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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood. METHODS: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness. RESULTS: The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863996

RESUMO

Individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) frequently suffer from obesity, which is often associated with neurostructural alterations. Yet, the effects of obesity on brain structure in BD are under-researched. We obtained MRI-derived brain subcortical volumes and body mass index (BMI) from 1134 BD and 1601 control individuals from 17 independent research sites within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the effects of BD and BMI on subcortical volumes using mixed-effects modeling and tested for mediation of group differences by obesity using nonparametric bootstrapping. All models controlled for age, sex, hemisphere, total intracranial volume, and data collection site. Relative to controls, individuals with BD had significantly higher BMI, larger lateral ventricular volume, and smaller volumes of amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, caudate, and thalamus. BMI was positively associated with ventricular and amygdala and negatively with pallidal volumes. When analyzed jointly, both BD and BMI remained associated with volumes of lateral ventricles  and amygdala. Adjusting for BMI decreased the BD vs control differences in ventricular volume. Specifically, 18.41% of the association between BD and ventricular volume was mediated by BMI (Z = 2.73, p = 0.006). BMI was associated with similar regional brain volumes as BD, including lateral ventricles, amygdala, and pallidum. Higher BMI may in part account for larger ventricles, one of the most replicated findings in BD. Comorbidity with obesity could explain why neurostructural alterations are more pronounced in some individuals with BD. Future prospective brain imaging studies should investigate whether obesity could be a modifiable risk factor for neuroprogression.

3.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(3): E328-E336, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904668

RESUMO

Background: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with reduced hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, whereas social support, a protective factor, has been positively associated with hippocampal volumes. In this study, we investigated how social support is associated with hippocampal volume in healthy people with previous experience of childhood maltreatment. Methods: We separated a sample of 446 healthy participants into 2 groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: 265 people without maltreatment and 181 people with maltreatment. We measured perceived social support using a short version of the Social Support Questionnaire. We examined hippocampal volume using automated segmentation (Freesurfer). We conducted a social support × group analysis of covariance on hippocampal volumes controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, site and verbal intelligence. Results: Our analysis revealed significantly lower left hippocampal volume in people with maltreatment (left F1,432 = 5.686, p = 0.018; right F1,433 = 3.371, p = 0.07), but no main effect of social support emerged. However, we did find a significant social support × group interaction for left hippocampal volume (left F1,432 = 5.712, p = 0.017; right F1,433 = 3.480, p = 0.06). In people without maltreatment, we observed a trend toward a positive association between social support and hippocampal volume. In contrast, social support was negatively associated with hippocampal volume in people with maltreatment. Limitations: Because of the correlative nature of our study, we could not infer causal relationships between social support, maltreatment and hippocampal volume. Conclusion: Our results point to a complex dynamic between environmental risk, protective factors and brain structure - in line with previous evidence - suggesting a detrimental effect of maltreatment on hippocampal development.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two prominent risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) are childhood maltreatment (CM) and familial risk for MDD. Despite having these risk factors, there are individuals who maintain mental health, i.e. are resilient, whereas others develop MDD. It is unclear which brain morphological alterations are associated with this kind of resilience. Interaction analyses of risk and diagnosis status are needed that can account for complex adaptation processes, to identify neural correlates of resilience. METHODS: We analyzed brain structural data (3T magnetic resonance imaging) by means of voxel-based morphometry (CAT12 toolbox), using a 2 × 2 design, comparing four groups (N = 804) that differed in diagnosis (healthy v. MDD) and risk profiles (low-risk, i.e. absence of CM and familial risk v. high-risk, i.e. presence of both CM and familial risk). Using regions of interest (ROIs) from the literature, we conducted an interaction analysis of risk and diagnosis status. RESULTS: Volume in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), was significantly higher in healthy high-risk individuals. There were no significant results for the bilateral superior frontal gyri, frontal poles, pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyri, and the right MFG. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy high-risk group had significantly higher volumes in the left DLPFC compared to all other groups. The DLPFC is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes, and higher volume in this area might aid high-risk individuals in adaptive coping in order to maintain mental health. This increased volume might therefore constitute a neural correlate of resilience to MDD in high risk.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than a century of research on the neurobiological underpinnings of major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder [MDD], bipolar disorder [BD], schizophrenia [SZ], and schizoaffective disorder [SZA]) has been unable to identify diagnostic markers. An alternative approach is to study dimensional psychopathological syndromes that cut across categorical diagnoses. The aim of the current study was to identify gray matter volume (GMV) correlates of transdiagnostic symptom dimensions. METHODS: We tested the association of 5 psychopathological factors with GMV using multiple regression models in a sample of N = 1069 patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD (n = 818), BD (n = 132), and SZ/SZA (n = 119). T1-weighted brain images were acquired with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and preprocessed with CAT12. Interactions analyses (diagnosis × psychopathological factor) were performed to test whether local GMV associations were driven by DSM-IV diagnosis. We further tested syndrome specific regions of interest (ROIs). RESULTS: Whole brain analysis showed a significant negative association of the positive formal thought disorder factor with GMV in the right middle frontal gyrus, the paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome in the right fusiform, and the left middle frontal gyri. ROI analyses further showed additional negative associations, including the negative syndrome with bilateral frontal opercula, positive formal thought disorder with the left amygdala-hippocampus complex, and the paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome with the left angular gyrus. None of the GMV associations interacted with DSM-IV diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between psychopathological syndromes and regional GMV independent of diagnosis. Our findings open a new avenue for neurobiological research across disorders, using syndrome-based approaches rather than categorical diagnoses.

