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1.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543354

RESUMO

Context: To identify VA and non-VA Emergency Department (ED) and hospital utilization by veterans with spinal cord injury and disorders (SCI/D) in California. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: VA and Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) in California. Participants: Total 300 veterans admitted to the study VA SCI/D Center for initial rehabilitations from 01/01/1999 through 08/17/2014. Interventions: N/A. Outcome Measures: Individual-level ED visits and hospitalizations during the first-year post-rehabilitation. Results: Among 145 veterans for whom ED visit data available, 168 ED visits were identified: 94 (55.2%) at non-VA EDs and 74 (44.8%) at the VA ED, with a mean of 1.16 (±2.21) ED visit/person. Seventy-seven (53.1%) veterans did not visit any ED. Of 68 (46.9%) veterans with ≥ one ED visit, 20 (29.4%) visited the VA ED only, 34 (50.0%) visited non-VA EDs only, and 14 (20.6%) visited both VA and non-VA EDs. Among 212 Veterans for whom hospitalization data were available, 247 hospitalizations were identified: 82 (33.2%) non-VA hospitalizations and 165 (66.8%) VA hospitalization with a mean of 1.17 (±1.62) hospitalizations/person. One hundred-seven (50.5%) veterans had no hospitalizations. Of 105 veterans with ≥ one hospitalization, 58 (55.2%) were hospitalized at the study VA hospital, 15 (14.3%) at a non-VA hospital, and 32 (30.5%) at both VA and non-VA hospitals. Conclusion: Non-VA ED and hospital usage among veterans with SCI/D occurred frequently. The acquisition of non-VA healthcare data managed by state agencies is vital to accurately and comprehensively evaluate needs and utilization rates among veteran populations.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 15: 100365, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193611

RESUMO

Background: Elderly maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients exhibit muscle wasting and impaired physical function. This trial determines whether MHD patients benefit from a 12-week home-based exercise program, protein supplementation, or both. Design: and Methods: This is a randomized, blinded controlled trial involving 60 elderly MHD patients with impaired exercise capacity and function. Patients are randomized into either a homebased exercise program or normal care over a 12-week period. Measures at baseline include peak VO2, strength and body composition as well as cognitive and disease-specific questionnaires. Muscle biopsies are obtained and analyzed for protein signaling, expression of IGF-1, androgen receptors, and myostatin. Results: At baseline, patient characteristics in the exercise and normal care groups were similar by age, gender and anthropomorphic measures. Peak VO2 was impaired (14.7 ±â€¯3.3 ml/kg/min), representing 55 ±â€¯14% of the age-predicted value. Six-minute walk distance was 322 ±â€¯71 m, and the mean 1-min sit to stand test was 18 ±â€¯8 repetitions, representing 69 ±â€¯16% and 55 ±â€¯22% of the age-predicted values, respectively. Indices of muscle function, including upper and lower body and hand grip strength all indicate marked impairment. Quality of life (QoL) using the SF36, the Beeson cognitive test, and KDQOL all suggest marked impairments compared to age-expected reference values for non-MHD patients. Conclusions: Patients undergoing MHD exhibit markedly reduced physical function and QoL. Thus, there are potentially significant gains to be made through a program of aerobic and resistance exercise. We anticipate this trial will demonstrate that home-based exercise improves cardiopulmonary function, protein signaling and QoL, and increases muscle mass, strength, and body composition.

3.
J Therm Biol ; 62(Pt A): 56-62, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27839550

RESUMO

Persons without spinal cord injury (SCI) physiologically acclimate between seven to fourteen consecutive days of exercise in the heat. Decreased resting and exercise core temperature, decreased heart rate, increased plasma volume and increased thermal comfort during exercise are changes consistent with heat acclimation. Autonomic dysfunction after SCI impairs heat dissipation through sweating and vasodilation. The purpose of this study is to determine if seven consecutive days of exercise in the heat would result in physiologic changes consistent with heat acclimation in persons with SCI. Ten persons with SCI divided into two groups: tetraplegia (n=5) and paraplegia (n=5) exercised in 35°C using an arm ergometer at 50% Wpeak for 30min followed by 15min rest. This protocol was repeated over seven consecutive days. Heart rate (HR), skin temperature, aural temperature (Taur), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), rate of perceived thermal strain (RPTS), and plasma volume (PV) were measured throughout the protocol. There were no significant differences in resting Taur exercise Taur, mean skin temperature, HR, PV, RPE or RPTS over the 7 days for either the tetraplegic or paraplegic group. Participants with SCI did not demonstrate the ability to dissipate heat more efficiently over 7 days of exercise at 35°C. The lack of heat acclimation seen in persons with SCI has implications for the athlete and non-athlete alike. For the SCI athlete, inability to acclimate will impair performance and endurance especially in warm environments, compared to the person without SCI. For the SCI non-athlete, there is a greater risk of heat-related illness in warm environments that can negatively affect participation in outdoor activities and thus quality of life.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Plasmático , Temperatura Cutânea , Termografia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Rehabil Res Dev ; 49(9): 1355-64, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23408217

