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Nano Lett ; 21(21): 8970-8978, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676752


We report the observation of an anomalous nonlinear optical response of the prototypical three-dimensional topological insulator bismuth selenide through the process of high-order harmonic generation. We find that the generation efficiency increases as the laser polarization is changed from linear to elliptical, and it becomes maximum for circular polarization. With the aid of a microscopic theory and a detailed analysis of the measured spectra, we reveal that such anomalous enhancement encodes the characteristic topology of the band structure that originates from the interplay of strong spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry protection. The implications are in ultrafast probing of topological phase transitions, light-field driven dissipationless electronics, and quantum computation.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 123907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972440


In photoelectron spectroscopy, the measured electron momentum range is intrinsically related to the excitation photon energy. Low photon energies <10 eV are commonly encountered in laser-based photoemission and lead to a momentum range that is smaller than the Brillouin zones of most materials. This can become a limiting factor when studying condensed matter with laser-based photoemission. An additional restriction is introduced by widely used hemispherical analyzers that record only electrons photoemitted in a solid angle set by the aperture size at the analyzer entrance. Here, we present an upgrade to increase the effective solid angle that is measured with a hemispherical analyzer. We achieve this by accelerating the photoelectrons toward the analyzer with an electric field that is generated by a bias voltage on the sample. Our experimental geometry is comparable to a parallel plate capacitor, and therefore, we approximate the electric field to be uniform along the photoelectron trajectory. With this assumption, we developed an analytic, parameter-free model that relates the measured angles to the electron momenta in the solid and verify its validity by comparing with experimental results on the charge density wave material TbTe3. By providing a larger field of view in momentum space, our approach using a bias potential considerably expands the flexibility of laser-based photoemission setups.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(1): 011301, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827301


We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10(12) photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å(-1), respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å(-1), granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

Nano Lett ; 15(6): 4150-4, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027951


Ultrathin FeSe films grown on SrTiO3 substrates are a recent milestone in atomic material engineering due to their important role in understanding unconventional superconductivity in Fe-based materials. By using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, we study phonon frequencies in ultrathin FeSe/SrTiO3 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. After optical excitation, we observe periodic modulations of the photoelectron spectrum as a function of pump-probe delay for 1-unit-cell, 3-unit-cell, and 60-unit-cell thick FeSe films. The frequencies of the coherent intensity oscillations increase from 5.00 ± 0.02 to 5.25 ± 0.02 THz with increasing film thickness. By comparing with previous works, we attribute this mode to the Se A1g phonon. The dominant mechanism for the phonon softening in 1-unit-cell thick FeSe films is a substrate-induced lattice strain. Our results demonstrate an abrupt phonon renormalization due to a lattice mismatch between the ultrathin film and the substrate.