8.
J Neurosci Res ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789356

RESUMO

Affective loss (AL) (i.e., bereavement, relationship breakup) is a stressful life event leading to a heightened risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, for example, depression and anxiety disorder. These disorders have been associated with altered subcortical brain volumes. Little is known though, how AL in healthy subjects is linked to subcortical volumes. In a study with 196 healthy young adults, we probed the association between AL across the individual entire life span, assessed via the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire, and magnetic resonance imaging brain gray matter volumes (a priori selected: bilateral amygdalae, hippocampi, thalami; exploratory analyses: nuclei accumbens, caudate, putamina), segmented by use of volBrain. AL was defined as death of a first-degree relative/spouse, close relative/friend, and breakup of a marriage or steady relationship. AL was associated with larger bilateral amygdalar volumes and, after taking into account the total number of ALs, with smaller right hippocampal volumes, both irrespective of sex. Exploratory analyses of striatal volumes yielded an association of AL with larger right nucleus accumbens volumes in men, and increased caudate volumes after the loss of a first-degree relative irrespective of sex. Our data suggest that AL engenders alterations in limbic structures that likely involve processes of chronic stress and amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent fear conditioning, and resemble those observed in general anxiety disorder, childhood maltreatment, and major depressive disorder. Our exploratory findings of striatal volume alterations hint at a modulation of reward processing by AL.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are known to share clinical comorbidity and to have genetic overlap. Besides their shared genetics, both diseases seem to be associated with alterations in brain structural connectivity and impaired cognitive performance, but little is known about the mechanisms by which genetic risk of T2D might affect brain structure and function and if so, how these effects could contribute to the disease course of MDD. METHODS: This study explores the association of polygenic risk for T2D with structural brain connectome topology and cognitive performance in 434 nondiabetic MDD patients and 539 healthy controls. RESULTS: Polygenic risk score for T2D across MDD patients and healthy controls was found to be associated with reduced global fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter microstructure, an effect found to be predominantly present in MDD-related fronto-temporo-parietal connections. A mediation analysis further suggests that this FA variation may mediate the association between PGS and cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide preliminary evidence of a polygenic risk for T2D to be linked to brain structural connectivity and cognition in MDD patients and healthy controls, even in the absence of a direct T2D diagnosis. This suggests an effect of T2D genetic risk on white matter integrity, which may mediate an association of genetic risk for diabetes and cognitive impairments.

10.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 93-104, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648793

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 192, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782385

RESUMO

A retrospective meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry studies proposed that reduced gray matter volumes in the dorsal anterior cingulate and the left and right anterior insular cortex-areas that constitute hub nodes of the salience network-represent a common substrate for major psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the common substrate serves as an intermediate phenotype to detect genetic risk variants relevant for psychiatric disease. To this end, after a data reduction step, we conducted genome-wide association studies of a combined common substrate measure in four population-based cohorts (n = 2271), followed by meta-analysis and replication in a fifth cohort (n = 865). After correction for covariates, the heritability of the common substrate was estimated at 0.50 (standard error 0.18). The top single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17076061 was associated with the common substrate at genome-wide significance and replicated, explaining 1.2% of the common substrate variance. This SNP mapped to a locus on chromosome 5q35.2 harboring genes involved in neuronal development and regeneration. In follow-up analyses, rs17076061 was not robustly associated with psychiatric disease, and no overlap was found between the broader genetic architecture of the common substrate and genetic risk for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. In conclusion, our study identified that common genetic variation indeed influences the common substrate, but that these variants do not directly translate to increased disease risk. Future studies should investigate gene-by-environment interactions and employ functional imaging to understand how salience network structure translates to psychiatric disorder risk.

