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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 140, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is based on a combination of clinical symptomatology, compatible chest imaging findings, evidence of Aspergillus infection and exclusion of alternative diagnosis, all occurring for more than 3 months. Recently, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific point-of-care lateral flow device (LFD) has been introduced for the detection of Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G, especially in resource-limited settings where CPA is underdiagnosed and often misdiagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Therefore, in our setting, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic, exclusion of PTB is an important first step to the diagnosis of CPA. We used the recently published CPA diagnostic criteria for resource-limited settings to identify patients with CPA in our center. CASE PRESENTATION: Three Ugandan women (45/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative, 53/HIV infected and 18/HIV negative), with a longstanding history of cough, chest pain, weight loss and constitutional symptoms, were clinically and radiologically diagnosed with PTB and empirically treated with an anti-tuberculous regimen despite negative microbiological tests. Repeat sputum Mycobacteria GeneXpert assays were negative for all three patients. On further evaluation, all three patients met the CPA diagnostic criteria with demonstrable thick-walled cavities and fungal balls (aspergilomas) on chest imaging and positive Aspergillus-specific IgG/IgM antibody tests. After CPA diagnosis, anti-TB drugs were safely discontinued for all patients, and they were initiated on capsules of itraconazole 200 mg twice daily with good treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of simple clinical diagnostic criteria for CPA and a LFD have the potential to reduce misdiagnosis of CPA and in turn improve treatment outcomes in resource-limited settings.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 213, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death globally, with the majority of morbidity and mortality occurring in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. While tobacco-smoke exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income settings, household air pollution from biomass smoke combustion is a leading risk factor for COPD in LMICs. Despite the high burden of biomass smoke-related COPD, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in this context. Currently recommended inhaler-based therapy for COPD is neither available nor affordable in most resource-limited settings. Low-dose theophylline is an oral, once-a-day therapy, long used in high-income countries (HICs), which has been proposed for the management of COPD in LMICs in the absence of inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators. The Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD) trial investigates the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose theophylline for the management of biomass-related COPD in a low-income setting. METHODS: LODOT-BCOPD is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of low-dose theophylline in improving respiratory symptoms in 110 participants with moderate to severe COPD in Central Uganda. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) age 40 to 80 years, (2) full-time resident of the study area, (3) daily biomass exposure, (4) post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the 5th percentile of the Global Lung Initiative mixed ethnic reference population, and (5) GOLD Grade B-D COPD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive once daily low-dose theophylline (200 mg ER, Unicontin-E) or placebo for 52 weeks. All participants will receive education about self-management of COPD and rescue salbutamol inhalers. We will measure health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and every 6 months. In addition, we will assess household air pollution levels, serum inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, hs-CRP), and theophylline levels at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in SGRQ score at 12 months. Lastly, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the EQ-5D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT03984188 . Registered on June 12, 2019 TRIAL ACRONYM: Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD).

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data is lacking on outcomes among COPD patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients enrolled in the Uganda Registry for Asthma and COPD. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the Incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients in Uganda? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of COPD at six hospitals in Uganda were enrolled into the registry, and followed every six months. Mortality was ascertained through post-mortem reports and verbal autopsies. Mortality rates (MR), mortality rate ratios (MRR), and hazard ratios (HR) were computed to assess associations between socio-demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics at enrolment into the registry and mortality up to two years after. RESULTS: We enrolled 296 COPD patients. Median age was 60 years, and 51·3% were male. The overall mortality rate was 95·90 deaths/1000 person-years. COPD severity by post-bronchodilator FEV1 was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Compared to stage 1, adjusted hazard ratios were as follows for stage 4: 9·86 (95%CI: 1·70-57·14, p = 0·011), stage 3: 6·16 (95%CI: 1·25-30·32, p = 0·025), and stage 2: 1·76 (95%CI: 0·33-9·48, p = 0·51). Underweight patients had a higher incidence of mortality compared to normal weight patients (MRR: 3·47 (95%CI: 1·45-8·31, p = 0·0026). CONCLUSION: Among COPD patients in Uganda, two-year mortality is high, and disease severity at baseline was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Our findings suggest the need for early, accurate, diagnosis and management of COPD, to potentially improve survival.

