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1.
Europace ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227238

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the performance of modelsf (risk scores) for predicting recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who have undergone catheter ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic searches of bibliographic databases were conducted (November 2018). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported the development, validation, or impact assessment of a model for predicting AF recurrence after ablation. Model performance (discrimination and calibration) measures were extracted. The Prediction Study Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST) was used to assess risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not feasible due to clinical and methodological differences between studies, but c-statistics were presented in forest plots. Thirty-three studies developing or validating 13 models were included; eight studies compared two or more models. Common model variables were left atrial parameters, type of AF, and age. Model discriminatory ability was highly variable and no model had consistently poor or good performance. Most studies did not assess model calibration. The main risk of bias concern was the lack of internal validation which may have resulted in overly optimistic and/or biased model performance estimates. No model impact studies were identified. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review suggests that clinical risk prediction of AF after ablation has potential, but there remains a need for robust evaluation of risk factors and development of risk scores.

2.
Europace ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142113

RESUMO

AIMS: Study sex-differences in efficacy and safety of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed first AF ablation outcomes on continuous anticoagulation in 633 patients [209 (33%) women and 424 (67%) men] in a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the AXAFA-AFNET 5 trial. We compared the primary outcome (death, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, or major bleeding) and secondary outcomes [change in quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function] 3 months after ablation. Women were older (66 vs. 63 years, P < 0.001), more often symptomatic, had lower QoL and a longer history of AF. No sex differences in ablation procedure were found. Women stayed in hospital longer than men (2.1 ± 2.3 vs. 1.6 ± 1.3 days, P = 0.004). The primary outcome occurred in 19 (9.1%) women and 26 (6.1%) men, P = 0.19. Women experienced more bleeding events requiring medical attention (5.7% vs. 2.1%, P = 0.03), while rates of tamponade (1.0% vs. 1.2%) or intracranial haemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0%) did not differ. Improvement in QoL after ablation was similar between the sexes [12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical 5.1% and 5.9%, P = 0.26; and SF-12 mental 3.7% and 1.6%, P = 0.17]. At baseline, mild cognitive impairment according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was present in 65 (32%) women and 123 (30%) men and declined to 23% for both sexes at end of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Women and men experience similar improvement in QoL and MoCA score after AF ablation on continuous anticoagulation. Longer hospital stay, a trend towards more nuisance bleeds, and a lower overall QoL in women were the main differences observed.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e016041, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212912

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent, affecting 10% to 15% of the adult population worldwide and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As chronic kidney disease worsens, a unique cardiovascular phenotype develops characterized by heart muscle disease, increased arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Cardiovascular risk is multifaceted, but most cardiovascular deaths in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are caused by heart failure and sudden cardiac death. While the exact drivers of these deaths are unknown, they are believed to be caused by uremic cardiomyopathy: a specific pattern of myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, with both diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Although the pathogenesis of uremic cardiomyopathy is likely to be multifactorial, accumulating evidence suggests increased production of fibroblast growth factor-23 and αKlotho deficiency as potential major drivers of cardiac remodeling in patients with uremic cardiomyopathy. In this article we review the increasing understanding of the physiology and clinical aspects of uremic cardiomyopathy and the rapidly increasing knowledge of the biology of both fibroblast growth factor-23 and αKlotho. Finally, we discuss how dissection of these pathological processes is aiding the development of therapeutic options, including small molecules and antibodies, directly aimed at improving the cardiovascular outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e009530, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079476

