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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 140, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is based on a combination of clinical symptomatology, compatible chest imaging findings, evidence of Aspergillus infection and exclusion of alternative diagnosis, all occurring for more than 3 months. Recently, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific point-of-care lateral flow device (LFD) has been introduced for the detection of Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G, especially in resource-limited settings where CPA is underdiagnosed and often misdiagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Therefore, in our setting, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic, exclusion of PTB is an important first step to the diagnosis of CPA. We used the recently published CPA diagnostic criteria for resource-limited settings to identify patients with CPA in our center. CASE PRESENTATION: Three Ugandan women (45/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative, 53/HIV infected and 18/HIV negative), with a longstanding history of cough, chest pain, weight loss and constitutional symptoms, were clinically and radiologically diagnosed with PTB and empirically treated with an anti-tuberculous regimen despite negative microbiological tests. Repeat sputum Mycobacteria GeneXpert assays were negative for all three patients. On further evaluation, all three patients met the CPA diagnostic criteria with demonstrable thick-walled cavities and fungal balls (aspergilomas) on chest imaging and positive Aspergillus-specific IgG/IgM antibody tests. After CPA diagnosis, anti-TB drugs were safely discontinued for all patients, and they were initiated on capsules of itraconazole 200 mg twice daily with good treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of simple clinical diagnostic criteria for CPA and a LFD have the potential to reduce misdiagnosis of CPA and in turn improve treatment outcomes in resource-limited settings.

2.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(6): 100130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612738

RESUMO

Background: The burden of asthma in Africa is high, and yet the disease is not universally prioritised. Data on allergic asthma and its impact on asthma morbidity are limited in Africa. Our aim was to describe the distribution of skin prick positivity among asthmatics in Eastern Africa. Methods: From August 2016 to May 2018, 1671 asthmatic patients were enrolled from Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia as part of the African Severe Asthma Program clinical study. Skin prick testing was performed at baseline using a panel of 12 allergens, and factors associated with skin prick reactivity determined. Results: Of the 1, 671 patients recruited, 71% were female with a median age of 40 years, 93.6% were aged >15 years and the patterns of asthma symptom frequency was intermittent in 2.9%, mild persistent in 19.9%, moderate persistent in 42.6% and severe persistent in 34.6% at baseline. Self-reported triggers, were dust (92%), cold weather (89%), upper respiratory infections (84%), strong smells (79%) and exposure to tobacco (78%). The majority (90%) of the participants had at least 1 positive allergen reaction, with 0.9% participants reacting to all the 12 allergens. Participants commonly reacted to house dust mites (66%), Blomia tropicalis (62%), and the German cockroach (52%). Patients sensitized to more allergens (>2) had significantly reduced lung function (FEV ≤ 80%; p = 0.001) and were more likely to visit the emergency department due to asthma (p = 0.012). There was no significant relationship between number of allergens and measures of asthma control, quality of life, and other clinical outcomes. Only the country of origin was independently associated with atopy among African asthmatics. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of skin prick positivity among East African patients with asthma, with the commonest allergen being house dust mite. Skin reactivity did not correlate well with asthma severity and poor asthma control. The relation between atopy, measured through skin prick testing, and measures of asthma control among asthma patients in Eastern Africa is unclear and needs further study. Trial registration: The ASAP study was registered prospectively. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03065920; Registration date: February 28, 2017; Last verified: February 28, 2017.