4.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598392

RESUMO

Introduction: The association between HIV status and hypertension is not well described within sub-Saharan Africa. We examined prevalence and risk factors for hypertension among HIV positive and negative individuals living in a rural district of Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in two concurrent cohorts of 600 HIV negative and 721 HIV seropositive individuals aged ≥35 years. Results: Of the 721 HIV positive participants, 59.8% were women and the median age was 44.3 years, while for HIV negative individuals, 55% were women and the median age was 47.8 years. Over 90% of HIV positive individuals were on antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/≥90 mmHg) was 33.5% in HIV negative individuals and 23.9% in HIV positive individuals. Age (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) were associated with higher odds of hypertension. Having HIV was associated with lower odds of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), lower systolic blood pressure (-5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.4 to -2.4) and lower diastolic blood pressure (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.6 to -2.5). We did not observe differences in the odds of hypertension by CD4 count, viral load or ART among HIV positive individuals in this sample. Conclusions: Hypertension was prevalent in one third of HIV negative individuals and in one fourth of HIV positive patients. While access to health information among individuals attending HIV clinics may explain observed differences, more research is needed to understand plausible biological and social mechanisms that could explain lower blood pressure among people living with HIV in Uganda.

5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476252

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The majority of the morbidity and mortality related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the increasing burden of COPD, disease-specific knowledge among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in LMICs remains limited. COPD knowledge questionnaires are valid and reliable tools to assess COPD knowledge and can be employed in settings with limited health literacy. OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess validity and reliability of a COPD knowledge questionnaire among individuals with COPD in three LMIC settings. METHODS: Twelve questions were generated by an expert team of sixteen researchers, physicians, and public health professionals to create an LMIC-specific COPD knowledge questionnaire. Content was based on previous instruments, clinical guidelines, focus group discussions, and questionnaire piloting. Participants with COPD completed the questionnaire across three diverse LMIC settings before and three months after delivery of a standardized COPD specific education package by a local community health worker (CHW) trained to deliver the education to an appropriate standard. We utilized paired t-tests to assess improvement in knowledge post-intervention. RESULTS: Questionnaire development initially yielded 52 items. Based on community feedback and expertise, items were eliminated and added yielding a final 12-item questionnaire, with a maximum total score of 12. A total of 196 participants with COPD were included this study in Nepal (n=86), Peru (n=35) and Uganda (n=75). Mean (± SD) baseline score was 8.0 ± 2.5 and 3-months post-education the mean score was 10.2 ± 1.7 among participants. The CHW-led COPD educational intervention improved COPD knowledge among community members by 2.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6, t=10.9, p<0.001). Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. CONCLUSION: The LMIC COPD-KQ demonstrates face and content validity and acceptable internal consistency through development phases, suggesting a reliable and valid COPD education instrument that can be utilized to assess educational interventions across LMIC settings. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03365713).

6.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 33, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of public health interventions have been undertaken in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with household air pollution (HAP) due to cooking, heating and lighting with solid biomass fuels. Pregnant women and children under five are particularly vulnerable to the effects of HAP, due to biological susceptibility and typically higher exposure levels. However, the relative health benefits of interventions to reduce HAP exposure among these groups remain unclear. This systematic review aims to assess, among pregnant women, infants and children (under 5 years) in LMIC settings, the effectiveness of interventions which aim to reduce household air pollutant emissions due to household solid biomass fuel combustion, compared to usual cooking practices, in terms of health outcomes associated with HAP exposure. METHODS: This protocol follows standard systematic review processes and abides by the PRISMA-P reporting guidelines. Searches will be undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), The Global Index Medicus (GIM), ClinicalTrials.gov and Greenfile, combining terms for pregnant women and children with interventions or policy approaches to reduce HAP from biomass fuels or HAP terms and LMIC countries. Included studies will be those reporting (i) pregnant women and children under 5 years; (ii) fuel transition, structural, educational or policy interventions; and (iii) health events associated with HAP exposure which occur among pregnant women or among children within the perinatal period, infancy and up to 5 years of age. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken for each population-intervention-outcome triad stratified by study design. Clinical and methodological homogeneity within each triad will be used to determine the feasibility for undertaking meta-analyses to give a summary estimate of the effect for each outcome. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will identify the effectiveness of existing HAP intervention measures in LMIC contexts, with discussion on the context of implementation and adoption, and summarise current literature of relevance to maternal and child health. This assessment reflects the need for HAP interventions which achieve measurable health benefits, which would need to be supported by policies that are socially and economically acceptable in LMIC settings worldwide. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020164998.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041821, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293323