RESUMO

Background Reducing major bleeding events is a challenge when managing anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation. This study evaluated the impact of modifiable and nonmodifiable bleeding risk factors in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving rivaroxaban and estimated the impact of risk factor modification on major bleeding events. Methods and Results Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with major bleeding events were identified from the XANTUS (Xarelto for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) prospective registry data set (6784 rivaroxaban-treated patients). Parameters showing univariate association with bleeding were used to construct a multivariable model identifying independent risk factors. Modeling was used to estimate attributed weights to risk factors. Heavy alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR]=2.37; 95% CI 1.24-4.53); uncontrolled hypertension (HR after parameter-wise shrinkage=1.79; 95% CI 1.05-3.05); and concomitant treatment with antiplatelets, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or paracetamol (HR=1.80; 95% CI 1.24-2.61) were identified as modifiable, independent bleeding risk factors. Increasing age (HR=1.25 [per 5-year increment]; 95% CI 1.12-1.38); heart failure (HR=1.97; 95% CI 1.36-2.86); and vascular disease (HR=1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.77) were identified as nonmodifiable bleeding risk factors. Overall, 128 (1.9%) patients experienced major bleeding events; of these, 11% had no identified bleeding risk factors, 50% had nonmodifiable bleeding risk factors only, and 39% had modifiable bleeding risk factors (with or without nonmodifiable risk factors). The presence of 1 modifiable bleeding risk factor doubled the risk of major bleeding. Conclusions Elimination of modifiable bleeding risk factors is a potentially effective strategy to reduce bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation patients receiving rivaroxaban. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01606995.

6.
Europace ; 22(2): 250-258, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768523

RESUMO

AIMS: Rhythm control management in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be unequal across Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate how selective the patient cohort referred for AF ablation is, as compared to the general AF population in Europe, and to describe the governing mechanisms for such selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Descriptive comparative statistical analyses of the baseline characteristics were performed between the cohorts of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term (ESC EORP AFA-LT) registry, designed to provide a picture of contemporary real-world AF ablation, and the AF population from the AF-General (ESC EORP AF-Gen) pilot registry. Data collection was performed using a web-based system. In the AFA and in the Atrial Fibrillation General (AFG) pilot registries, 3593 and 3049 patients were enrolled, respectively. Patients who underwent AF ablation were younger, more commonly male, and had significantly less comorbidities. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation patients often presented without comorbidities, resulting in a lower risk of stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥5: 2.9% vs. 24.5%, all P < 0.001) and bleeding (HAS-BLED ≥2: 8.5% vs. 40.5%, P < 0.001) but with European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) scores >1 and more prevalent AF-related symptoms such as palpitations, fatigue, and weakness (all P < 0.001) as compared to the general AF patients. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation patients were significantly more often male, had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (59.5% vs. 52.4%) and smaller left atrial size on echocardiogram (P < 0.001 each). CONCLUSION: The comparison of the patient cohorts in the AFA and AFG registries showed that AF ablation in European clinical practice is mostly performed in relatively young, symptomatic and relatively healthy patients.

7.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797319

RESUMO

AIMS: Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging [SPECT-MPI] is a functional test for coronary ischemia. We aimed to assess the additive prognostic value of coronary calcium score (CCS) to SPECT-MPI in stable patients. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 655 patients who underwent SPECT-MPI with CCS (2012 to 2017). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) identified CCS cutoff value for all-cause mortality: CCS+ if > cutoff value and MPI+ if ≥ 5% total perfusion defect (TPD). Patients were divided into 1 MPI-/CCS-; 2 MPI+/CCS-; 3 MPI-/CCS+; 4 MPI+/CCS+ and compared. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified predictors of mortality. RESULTS: CCS cutoff for all-cause mortality was > 216 (C statistic 0.756, P < 0.0001). In MPI+ groups, mean TPD was similar (13.4% and 13.1% respectively) but mortality was higher in the CCS+ (12.5% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.22) as was the severe LV systolic dysfunction (8.0% vs. 0%, P = 0.095). In MPI- groups, mean TPD was similar (0.7% and 0.9% respectively) but all-cause mortality was higher in the CCS+ (10.7% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.0001) as was severe LVSD (2.9 % vs. 0.3% P = 0.016). Age, smoking, renal impairment ,and CCS > 216 were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with raised CCS on SPECT-MPI have increased mortality and poor LV function despite a negative MPI.