3.
Health Educ Res ; 35(4): 258-269, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702133

RESUMO

More than 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries; however, few studies have examined the illness experiences of individuals living with and providing treatment for COPD in these settings. This study characterizes illness representations for COPD in Nakaseke, Uganda from the perspectives of health care providers, village health teams and community members (CMs) with COPD. We conducted 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (16 health care providers, 12 village health teams and 12 CMs, aged 25-80 years). Interviews were analyzed using inductive coding, and the Illness Representations Model guided our analysis. Stakeholder groups showed concordance in identifying causal mechanisms of COPD, but showed disagreement in reasons for care seeking behaviors and treatment preferences. CMs did not use a distinct label to differentiate COPD from other respiratory illnesses, and described both the physical and social consequences of COPD. Local representations can inform development of adapted educational and self-management tools for COPD.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 402, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Uganda, but there is little attention and capacity for management of chronic respiratory diseases in the health programmes. This survey assessed gaps in knowledge and skills among healthcare workers in managing respiratory illnesses. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among primary care health workers, specialist physicians and healthcare planners to assess gaps in knowledge and skills and, training needs in managing respiratory illnesses. The perspectives of patients with respiratory diseases were also sought. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient panel discussions and review of pre-service training curricula for clinicians and nurses. Survey Monkey was used to collect data and descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken for quantitative data, while thematic content analysis techniques were utilized to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 104 respondents participated in the survey and of these, 76.9% (80/104) were primary care health workers, 16.3% (17/104) specialist clinicians and 6.7% (7/104) healthcare planners. Over 90% of the respondents indicated that more than half of the patients in their clinics presented with respiratory symptoms. More than half (52%) of the primary care health workers were not comfortable in managing chronic respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD. Only 4% of them were comfortable performing procedures like pulse oximetry, nebulization, and interpreting x-rays. Majority (75%) of the primary care health workers had received in-service training but only 4% of the sessions focused on respiratory diseases. The pre-service training curricula included a wide scope of respiratory diseases, but the actual training had not sufficiently prepared health workers to manage respiratory diseases. The patients were unsatisfied with the care in primary care and reported that they were often treated for the wrong illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory illnesses contribute significantly to the burden of diseases in primary care facilities in Uganda. Management of patients with respiratory diseases remains a challenge partially because of inadequate knowledge and skills of the primary care health workers. A training programme to improve the competences of health workers in respiratory medicine is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Doenças Respiratórias , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
7.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 25: 22-24, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333999

RESUMO

Cor pulmonale is a rare complication of pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). A 45-year-old Ugandan male with a history of recurrent community-acquired pneumonias was admitted with symptoms of progressive difficulty in breathing, chronic productive cough, non-exertional left sided chest pain and progressive weight loss occurring over a 12-month period. Chest CT scan and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of CPA with an aspergilloma complicating bronchiectasis, complicated with cor pulmonale. However, this was previously clinically misdiagnosed as PTB.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216901, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining mycobacterial burden is important in assessing severity of disease, evaluating infectiousness and predicting patient treatment outcomes. Mycobacterial burden assessed by smear microscopy grade and time to culture positivity is clearly interpretable by most physicians. GeneXpert (Xpert) has been recommended by WHO as a first line tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test as an alternative to smear microscopy. Xpert gives cycle threshold (Ct) values as a potential measure for mycobacterial burden. For physicians to clearly interpret Ct values as measures of mycobacterial burden, this study compared the Xpert quantification capabilities with those of smear microscopy and culture. The study also determined a linear relationship between Xpert Ct values and MGIT culture time to positivity (MGIT-TTP) and associated factors. A cut off Ct value which best predicts smear positivity was also determined using the Receiver Operator Curve analysis method. RESULTS: Excluding missing results and rifampicin resistant TB cases, a moderately strong correlation of 0.55 between Xpert Ct value and smear grade was obtained. A weak correlation of 0.37 was obtained between Xpert Ct values and MGIT time to positivity while that between Xpert Ct values and LJ culture was 0.34. The Xpert Ct values were found to increase by 2.57 for every unit increase in days to positive and HIV status was significantly associated with this relationship. A cut off Ct value of 23.62 was found to best predict smear positivity regardless of HIV status. CONCLUSION: Our study findings show that GeneXpert Ct values are comparable to smear microscopy as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden and can be used to replace smear microscopy. However, given the low correlation between Xpert Ct value and culture positivity, Xpert Ct values cannot replace culture as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden among TB patients.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the neglected diseases in Africa with a high prevalence. Allergic fungal diseases have been reported to complicate asthma progression and treatment outcomes. However, data about fungal asthma and its associated complications are limited in Africa. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal asthma among adults and children in Africa using a systematic review. METHODS: We first engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) to highlight the trend in morbidity and mortality attributed to asthma in Africa. We then searched PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar for all studies of any design focusing on fungal asthma in any African country. Languages were restricted to English and French, but not year of publication. We estimated the weighted prevalence of allergic fungal infections among asthmatics with a 95% CI and pooled the results using a random effects model. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019117319. RESULTS: The IHME data showed that there has been a gradual increase in morbidity and mortality due to asthma in African adults with a prevalence of 4%. Our search retrieved 5233 citations. We retained 20 studies that met our selection criteria. These were from 13 African countries published between 1967 and 2018. There were eight cross-sectional studies and twelve review articles. The average asthma prevalence in Africa was 6% from these studies. The prevalence of fungal sensitisation was relatively high (3-52%) in the asthmatic population with an average of 28% and a pooled estimate of 23.3%, mostly due to Aspergillus species. Prevalence of Allergic bronchopulmonary apsergillosis was estimated at 1.6-21.2%. Diagnosis of fungal allergy was mostly made by skin prick tests. There was no data on the use of medication to manage fungal asthma. None of the studies evaluated the association between fungal allergy and asthma severity. Data were lacking in children. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of fungal sensitization among Africans with asthma. Fungal asthma is a significant problem in Africa but there remains a paucity of data on the epidemiology and associated complications. There is urgent need for national epidemiological studies to estimate the actual burden of fungal asthma in Africa.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Micoses/complicações , África/epidemiologia , Asma/microbiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Prognóstico
10.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 12, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028270

