 weeks), while sTNFR1 levels did not change significantly across the 12-week period. CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest that MBSR(BC) affects cytokine levels in BCS, mainly with increases in TNFα and IL-6. The data further suggest that B-cell modulation may be a part of immune recovery during breast cancer management and that increases in TNFα and IL-6 may be markers for MBSR(BC)-related recovery.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Citocinas/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Atenção Plena , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 53(1): 85-95, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720794

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Breast cancer survivors (BCS) face adverse physical and psychological symptoms, often co-occurring. Biologic and psychological factors may link symptoms within clusters, distinguishable by prevalence and/or severity. Few studies have examined the effects of behavioral interventions or treatment of symptom clusters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify symptom clusters among post-treatment BCS and determine symptom cluster improvement following the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR(BC)) program. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-two Stage 0-III post-treatment BCS were randomly assigned to either a six-week MBSR(BC) program or usual care. Psychological (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence), physical (fatigue, pain, sleep, and drowsiness), and cognitive symptoms and quality of life were assessed at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, along with demographic and clinical history data at baseline. A three-step analytic process included the error-accounting models of factor analysis and structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Four symptom clusters emerged at baseline: pain, psychological, fatigue, and cognitive. From baseline to six weeks, the model demonstrated evidence of MBSR(BC) effectiveness in both the psychological (anxiety, depression, perceived stress and QOL, emotional well-being) (P = 0.007) and fatigue (fatigue, sleep, and drowsiness) (P < 0.001) clusters. Results between six and 12 weeks showed sustained effects, but further improvement was not observed. CONCLUSION: Our results provide clinical effectiveness evidence that MBSR(BC) works to improve symptom clusters, particularly for psychological and fatigue symptom clusters, with the greatest improvement occurring during the six-week program with sustained effects for several weeks after MBSR(BC) training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name and URL of Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov. Registration number: NCT01177124.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nurs Outlook ; 64(5): 411-23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in both homeless and nonhomeless veterans. PURPOSE: To examine unique characteristics of being homeless that may influence PTSD treatment completion and clinical success. METHODS: Twenty-three veterans who were homeless and residing in a homeless shelter, along with 94 veterans from the community, were enrolled to receive one to five sessions of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), an emerging trauma-focused therapy for symptoms of PTSD. Rates of treatment completion with ART and acute and 6-month change in symptoms of PTSD were compared in an observational (nonrandomized) manner by housing status. FINDINGS: Compared to veterans recruited from the community, veterans residing in the homeless shelter were older and presented with more extensive psychopathology yet had less combat exposure while being more likely to have experienced sexual assault. Rates of treatment completion were 52.2% (12 of 23) among homeless veterans compared to 81.9% (77 of 94) among veterans from the community (p = .005). Among treatment completers, both groups received an average of four sessions of ART. Reduction of symptoms of PTSD was substantial and nonsignificantly greater among homeless veterans vs. those treated from the community (p = .14), as were comorbidity reductions in depression, anxiety, sleep quality, pain, and improved quality of life. Results at 6-month posttreatment follow-up were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by small sample size and a nonrandomized design, ART appears to be an effective, brief treatment for symptoms of PTSD among veterans residing in a homeless shelter. However, development of effective strategies to maximize treatment completion among homeless veterans is needed.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(24): 2827-34, 2016 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized trial was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR[BC]) program in improving psychological and physical symptoms and quality of life among breast cancer survivors (BCSs) who completed treatment. Outcomes were assessed immediately after 6 weeks of MBSR(BC) training and 6 weeks later to test efficacy over an extended timeframe. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 322 BCSs were randomly assigned to either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program (n = 155) or a usual care group (n = 167). Psychological (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence) and physical symptoms (fatigue and pain) and quality of life (as related to health) were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Linear mixed models were used to assess MBSR(BC) effects over time, and participant characteristics at baseline were also tested as moderators of MBSR(BC) effects. RESULTS: Results demonstrated extended improvement for the MBSR(BC) group compared with usual care in both psychological symptoms of anxiety, fear of recurrence overall, and fear of recurrence problems and physical symptoms of fatigue severity and fatigue interference (P < .01). Overall effect sizes were largest for fear of recurrence problems (d = 0.35) and fatigue severity (d = 0.27). Moderation effects showed BCSs with the highest levels of stress at baseline experienced the greatest benefit from MBSR(BC). CONCLUSION: The MBSR(BC) program significantly improved a broad range of symptoms among BCSs up to 6 weeks after MBSR(BC) training, with generally small to moderate overall effect sizes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 25(9): 875-81, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have greater cardiac risk factor clustering but the link with mortality is incompletely described. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes in 295 postmenopausal women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH-NHLBI) sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study according to clinical features of PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25/295 (8%) women had clinical features of PCOS defined by a premenopausal history of irregular menses and current biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenemia, defined as the top quartile of androstenedione (≥701 pg/mL), testosterone (≥30.9 ng/dL), or free testosterone (≥4.5 pg/mL). Cox proportional hazard model estimated death (n = 80). RESULTS: Women with clinical features of PCOS had an earlier menopause (p = 0.01), were more often smokers (p < 0.04), and trended toward more angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) (p = 0.07) than women without these features. Cumulative 10-year mortality was 28% for women with (n = 25) versus 27% without clinical features of PCOS (n = 270) (p = 0.85). PCOS was not a significant predictor (p = NS) in prognostic models including diabetes, waist circumference, hypertension, and angiographic CAD. CONCLUSION: From this longer-term follow up of a relatively small cohort of postmenopausal women with suspected ischemia, the prevalence of PCOS is similar to the general population, and clinical features of PCOS are not associated with CAD or mortality. These findings question whether identification of clinical features of PCOS in postmenopausal women who already have known cardiovascular disease provides any additional opportunity for risk factor intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Androstenodiona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Distúrbios Menstruais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/sangue , Estados Unidos
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