8.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1834-1850, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765261

RESUMO

Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been proposed to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes. This white paper by experts from the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration summarizes existing evidence and knowledge gaps on searching for AF after a stroke by using ECG monitoring. New AF can be detected by routine plus intensive ECG monitoring in approximately one-quarter of patients with ischemic stroke. It may be causal, a bystander, or neurogenically induced by the stroke. AF after a stroke is a risk factor for thromboembolism and a strong marker for atrial myopathy. After acute ischemic stroke, patients should undergo 72 hours of electrocardiographic monitoring to detect AF. The diagnosis requires an ECG of sufficient quality for confirmation by a health professional with ECG rhythm expertise. AF detection rate is a function of monitoring duration and quality of analysis, AF episode definition, interval from stroke to monitoring commencement, and patient characteristics including old age, certain ECG alterations, and stroke type. Markers of atrial myopathy (eg, imaging, atrial ectopy, natriuretic peptides) may increase AF yield from monitoring and could be used to guide patient selection for more intensive/prolonged poststroke ECG monitoring. Atrial myopathy without detected AF is not currently sufficient to initiate OAC. The concept of embolic stroke of unknown source is not proven to identify patients who have had a stroke benefitting from empiric OAC treatment. However, some embolic stroke of unknown source subgroups (eg, advanced age, atrial enlargement) might benefit more from non-vitamin K-dependent OAC therapy than aspirin. Fulfilling embolic stroke of unknown source criteria is an indication neither for empiric non-vitamin K-dependent OAC treatment nor for withholding prolonged ECG monitoring for AF. Clinically diagnosed AF after a stroke or a transient ischemic attack is associated with significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism, in particular, with additional stroke risk factors, and requires OAC rather than antiplatelet therapy. The minimum subclinical AF duration required on ECG monitoring poststroke/transient ischemic attack to recommend OAC therapy is debated.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 40(46): 3793-3799c, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755940

RESUMO

Recent innovations have the potential to improve rhythm control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Controlled trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness and safety of rhythm control therapy, particularly in patients with AF and heart failure. This review summarizes evidence supporting the use of rhythm control therapy in patients with AF for different outcomes, discusses implications for indications, and highlights remaining clinical gaps in evidence. Rhythm control therapy improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF and can be safely delivered in elderly patients with comorbidities (mean age 70 years, 3-7% complications at 1 year). Atrial fibrillation ablation maintains sinus rhythm more effectively than antiarrhythmic drug therapy, but recurrent AF remains common, highlighting the need for better patient selection (precision medicine). Antiarrhythmic drugs remain effective after AF ablation, underpinning the synergistic mechanisms of action of AF ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs. Atrial fibrillation ablation appears to improve left ventricular function in a subset of patients with AF and heart failure. Data on the prognostic effect of rhythm control therapy are heterogeneous without a clear signal for either benefit or harm. Rhythm control therapy has acceptable safety and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF, including in elderly populations with stroke risk factors. There is a clinical need to better stratify patients for rhythm control therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether rhythm control therapy, and particularly AF ablation, improves left ventricular function and reduces AF-related complications.

10.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 317(6): C1256-C1267, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577512

RESUMO

Cardiac arrhythmias of both atrial and ventricular origin are an important feature of cardiovascular disease. Novel antiarrhythmic therapies are required to overcome current drug limitations related to effectiveness and pro-arrhythmia risk in some contexts. Cardiomyocyte culture models provide a high-throughput platform for screening antiarrhythmic compounds, but comparative information about electrophysiological properties of commonly used types of cardiomyocyte preparations is lacking. Standardization of cultured cardiomyocyte microelectrode array (MEA) experimentation is required for its application as a high-throughput platform for antiarrhythmic drug development. The aim of this study was to directly compare the electrophysiological properties and responses to isoproterenol of three commonly used cardiac cultures. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), immortalized atrial HL-1 cells, and custom-generated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) were cultured on microelectrode arrays for 48-120 h. Extracellular field potentials were recorded, and conduction velocity was mapped in the presence/absence of the ß-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol (1 µM). Field potential amplitude and conduction velocity were greatest in NRVMs and did not differ in cardiomyocytes isolated from male/female hearts. Both NRVMs and hiPSC-CMs exhibited longer field potential durations with rate dependence and were responsive to isoproterenol. In contrast, HL-1 cells exhibited slower conduction and shorter field potential durations and did not respond to 1 µM isoproterenol. This is the first study to compare the intrinsic electrophysiologic properties of cultured cardiomyocyte preparations commonly used for in vitro electrophysiology assessment. These findings offer important comparative data to inform methodological approaches in the use of MEA and other techniques relating to cardiomyocyte functional screening investigations of particular relevance to arrhythmogenesis.