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over a third of the world's population relies on solid fuels as their primary energy source. These fuels have damaging effects on health, air quality and forest resources. Interventions to promote access to cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels have existed for decades. However, the adoption by local communities has largely failed, which led to a waste of resources and suboptimal outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this umbrella review is to identify factors that determine implementation success for cleaner cooking interventions in low-resource settings and weigh their level of confidence in the evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We identified systematic and narrative reviews examining factors that influence the acquisition, initial adoption or sustained use of cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels at any scale by a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Global Health Database, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Emcare, Web of Science and CINAHL, without date or language restrictions. The search was conducted on 23 October 2017 and updated on 10 July 2019. Reviews based on qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods studies were included and will be appraised using the Meta Quality Appraisal Tool combined with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. Data will be extracted and factors affecting implementation will be coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research tool will be used to determine the level of confidence in the coded factors. Two researchers will independently conduct these steps. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This umbrella review does not require the approval of an ethical review board. Study results will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal. The outcomes will be converted into two practical tools: one for cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and one for clean fuels. These tools can guide the development of evidence-based implementation strategies for cleaner cooking interventions in low-income and middle-income countries to improve implementation success. These tools should be pilot-tested and promoted among regional and global initiatives. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018088687.

10.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2769-2777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173289

RESUMO

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for >90% of deaths and illness episodes related to COPD; however, this condition is commonly underdiagnosed in these settings. Case-finding instruments for COPD may improve diagnosis and identify individuals that need treatment, but few have been validated in resource-limited settings. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Uganda to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a respiratory symptom, exposure and functional questionnaire in combination with peak expiratory flow for COPD diagnosis using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score below the 5th percentile as the gold standard. We included locally relevant exposure questions and statistical learning techniques to identify the most important risk factors for COPD. We used 80% of the data to develop the case-finding instrument and validated it in the remaining 20%. We evaluated for calibration and discrimination using standard approaches. The final score, COLA (COPD in LMICs Assessment), included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Results: We analyzed data from 1,173 participants (average age 47 years, 46.9% male, 4.5% with COPD) with acceptable and reproducible spirometry. The seven questions yielded a cross-validated area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75) with higher scores conferring greater odds of COPD. The inclusion of peak expiratory flow and age improved prediction in a validation sample (AUC=0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88) with a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The final instrument (COLA) included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Conclusion: COLA predicted COPD in urban and rural settings in Uganda has high calibration and discrimination, and could serve as a simple, low-cost screening tool in resource-limited settings.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy is an essential procedure for the evaluation and management of the pulmonary disease. However, this technology and related training is not available in many low-middle income countries (LMICs). We conducted a pilot training program for flexible bronchoscopy in Uganda. METHODS: A multimodal curriculum was developed with pulmonologists from Uganda and the United States. The training included an online distance learning management system for video content, simulation, just-in-time training, and deliberate practice via clinical proctoring. Procedural standards and a de novo bronchoscopy suite were concurrently developed. Competency was assessed using the Bronchoscopic Skills and Tasks Assessment Tool written examination and the Ontario Bronchoscopy Assessment Tool. RESULTS: We trained 3 pulmonary physicians with no prior experience in flexible bronchoscopy. Three bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage were performed during the training and an additional 11 cases were performed posttraining. All 3 Ugandan physicians had an increase in their written Bronchoscopic Skills and Tasks Assessment Tool and Ontario Bronchoscopy Assessment Tool in the competent range (P<0.05). All bronchoscopies were successfully completed, adequate samples were obtained, and there were no procedure-related complications. CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopy implementation in LMICs is feasible, but requires competency-based training. Further studies are needed to validate this curriculum in LMICs, including the use of this type of curriculum for more complicated bronchoscopic procedures.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(6): 100130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612738