RESUMO

Approximately three billion individuals are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from the burning of biomass fuels worldwide. Household air pollution is responsible for 2.9 million annual deaths and causes significant health, economic and social consequences, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Although there is biological plausibility to draw an association between HAP exposure and respiratory diseases, existing evidence is either lacking or conflicting. We abstracted systematic reviews and meta-analyses for summaries available for common respiratory diseases in any age group and performed a literature search to complement these reviews with newly published studies. Based on the literature summarized in this review, HAP exposure has been associated with acute respiratory infections, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis, head and neck cancers, and lung cancer. No study, however, has established a causal link between HAP exposure and respiratory disease. Furthermore, few studies have controlled for tobacco smoke exposure and outdoor air pollution. More studies with consistent diagnostic criteria and exposure monitoring are needed to accurately document the association between household air pollution exposure and respiratory disease. Better environmental exposure monitoring is critical to better separate the contributions of household air pollution from that of other exposures, including ambient air pollution and tobacco smoking. Clinicians should be aware that patients with current or past HAP exposure are at increased risk for respiratory diseases or malignancies and may want to consider earlier screening in this population.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
11.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(1): 17-28, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775421

RESUMO

Introduction: Almost 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there are large rural populations and access to health care for COPD is poor. The purpose of this study was to compare urban-rural provider experiences regarding systemic facilitators and barriers to COPD management and treatment access. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using direct observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 and 10 health care providers in urban Kampala and rural Nakaseke, Uganda, respectively. We analyzed interviews by performing inductive coding using generated topical codes. Results: In both urban and rural districts, exposure to evidence-based practices for COPD diagnosis and treatment was limited. The biomedical definition of COPD is not well distinguished in rural communities and was commonly confused with asthma and other respiratory diseases. Urban and rural participants alike described low availability of medications, limited access to diagnostic tools, poor awareness of the disease, and lack of financial means for medical care as common barriers to seeking and receiving care for COPD. While there was greater access to COPD treatment in urban areas, rural populations faced more pronounced barriers in access to diagnostic equipment, following standard treatment guidelines, and training medical personnel in non-communicable disease (NCD) management and treatment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that health system challenges for the treatment of COPD may disproportionately affect rural areas in Uganda. Implementation of diagnostic and treatment guidelines and training health professionals in COPD, with a special emphasis on rural communities, will assist in addressing these barriers.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 227, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent large-scale population data on the prevalence of asthma and its risk factors are lacking in Uganda. This survey was conducted to address this data gap. METHODS: A general population based survey was conducted among people ≥12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect participants socio-demographics, respiratory symptoms, medical history, and known asthma risk factors. Participants who reported wheeze in the past 12 months, a physician diagnosis of asthma or current use of asthma medications were classified as having asthma. Asthmatics who were ≥ 35 years underwent spirometry to determine how many had fixed airflow obstruction (i.e. post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize participants' characteristics. Prevalence of asthma was calculated as a proportion of asthmatics over total survey population. To obtain factors independently associated with asthma, a random-effects model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: Of the 3416 participants surveyed, 61.2% (2088) were female, median age was 30 years (IQR, 20-45) and 323 were found to have asthma. Sixteen people with asthma ≥35 years had fixed airflow obstruction. The prevalence of asthma was 11.0% (95% CI:8.9-13.2; males 10.3%, females 11.4%, urban 13.0% and rural 8.9%. Significantly more people with asthma smoked than non-asthmatics: 14.2% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001, were exposed to biomass smoke: 28.0% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.001, had family history of asthma: 26.9% vs. 9.4%, p, < 0.001, had history of TB: 3.1% vs. 1.30%, p = 0.01, and had hypertension: 17.9% vs. 12.0%, p = 0. 