11.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(12): 1147-1154, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials showed the nonvitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) edoxaban was effective and safe for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE; including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis). Additional research is needed to evaluate the effects of edoxaban in routine clinical practice. Therefore, the Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical prActice (ETNA) program is being conducted to provide routine clinical care data on characteristics and outcomes in patients with AF or VTE receiving edoxaban. METHODS: The Global ETNA program integrates prospectively collected data from edoxaban patients in regional ETNA noninterventional studies across Europe, Japan, and East and Southeast Asia into indication-specific databases for AF and VTE. Targeted enrollment is >31 000 patients (AF >26 000; VTE >4500), with a follow-up of 2 years for AF and 1 year for VTE. Data integration will be possible using consistent terminology, parameter definitions, and data collection across the regional noninterventional studies. Safety and effectiveness data will be assessed. Crude rates of outcomes including bleeding and thromboembolic events will be reported. RESULTS: Globally, enrollment began in early 2015 and is ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: Global ETNA will generate the largest integrated prospective repository of routine clinical care data for a single NOAC in patients with AF or VTE. It will provide important information on the safety of edoxaban in routine clinical care and gather further information on its effectiveness.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619997

RESUMO

Adenosine can be released from the heart and may stimulate four different cardiac adenosine receptors. A receptor subtype that couples to the generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the A2A-adenosine receptor (A2A-AR). To better understand its role in cardiac function, we studied mechanical and electrophysiological effects in transgenic mice that overexpress the human A2A-AR in cardiomyocytes (A2A-TG). We used isolated preparations from the left atrium, the right atrium, isolated perfused hearts with surface electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, and surface body ECG recordings of living mice. The hypothesized arrhythmogenic effects of transgenicity per se and A2A-AR stimulation were studied. We noted an increase in the incidence of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias under these conditions in A2A-TG. Moreover, we noted that the A2A-AR agonist CGS 21680 exerted positive inotropic effect in isolated human electrically driven (1 Hz) right atrial trabeculae carneae. We conclude that A2A-ARs are functional not only in A2A-TG but also in isolated human atrial preparations. A2A-ARs in A2A-TG per se and their stimulation can lead to cardiac arrhythmias not only in isolated cardiac preparations from A2A-TG but also in living A2A-TG.

13.
Europace ; 21(10): 1459-1467, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377792

RESUMO

Self-terminating atrial arrhythmias are commonly detected on continuous rhythm monitoring, e.g. by pacemakers or defibrillators. It is unclear whether the presence of these arrhythmias has therapeutic consequences. We sought to summarize evidence on the prevalence of atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and their impact on risk of stroke. We performed a comprehensive, tabulated review of published literature on the prevalence of AHRE. In patients with AHRE, but without atrial fibrillation (AF), we reviewed the stroke risk and the potential risk/benefit of oral anticoagulation. Atrial high-rate episodes are found in 10-30% of AF-free patients. Presence of AHRE slightly increases stroke risk (0.8% to 1%/year) compared with patients without AHRE. Atrial high-rate episode of longer duration (e.g. those >24 h) could be associated with a higher stroke risk. Oral anticoagulation has the potential to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE but is associated with a rate of major bleeding of 2%/year. Oral anticoagulation is not effective in patients with heart failure or survivors of a stroke without AF. It remains unclear whether anticoagulation is effective and safe in patients with AHRE. Atrial high-rate episodes are common and confer a slight increase in stroke risk. There is true equipoise on the best way to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE. Two ongoing trials (NOAH-AFNET 6 and ARTESiA) will provide much-needed information on the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulation using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with AHRE.