RESUMO

Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise physiologist. At 6 mo intervals, measurements were made of dietary intake, glucose and lipids, physical activity patterns, and exercise capacity. Of the 26 participants, 10 remained in the program for the full 2 yr; medical issues unrelated to the program were the major reasons for dropping out. Significant improvements were observed in weight, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, although these changes were not consistent across visits. No differences in estimates of physical activity patterns were demonstrated, nor were differences in dietary macronutrient intake observed. Thus, modest changes in some CVD risk markers can be achieved by a multidisciplinary risk reduction program in SCI. Such programs present more challenges than in ambulatory persons, and more intensive risk intervention may be required to appreciably reduce CVD risk in SCI.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Administração de Caso , Colesterol/sangue , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Vértebras Cervicais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Tolerância ao Exercício , Alimentos , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Valor Nutritivo , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Vértebras Torácicas
5.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 42(4): 691-700, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19952846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this descriptive study were (a) to determine the energy expenditure of activities commonly performed by individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and summarize this information and (b) to measure resting energy expenditure and establish the value of 1 MET for individuals with SCI. METHODS: One-hundred seventy adults with SCI were partitioned by gender, anatomical level of SCI, and American Spinal Injury Association designations for motor function. Twenty-seven physical activities, 12 recreational/sport and 15 daily living, were performed, while energy expenditure was measured continuously via a COSMED K4b portable metabolic system. In addition, 66 adult males with SCI completed 30 min of supine resting energy testing in a quiet environment. RESULTS: Results for the 27 measured activities are reported in kilocalories per minute (kcal·min(-1)) and VO2 (mL·min(-1) and mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). One MET for a person with SCI should be adjusted using 2.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1). Using 2.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), the MET range for persons in the motor incomplete SCI group was 1.17 (supported standing) to 6.22 (wheeling on grass), and 2.26 (billiards) to 16.25 (hand cycling) for activities of daily living and fitness/recreation, respectively. The MET range for activities of daily living for persons in the group with motor complete SCI was 1.27 (dusting) to 4.96 (wheeling on grass) and 1.47 (bait casting) to 7.74 (basketball game) for fitness/recreation. CONCLUSIONS: The foundation for a compendium of energy expenditure for physical activities for persons with SCI has been created with the completion of this study. In the future, others will update and expand the content of this compendium as has been the case with the original compendium for the able-bodied.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Valores de Referência , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Cadeiras de Rodas
6.
Br J Sports Med ; 41(10): 664-8; discussion 668, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17473003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of soccer playing and long-distance running with total and regional bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Academic medical centre. PARTICIPANTS: Elite male soccer players (n = 15), elite male long-distance runners (n = 15) and sedentary male controls (n = 15) aged 20-30 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: BMD (g/cm2) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), right hip, right leg and total body were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a scan of the right calcaneus was performed with a peripheral instantaneous x-ray imaging bone densitometer. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, weight and percentage body fat, soccer players had significantly higher whole body, spine, right hip, right leg and calcaneal BMD than controls (p = 0.008, p = 0.041, p<0.001, p = 0.019, p<0.001, respectively) and significantly higher right hip and spine BMD than runners (p = 0.012 and p = 0.009, respectively). Runners had higher calcaneal BMD than controls (p = 0.002). Forty percent of the runners had T-scores of the lumbar spine between -1 and -2.5. Controls were similar: 34% had T-scores below -1 (including 7% with T-scores lower than -2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Playing soccer is associated with higher BMD of the skeleton at all sites measured. Running is associated with higher BMD at directly loaded sites (the calcaneus) but not at relatively unloaded sites (the spine). Specific loading conditions, seen in ball sports or in running, play a pivotal role in skeletal adaptation. The importance of including an appropriate control group in clinical studies is underlined.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 86(2): 142-52, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17251696

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern for the spinal cord-injured (SCI) population. For long-term SCI, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes now exceeds that caused by renal and pulmonary conditions, the primary causes of mortality in previous decades. Although risk estimates commonly used for ambulatory individuals have not been established from follow-up studies in SCI, nearly all risk factors tend to be more prevalent in SCI subjects compared with ambulatory subjects. These risks include a greater prevalence of obesity, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Daily energy expenditure is significantly lower in SCI individuals, not only because of a lack of motor function, but also because of a lack of accessibility and fewer opportunities to engage in physical activity. Autonomic dysfunction caused by SCI is also associated with several conditions that contribute to heightened cardiovascular risk, including abnormalities in blood pressure, heart rate variability, arrhythmias, and a blunted cardiovascular response to exercise that can limit the capacity to perform physical activity. Thus, screening, recognition, and treatment of cardiovascular disease should be an essential component of managing individuals with SCI, and judicious treatment of risk factors can play an important role in minimizing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in these individuals. This article reviews the cardiovascular consequences of chronic SCI, including the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors unique to these individuals, and provides a synopsis of management of cardiovascular disease in this population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Pneumopatias , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
8.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 81(8): 601-8, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12172070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the prevalence and prognostic value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. METHODS: All electrocardiographs obtained in the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center since 1987 have been digitally recorded and stored in a computerized database. For this study, only the first electrocardiograph was considered for analysis. The subjects were divided according to age and level of spinal cord injury. The Social Security Death Index was used to ascertain vital status as of December 1999. RESULTS: Annual mortality was similar in those with chronic spinal cord injury and the able-bodied. However, individuals with a higher level of injury had a significantly higher death rate than those with a lower level of injury. The prognostic characteristics of electrocardiographic abnormalities were similar in both the able-bodied and those with spinal cord injury. CONCLUSION: In general, electrocardiographic abnormalities had the same prevalence in the spinal cord injury subjects as in the able-bodied ones. The prognostic value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in subjects with spinal cord injury is similar to that observed in able-bodied subjects.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
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