003. In multivariate analysis smoking, (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26 (1.96-5.41, p < 0.001) family history of asthma, AOR 2.90 (98-4.22 p- < 0.001), nasal congestion, AOR 3.56 (2.51-5.06, p < 0.001), biomass smoke exposure, AOR 2.04 (1.29-3.21, p = 0.002) and urban residence, AOR 2.01(1.23-3.27, p = 0.005) were independently associated with asthma. CONCLUSION: Asthma is common in Uganda and is associated with smoking, biomass smoke exposure, urbanization, and allergic diseases. Health care systems should be strengthened to provide asthma care. Measures to reduce exposure to the identified associated factors are needed.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Biocombustíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486291

RESUMO

Air pollution is a major cause of sub-optimal lung function and lung diseases in childhood and adulthood. In this study we compared the lung function (measured by spirometry) of 537 Ugandan children, mean age 11.1 years in sites with high (Kampala and Jinja) and low (Buwenge) ambient air pollution levels, based on the concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5). Factors associated with lung function were explored in a multiple linear regression model. PM2.5 level in Kampala, Jinja and Buwenge were 177.5 µg/m³, 96.3 µg/m³ and 31.4 µg/m³ respectively (p = 0.0000). Respectively mean forced vital capacity as % of predicted (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second as % of predicted (FEV1%) and forced expiratory flow 25⁻75% as % of predicted (FEF25⁻75%) of children in high ambient air pollution sites (Kampala and Jinja) vs. those in the low ambient air pollution site (Buwenge subcounty) were: FVC% (101.4%, vs. 104.0%, p = 0.043), FEV1% (93.9% vs. 98.0, p = 0.001) and FEF25⁻75% (87.8 vs. 94.0, p = 0.002). The proportions of children whose %predicted parameters were less than 80% predicted (abnormal) were higher among children living in high ambient air pollution than those living in lower low ambient air pollutions areas with the exception of FVC%; high vs. low: FEV1 < 80%, %predicted (12.0% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.021) and FEF25⁻75 < 80%, %predicted (37.7% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.052) Factors associated with lung function were (coefficient, p-value): FVC% urban residence (-3.87, p = 0.004), current cough (-2.65, p = 0.048), underweight (-6.62, p = 0.000), and overweight (11.15, p = 0.000); FEV1% underweight (-6.54, p = 0.000) and FEF25⁻75% urban residence (-8.67, p = 0.030) and exposure to biomass smoke (-7.48, p = 0.027). Children in study sites with high ambient air pollution had lower lung function than those in sites with low ambient air pollution. Urban residence, underweight, exposure to biomass smoke and cough were associated with lower lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espirometria , Uganda , Urbanização
14.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 184, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and asthma are highly prevalent diseases in Africa but few studies have assessed the impact of HIV on asthma prevalence in high HIV burden settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare the prevalence of asthma among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and those without HIV participating in the Uganda National Asthma Survey (UNAS). METHODS: UNAS was a population-based survey of persons aged ≥12 years. Asthma was diagnosed based on either self-reported current wheeze concurrently or within the prior 12 months; physician diagnosis; or use of asthma medication. HIV was defined based on confidential self-report. We used Poisson regression with robust standard errors to estimate asthma prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR) for HIV and asthma. RESULTS: Of 3416 participants, 2067 (60.5%) knew their HIV status and 103 (5.0%) were PLHIV. Asthma prevalence was 15.5% among PLHIV and 9.1% among those without HIV, PR 1.72, (95%CI 1.07-2.75, p = 0.025). HIV modified the association of asthma with the following factors, PLHIV vs. not PLHIV: tobacco smoking (12% vs. 8%, p = < 0.001), biomass use (11% vs. 7%, p = < 0.001), allergy (17% vs. 11%, p = < 0.001), family history of asthma (17% vs. 11%, p = < 0.001), and prior TB treatment (15% vs. 10%, p = < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Uganda the prevalence of asthma is higher in PLHIV than in those without HIV, and HIV interacts synergistically with other known asthma risk factors. Additional studies should explore the mechanisms underlying these associations. Clinicians should consider asthma as a possible diagnosis in PLHIV presenting with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(4): e000745, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057796