14.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 221, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the arrhythmia most commonly diagnosed in clinical practice. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of AF and complications of AF, estimated by hospitalisations, have increased dramatically in the last decade. Being able to predict AF would allow tailoring of management strategies and a focus on primary or secondary prevention. Models predicting recurrent AF would have particular clinical use for the selection of rhythm control therapy. There are existing prognostic models which combine several predictors or risk factors to generate an individualised estimate of risk of AF. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise and compare model performance measures and predictive accuracy across different models and populations at risk of developing incident or recurrent AF. METHODS: Methods tailored to systematic reviews of prognostic models will be used for study identification, risk of bias assessment and synthesis. Studies will be eligible for inclusion where they report an internally or externally validated model. The quality of studies reporting a prognostic model will be assessed using the Prediction Study Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). Studies will be narratively described and included variables and predictive accuracy compared across different models and populations. Meta-analysis of model performance measures for models validated in similar populations will be considered where possible. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first systematic review to collate evidence from all studies reporting on validated prognostic models, or on the impact of such models, in any population at risk of incident or recurrent AF. The review may identify models which are suitable for impact assessment in clinical practice. Should gaps in the evidence be identified, research recommendations relating to model development, validation or impact assessment will be made. Findings will be considered in the context of any models already used in clinical practice, and the extent to which these have been validated. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO ( CRD42018111649 ).

15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 165, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have substantially improved anticoagulation therapy for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The available routine care data have demonstrated the safety of different NOACs; however, such data for edoxaban are scarce. Here, we report baseline characteristics of 13,638 edoxaban-treated patients with AF enrolled between November 2016 and February 2018. METHODS: ETNA-AF-Europe is a multinational, multi-centre, post-authorisation, observational study conducted in 825 sites in 10 European countries. Patients will be followed up for four years. RESULTS: Overall, 13,980 patients were enrolled of which 342 patients were excluded from the analysis. Mean patient age was 73.6 years with an average creatinine clearance of 69.4 mL/min. 56.6% were male. The calculated CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED mean scores were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Overall, 3.3, 14.6 and 82.0% of patients had low (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0), intermediate (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1) and high (CHA2DS2-VASc≥2) risks of stroke, respectively. High-risk patients (those with prior stroke, prior major bleeding, prior intracranial bleed or CHA2DS2-VASc ≥4) comprised 38.4% of the overall population. For 75.1% of patients edoxaban was their first anticoagulant prescription, whilst 16.9% switched from a VKA and 8.0% from another NOAC. A total of 23.4% of patients in ETNA-AF-Europe received the reduced dose of edoxaban 30 mg. Overall, 83.8% of patients received an edoxaban dose in line with the criteria outlined in the label. CONCLUSION: Edoxaban was predominantly initiated in older, often anticoagulation-naïve, unselected European patients with AF, with a good overall adherence to the approved label. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02944019; Date of registration: October 24, 2016.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 465-475, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248589

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The present study examined the rates and trends of clinical outcomes and management strategies of non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) related hospitalizations in the United States, in patients with concomitant AF compared with those in sinus rhythm (SR). We analyzed the "Nationwide Inpatient Sample" database (2004 to 2014) for patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of NSTE-ACS, and further stratified the cohort on the basis of diagnoses into SR and AF groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to examine the association between AF and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (composite of mortality, stroke, and cardiac complications) and its components. Of 4,668,737 NSTE-ACS hospitalizations, the proportions of SR and AF groups were 82.4% (3,848,202) and 17.6% (820,535), respectively. The incidence of AF increased significantly over time from 16.5% (2004) to 19.3% (2014). The AF group was at a greater risk of adverse outcomes with higher rates and adjusted relative risk (RR) of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (12.9% vs 5.3%; RR 1.74 [1.72, 1.75]), mortality (6.5% vs 3.3%; RR 1.12 [1.11, 1.13]), stroke (2.7% vs 1.5%; RR 1.32 [1.30, 1.34]), and bleeding (14.7% vs 8.8%; RR 1.42 [1.41, 1.43]). Furthermore, the AF group was less likely to receive coronary angiography (47.1% vs 58%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (18.7% vs 32.6%) in comparison to SR (p <0.001 for all outcomes). In conclusion, patients with concomitant AF and NSTE-ACS are less likely to be offered an invasive management strategy for their ACS and are associated with worse complications and higher mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Hospitalização , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233017