12.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652938

RESUMO

PET of ß-Amyloid plaques (Aß) using [18F]florbetaben ([18F]FBB) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) increasingly aid clinicians in early diagnosis of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate clinical relevance of [18F]FBB, [18F]FDG PET and complimentary CSF measurements in patients with suspected dementia. In this study, 40 patients with clinically suspected or history of dementia underwent (1) measurement of Aß peptides, total tau, and p-tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with healthy controls (HC); (2) clinical and neuropsychological assessment, which included Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NAB); (3) [18F]FBB and [18F]FDG PET imaging within an average of 3 weeks. The subjects were within 15 days stratified using PET, CSF measurements as HC, mild cognitive impaired (MCI) and dementia including Alzheimer´s disease. The predictive dementia-related cognitive decline values were supporting the measurements. PET images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using standard uptake value ratios (SUVR). Twenty-one (52.5%) subjects were amyloid-positive (Aß+), with a median neocortical SUVR of 1.80 for AD versus 1.20 relative to the respective 19 (47.5 %) amyloid-negative (Aß-) subjects. Moreover, the [18F]FDG and [18F]FBB confirmed within a sub-group of 10 patients a good complimentary role by correlation between amyloid pathology and brain glucose metabolism in 8 out of 10 subjects. The results suggest the clinical relevance for [18F]FBB combined with [18F]FDG PET retention and CFS measurements serving the management of our patients with dementia. Therefore, [18F]FBB combined with [18F]FDG PET is a helpful tool for differential diagnosis, and supports the patients' management as well as treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/isolamento & purificação
13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 29: 102568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524805

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is characterized by marked communication dysfunctions encompassing potential impairments in the processing of social-abstract and non-social-concrete information, especially in everyday situations where multiple modalities are present in the form of speech and gesture. To date, the neurobiological basis of these deficits remains elusive. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 17 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 18 matched controls watched videos of an actor speaking, gesturing (unimodal), and both speaking and gesturing (bimodal) about social or non-social events in a naturalistic way. Participants were asked to judge whether each video contains person-related (social) or object-related (non-social) information. When processing social-abstract content, patients showed reduced activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) only in the gesture but not in the speech condition. For non-social-concrete content, remarkably, reduced neural activation for patients in the left postcentral gyrus and the right insula was observed only in the speech condition. Moreover, in the bimodal conditions, patients displayed improved task performance and comparable activation to controls in both social and non-social content. To conclude, patients with schizophrenia displayed modality-specific aberrant neural processing of social and non-social information, which is not present for the bimodal conditions. This finding provides novel insights into dysfunctional multimodal communication in schizophrenia, and may have potential therapeutic implications.

14.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433625

RESUMO

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are characterized by disturbed self-other distinction. While previous studies associate abnormalities in the sense of agency (ie, the feeling that an action and the resulting sensory consequences are produced by oneself) with disturbed processing in the angular gyrus, passive movement conditions to isolate contributions of motor predictions are lacking. Furthermore, the role of body identity (ie, visual features determining whether a seen body part belongs to oneself) in self-other distinction is unclear. In the current study, fMRI was used to assess the roles of agency and hand identity in self-other distinction. Patients with SSD and healthy controls (HC) performed active and passive hand movements (agency manipulation) while seeing their own or someone else's hand moving in accordance with their action (hand identity manipulation). Variable delays (0-417 ms) between movement and feedback had to be detected. Our results showed overall lower delay detection performances during active than passive conditions; however, these differences were reduced in patients when the own hand was displayed. On a neural level, we found that in HC, activation in the right angular gyrus was modulated by agency and hand identity. In contrast, agency and hand identity revealed no overlapping activation in patients, due to reduced effects of agency. Importantly, HC and SSD patients shared similar effects of hand identity in the angular gyrus. Our results suggest that disturbances of self-other distinction in SSD are particularly driven by agency, while self-other distinction based on hand identity might be spared.