RESUMO

Background: The burden of asthma in Africa is high, and yet the disease is not universally prioritised. Data on allergic asthma and its impact on asthma morbidity are limited in Africa. Our aim was to describe the distribution of skin prick positivity among asthmatics in Eastern Africa. Methods: From August 2016 to May 2018, 1671 asthmatic patients were enrolled from Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia as part of the African Severe Asthma Program clinical study. Skin prick testing was performed at baseline using a panel of 12 allergens, and factors associated with skin prick reactivity determined. Results: Of the 1, 671 patients recruited, 71% were female with a median age of 40 years, 93.6% were aged >15 years and the patterns of asthma symptom frequency was intermittent in 2.9%, mild persistent in 19.9%, moderate persistent in 42.6% and severe persistent in 34.6% at baseline. Self-reported triggers, were dust (92%), cold weather (89%), upper respiratory infections (84%), strong smells (79%) and exposure to tobacco (78%). The majority (90%) of the participants had at least 1 positive allergen reaction, with 0.9% participants reacting to all the 12 allergens. Participants commonly reacted to house dust mites (66%), Blomia tropicalis (62%), and the German cockroach (52%). Patients sensitized to more allergens (>2) had significantly reduced lung function (FEV ≤ 80%; p = 0.001) and were more likely to visit the emergency department due to asthma (p = 0.012). There was no significant relationship between number of allergens and measures of asthma control, quality of life, and other clinical outcomes. Only the country of origin was independently associated with atopy among African asthmatics. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of skin prick positivity among East African patients with asthma, with the commonest allergen being house dust mite. Skin reactivity did not correlate well with asthma severity and poor asthma control. The relation between atopy, measured through skin prick testing, and measures of asthma control among asthma patients in Eastern Africa is unclear and needs further study. Trial registration: The ASAP study was registered prospectively. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03065920; Registration date: February 28, 2017; Last verified: February 28, 2017.

15.
Health Educ Res ; 35(4): 258-269, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702133

RESUMO

More than 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries; however, few studies have examined the illness experiences of individuals living with and providing treatment for COPD in these settings. This study characterizes illness representations for COPD in Nakaseke, Uganda from the perspectives of health care providers, village health teams and community members (CMs) with COPD. We conducted 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (16 health care providers, 12 village health teams and 12 CMs, aged 25-80 years). Interviews were analyzed using inductive coding, and the Illness Representations Model guided our analysis. Stakeholder groups showed concordance in identifying causal mechanisms of COPD, but showed disagreement in reasons for care seeking behaviors and treatment preferences. CMs did not use a distinct label to differentiate COPD from other respiratory illnesses, and described both the physical and social consequences of COPD. Local representations can inform development of adapted educational and self-management tools for COPD.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512693

RESUMO

Background: Household air pollution associated with biomass (wood, dung, charcoal, and crop residue) burning for cooking is estimated to contribute to approximately 4 million deaths each year worldwide, with the greatest burden seen in low and middle-income countries. We investigated the relationship between solid fuel type and respiratory symptoms in Uganda, where 96% of households use biomass as the primary domestic fuel. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 15,405 pre-school aged children living in charcoal or wood-burning households in Uganda, using data from the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associations between occurrence of a cough, shortness of breath, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and severe ARI with cooking fuel type (wood, charcoal); with additional sub-analyses by contextual status (urban, rural). Results: After adjustment for household and individual level confounding factors, wood fuel use was associated with increased risk of shortness of breath (AOR: 1.33 [1.10-1.60]), fever (AOR: 1.26 [1.08-1.48]), cough (AOR: 1.15 [1.00-1.33]), ARI (AOR: 1.36 [1.11-1.66] and severe ARI (AOR: 1.41 [1.09-1.85]), compared to charcoal fuel. In urban areas, Shortness of breath (AOR: 1.84 [1.20-2.83]), ARI (AOR: 1.77 [1.10-2.79]) and in rural areas ARI (AOR: 1.23 [1.03-1.47]) and risk of fever (AOR: 1.23 [1.03-1.47]) were associated with wood fuel usage. Conclusions: Risk of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living in wood compared to charcoal fuel-burning households, with policy implications for mitigation of associated harmful health impacts.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Biomassa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culinária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 402, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Uganda, but there is little attention and capacity for management of chronic respiratory diseases in the health programmes. This survey assessed gaps in knowledge and skills among healthcare workers in managing respiratory illnesses. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among primary care health workers, specialist physicians and healthcare planners to assess gaps in knowledge and skills and, training needs in managing respiratory illnesses. The perspectives of patients with respiratory diseases were also sought. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient panel discussions and review of pre-service training curricula for clinicians and nurses. Survey Monkey was used to collect data and descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken for quantitative data, while thematic content analysis techniques were utilized to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 104 respondents participated in the survey and of these, 76.9% (80/104) were primary care health workers, 16.3% (17/104) specialist clinicians and 6.7% (7/104) healthcare planners. Over 90% of the respondents indicated that more than half of the patients in their clinics presented with respiratory symptoms. More than half (52%) of the primary care health workers were not comfortable in managing chronic respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD. Only 4% of them were comfortable performing procedures like pulse oximetry, nebulization, and interpreting x-rays. Majority (75%) of the primary care health workers had received in-service training but only 4% of the sessions focused on respiratory diseases. The pre-service training curricula included a wide scope of respiratory diseases, but the actual training had not sufficiently prepared health workers to manage respiratory diseases. The patients were unsatisfied with the care in primary care and reported that they were often treated for the wrong illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory illnesses contribute significantly to the burden of diseases in primary care facilities in Uganda. Management of patients with respiratory diseases remains a challenge partially because of inadequate knowledge and skills of the primary care health workers. A training programme to improve the competences of health workers in respiratory medicine is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Doenças Respiratórias , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
19.
COPD ; 17(3): 297-305, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462945