RESUMO

Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease due to residual lung damage. Yet, the WHO End TB strategy does not mention post-TB chronic lung disorders (PTBLDs) and programmatic interventions to address PTBLD are lacking. This study assessed the scope of current guidelines and evidence on PTBLD to inform policy and research action. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Eight databases (TRIP, International Guideline Library, MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health, Cochrane Library) were searched for records on PTBLD published between 1 January 1990 and 1 December 2017. Non-English records, case series, conference abstracts and letters to editors were excluded. Data were extracted and charted on publication year, location, PTBLD condition(s) and main study outcome. Results: A total of 212 guidelines and 3661 articles were retrieved. After screening, only three international TB guidelines mentioned TB sequelae, but none described how to identify or manage the condition. A total of 156 articles addressed PTBLD: 54 (35%) mentioned unspecified TB sequelae; 47 (30%) specific post-TB conditions including aspergillosis, bronchial stenosis or bronchiectasis; 52 (33%) post-TB obstructive disorders or lung function impairment; and 20 (13%) post-TB respiratory symptoms or chest X-ray abnormalities. The first two groups mostly assessed surgery or ventilation techniques for patient management, while the last two groups typically assessed prevalence or predictors of disease. Conclusion: This is the first review to provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature on PTBLD. The scope of evidence around the burden of PTBLD warrants inclusion and recognition of the problem in international TB guidelines. Research is now needed on early detection of PTBLD and patient management options that are suitable for high-burden TB countries.

16.
Thorax ; 73(10): 983-985, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752346

RESUMO

Data on asthma treatment outcomes in Africa are limited. 449 patients with asthma (age 5-93 years) in Uganda were followed up for 2 years to determine rates of exacerbations and mortality and associated factors. During follow-up the median number of exacerbations per patient was 1 (IQR 0-5) and 17 patients died (3.7%, 27.3 deaths per 1000 person years). Considering only the first year of follow-up, 59.6% of the patients experienced at least one exacerbation, 32.4% experienced three or more exacerbations. A multivariable model showed that the likelihood of experiencing at least one exacerbation in the first year of follow-up was lower with better baseline asthma control (higher asthma control test (ACT) score), with OR 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82 to 0.93, P=0.000), and was higher with more exacerbations in the year prior to enrolment (OR for log number of exacerbations 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.57, P=0.018). Better asthma control (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.99, P=0.021) and number of baseline exacerbations (OR 1.35,95% CI: 1.11 to 1.66, P=0.005) were also the only factors that were independently associated with experiencing three or more exacerbations during the first year of follow-up. The only factor found to be associated with all-cause mortality was FEV1, with higher recent FEV1 associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65; P=0.002). Rates of asthma exacerbations and mortality are high in Uganda and are associated with poor asthma control. Health systems should be strengthened to care for asthma patients.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 12(3): 227-237, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness and public health planning. Programs for the management of COPD are poorly developed, and the quality of care is often of a low standard. Inhaled medication is often not available or not affordable. Tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for COPD. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, household air pollution is another major risk factor for the development of COPD. Communities are also exposed to a variety of other risk factors, such as low birth weight, malnutrition, severe childhood respiratory infections, occupational exposures, outdoor pollution, human-immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. All these factors contribute to the high burden of poor respiratory health in sub-Saharan Africa. Expert commentary: A silent growing epidemic of COPD seems to be unravelling. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs must involve all the stakeholders and start as early as possible. More research is needed to describe, define and inform treatment approaches, and natural history of biomass-related COPD.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pobreza , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 12: 3533-3539, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270007