15.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117745, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454410

RESUMO

Sensory action consequences are highly predictable and thus engage less neural resources compared to externally generated sensory events. While this has frequently been observed to lead to attenuated perceptual sensitivity and suppression of activity in sensory cortices, some studies conversely reported enhanced perceptual sensitivity for action consequences. These divergent findings might be explained by the type of action feedback, i.e., discrete outcomes vs. continuous feedback. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the impact of discrete and continuous action feedback on perceptual and neural processing during action feedback monitoring. During fMRI data acquisition, participants detected temporal delays (0-417 ms) between actively or passively generated wrist movements and visual feedback that was either continuously provided during the movement or that appeared as a discrete outcome. Both feedback types resulted in (1) a neural suppression effect (active

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 554, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The jumping to conclusions bias (JTC) is considered to be an important causal factor in theoretical models for the formation and maintenance of delusions. However, recent meta-analytic findings show a rather equivocal pattern of results regarding associations between JTC and delusions. Thus, the present study aims to investigate in a large sample whether the JTC-bias is more pronounced in patients with psychotic disorders in comparison to controls and whether the JTC bias is associated with a more severe delusional conviction, persecutory delusions, and positive symptoms in general. METHODS: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 300) enrolled in a therapy trial and healthy controls (n = 51) conducted a variant of the beads task (fish task) as a measure for the JTC-bias at the start of the trial. Further, clinical interviews were used to assess patients' delusional severity and delusional conviction. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between patients with psychotic disorders (with 53% displaying the JTC-bias) and controls (41%). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant correlations between JTC measures and persecutory delusions, delusional conviction, and positive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We found no differences in JTC between patients with psychotic disorders and healthy controls, which is in part in line with meta-analytic findings using a wide range of JTC task variants. Interestingly, patients with psychotic disorders displayed JTC rates commonly found in the literature, while healthy control subjects showed an unexpectedly high level of JTC. The task variant we used in the present study (fish task) is discussed as a potential reason for our results, as it may induce a more deliberative reasoning style in controls as compared to the traditional beads task. Furthermore, possible implications for the measurement of the JTC-bias, in general, are discussed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN29242879 ( isrctn.com ), date of registration: April 12th 2006, retrospectively registered.

18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073925

RESUMO

The hippocampus consists of anatomically and functionally distinct subfields that may be differentially involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we, the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Bipolar Disorder workinggroup, study hippocampal subfield volumetry in BD. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 4,698 individuals (BD = 1,472, healthy controls [HC] = 3,226) from 23 sites worldwide were processed with FreeSurfer. We used linear mixed-effects models and mega-analysis to investigate differences in hippocampal subfield volumes between BD and HC, followed by analyses of clinical characteristics and medication use. BD showed significantly smaller volumes of the whole hippocampus (Cohen's d = -0.20), cornu ammonis (CA)1 (d = -0.18), CA2/3 (d = -0.11), CA4 (d = -0.19), molecular layer (d = -0.21), granule cell layer of dentate gyrus (d = -0.21), hippocampal tail (d = -0.10), subiculum (d = -0.15), presubiculum (d = -0.18), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (d = -0.17) compared to HC. Lithium users did not show volume differences compared to HC, while non-users did. Antipsychotics or antiepileptic use was associated with smaller volumes. In this largest study of hippocampal subfields in BD to date, we show widespread reductions in nine of 12 subfields studied. The associations were modulated by medication use and specifically the lack of differences between lithium users and HC supports a possible protective role of lithium in BD.

19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness. METHODS: A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects. RESULTS: Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113398, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920524

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for numerous mental disorders. However, the specificity of CM types in mental disorders is still being discussed. The present study examined the prevalence of five CM types in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 107), bipolar disorder (BD; n = 103), depression (MDD; n = 604; with the two subgroups Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) and non-chronic MDD), and in healthy controls (HC; n = 715). Additionally, associations between CM types, symptom severity, and age of onset were investigated. The prevalence of all CM types was higher in the patient groups compared to HC. Emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical neglect were reported most frequently in all groups. Notably, patients with PDD reported more CM of all types than patients with non-chronic MDD. The severity of depression was associated with emotional abuse and neglect; anxiety with emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse; positive SZ symptoms with physical neglect; negative symptoms with emotional and physical neglect; and mania with sexual abuse and physical neglect. CM was associated with a younger age of onset in MDD and BD. The high prevalence of CM in patients with severe mental disorders highlights the importance of considering this issue in the treatment of such patients.

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