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa, COPD remains prevalent but its association with HIV is not well characterized especially in rural settings. We assessed for COPD prevalence, associated factors and lung function profile among HIV-infected individuals attending ART clinics in rural Nakaseke district of Uganda. We enrolled HIV-positive participants from four HIV treatment centers in rural Uganda. Participants underwent spirometry testing following standard guidelines. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile of the NHANES III African-American reference. We assessed for factors associated with COPD and lung function profiles using multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses. We analyzed data from 722 HIV-positive participants (mean age 48.0 years, 59.7% women). Over 90% of participants were on ART for a median duration of 4 years (IQR 2-7 years), with a median viral load of 0 copies/mL (IQR 0-0 copies/mL), current and baseline CD4 + T cell count of 478 cells/mm3 (IQR 346-663 cells/mm3) and 335 cells/mm3 (IQR 187-523 cells/mm3) respectively. The prevalence of COPD was 6.22%. COPD was associated with worse respiratory symptoms and health status. History of pulmonary tuberculosis was strongly associated with COPD (adjusted OR = 4.92, 95% CI 1.71 to 14.15, p = 0.003) and reduced lung function. Use of ART, CD4+T cell count and viral load were not associated with COPD or reduced lung function. In conclusion, we report a COPD prevalence of 6.22% in HIV-infected individuals in rural Uganda. Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the strongest predictor of COPD risk and reduced lung function in well-controlled HIV.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341109

RESUMO

The vast majority of patients with chronic respiratory disease live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Paradoxically, relevant interventions often fail to be effective particularly in these settings, as LMICs lack solid evidence on how to implement interventions successfully. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors critical to the implementation of lung health interventions in LMICs, and weigh their level of evidence.This systematic review followed Cochrane methodology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting standards. We searched eight databases without date or language restrictions in July 2019, and included all relevant original, peer-reviewed articles. Two researchers independently selected articles, critically appraised them (using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)/Meta Quality Appraisal Tool (MetaQAT)), extracted data, coded factors (following the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)), and assigned levels of confidence in the factors (via Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (GRADE-CERQual)). We meta-synthesised levels of evidence of the factors based on their frequency and the assigned level of confidence (PROSPERO:CRD42018088687).We included 37 articles out of 9111 screened. Studies were performed across the globe in a broad range of settings. Factors identified with a high level of evidence were: 1) "Understanding needs of local users"; 2) ensuring "Compatibility" of interventions with local contexts (cultures, infrastructures); 3) identifying influential stakeholders and applying "Engagement" strategies; 4) ensuring adequate "Access to knowledge and information"; and 5) addressing "Resource availability". All implementation factors and their level of evidence were synthesised in an implementation tool.To conclude, this study identified implementation factors for lung health interventions in LMICs, weighed their level of evidence, and integrated the results into an implementation tool for practice. Policymakers, non-governmental organisations, practitioners, and researchers may use this FRESH AIR (Free Respiratory Evaluation and Smoke-exposure reduction by primary Health cAre Integrated gRoups) Implementation tool to develop evidence-based implementation strategies for related interventions. This could increase interventions' implementation success, thereby optimising the use of already-scarce resources and improving health outcomes.

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