RESUMO

Setting: The study was conducted at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Objective: As chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is a huge, growing burden in Africa, with few available treatments, we aimed to design and evaluate a culturally appropriate pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program in Uganda for people with post-tuberculosis lung disorder (p-TBLD). Design: In a pre-post intervention study, a 6-week, twice-weekly PR program was designed for people with p-TBLD. Outcome measures included recruitment, retention, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), tests of exercise capacity, and biometrics. Given this was a developmental study, no formal statistical significance testing was undertaken. Results: In all, 34 participants started PR and 29 (85%) completed all data collection. The mean age of the 29 participants was 45 years, and 52% were female. The mean (95% confidence interval) CCQ score at baseline was 1.8 (1.5, 2.0), at the end of PR was 1.0 (0.8, 1.2), and at 6 weeks after the end of PR was 0.8 (0.7, 1.0). The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) was 299 m (268.5, 329.4) at baseline, 377 (339.6, 413.8) at the end of PR, and 374 (334.2, 413.5) at 6 weeks after the end of PR. Improvements were seen in measures of chest pain; 13/29 (45%) participants reported chest pain at baseline but only 7/29 (24%) at the end of PR, and in those with persistent pain, the mean pain scores decreased. Mild hemoptysis was reported in 4/29 (17%) participants at baseline and in 2/29 (7%) at the end of PR. Conclusion: PR for people with p-TBLD in Uganda was feasible and associated with clinically important improvements in quality of life, exercise capacity, and respiratory outcomes. PR uses local resources, requires little investment, and offers a new, sustainable therapy for p-TBLD in resource-limited settings. With the rising global burden of CRD, further studies are needed to assess the value of PR in p-TBLD and other prevalent forms of CRD.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autocuidado/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Dor no Peito/reabilitação , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hemoptise/etiologia , Hemoptise/fisiopatologia , Hemoptise/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133756, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing World Health Organization diagnostic algorithms for smear-negative TB perform poorly in HIV-infected individuals. New TB diagnostics such as urine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) could improve the accuracy and reduce delays in TB diagnosis in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB. We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture-positivity among these patients. METHODS: This study was nested into a prospective evaluation of HIV-infected outpatients and inpatients clinically suspected to have TB who were screened by smear-microscopy on two spot sputum samples. Data on socio-demographics, clinical symptoms, antiretroviral therapy, CXR, CD4 count, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures and TB-LAM were collected. Logistic regression and conditional inference tree analysis were used to determine the most predictive indicators for MTB culture-positivity. RESULTS: Of the 418 smear-negative participants [female, 64%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years, median CD4 106 (IQR 22 - 298) cells/mm3], 96/418 (23%) were sputum and/ or blood culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Abnormal CXR (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 1.76- 7.71, p=0.001) and positive urine TB-LAM (aOR 6.21, 95% CI 3.14-12.27, p< 0.001) were significantly associated with MTB culture-positivity. Previous TB treatment (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, p=0.049) reduced the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. A conditional inference tree analysis showed that positive urine TB-LAM and abnormal CXR were the most predictive indicators of MTB culture-positivity. A combination of urine TB-LAM test and CXR had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 86.1% respectively overall, and 70.8% and 84.1% respectively among those with CD4<100 cells/mm3. CONCLUSIONS: A positive urine TB-LAM test and an abnormal CXR significantly predict MTB culture-positivity among smear-negative HIV-infected presumptive TB patients while previous TB treatment reduces the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. Validation studies to assess the performance of diagnostic algorithms that include urine TB-LAM in the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Técnicas de Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/urina , Uganda
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