RESUMO

Optical mapping is an established technique for high spatio-temporal resolution study of cardiac electrophysiology in multi-cellular preparations. Here we present, in a step-by-step guide, the use of ElectroMap for analysis, quantification, and mapping of high-resolution voltage and calcium datasets acquired by optical mapping. ElectroMap analysis options cover a wide variety of key electrophysiological parameters, and the graphical user interface allows straightforward modification of pre-processing and parameter definitions, making ElectroMap applicable to a wide range of experimental models. We show how built-in pacing frequency detection and signal segmentation allows high-throughput analysis of entire experimental recordings, acute responses, and single beat-to-beat variability. Additionally, ElectroMap incorporates automated multi-beat averaging to improve signal quality of noisy datasets, and here we demonstrate how this feature can help elucidate electrophysiological changes that might otherwise go undetected when using single beat analysis. Custom modules are included within the software for detailed investigation of conduction, single file analysis, and alternans, as demonstrated here. This software platform can be used to enable and accelerate the processing, analysis, and mapping of complex cardiac electrophysiology.

19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 120, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is caused by different mechanisms but current treatment strategies do not target these mechanisms. Stratified therapy based on mechanistic drivers and biomarkers of AF have the potential to improve AF prevention and management outcomes. We will integrate mechanistic insights with known pathophysiological drivers of AF in models predicting recurrent AF and prevalent AF to test hypotheses related to AF mechanisms and response to rhythm control therapy. METHODS: We will harmonise and combine baseline and outcome data from 12 studies collected by six centres from the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and the Netherlands which assess prevalent AF or recurrent AF. A Delphi process and statistical selection will be used to identify candidate clinical predictors. Prediction models will be developed in patients with AF for AF recurrence and AF-related outcomes, and in patients with or without AF at baseline for prevalent AF. Models will be used to test mechanistic hypotheses and investigate the predictive value of plasma biomarkers. DISCUSSION: This retrospective, harmonised, individual patient data analysis will use information from 12 datasets collected in five European countries. It is envisioned that the outcome of this analysis would provide a greater understanding of the factors associated with recurrent and prevalent AF, potentially allowing development of stratified approaches to prevention and therapy management.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e022478, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We identified factors associated with thromboembolic and bleeding events in two contemporary cohorts of anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), treated with either vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre observational study. SETTING: 461 centres in seven European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 5310 patients receiving a VKA (PREvention oF thromboembolic events - European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation (PREFER in AF), derivation cohort) and 3156 patients receiving a NOAC (PREFER in AF Prolongation, validation cohort) for stroke prevention in AF. OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors for thromboembolic events (ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism) and major bleeding (gastrointestinal bleeding, intracerebral haemorrhage and other life-threatening bleeding). RESULTS: The mean age of patients enrolled in the PREFER in AF registry was 72±10 years, 40% were female and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 3.5±1.7. The incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events was 2.34% (95% CI 1.93% to 2.74%) and 2.84% (95% CI 2.41% to 3.33%) after 1-year of follow-up, respectively.Abnormal liver function, prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack, labile international normalised ratio (INR), concomitant therapy with antiplatelet or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heart failure and older age (≥75 years) were independently associated with both thromboembolic and major bleeding events.With the exception of unstable INR values, these risk factors were validated in patients treated with NOACs (PREFER in AF Prolongation Study, 72±9 years, 40% female, CHA2DS2-VASc 3.3±1.6). For each single point decrease on a modifiable bleeding risk scale we observed a 30% lower risk for major bleeding events (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.76, p<0.01) and a 28% lower rate of thromboembolic events (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.82, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Attending to modifiable risk factors is an important treatment target in anticoagulated AF patients to reduce thromboembolic and bleeding events. Initiation of anticoagulation in those at risk of stroke should not be prevented by elevated bleeding risk scores.

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