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1.
Resour Policy ; 74: 102338, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518720

RESUMO

Volatility in the prices of natural resources particularly in the Covid-19 period is the subject of major concern in recent times. Although many studies have empirically investigated the influence of oil prices on economic growth and Covid-19 on oil prices. However, the current study contributes to the literature by investigating the causal linkage of natural resources commodity prices and economic growth in the pre and post Covid-19 period for China over the period from January 01, 2019, to April 01, 2021. This study employed the wavelet power spectrum, and the wavelet coherence approaches, and the frequency domain causality test, which is known for the causal identification in the long-run, medium-run, and short-run. The empirical findings reveal that the natural resource commodity prices are more vulnerable than the economic performance particularly in the Covid-19 peak period in China. However, the wavelet coherence approach demonstrates that a bidirectional causal association exists between natural resources commodity prices and economic performance at different frequencies and time periods. Additionally, the frequency domain causality test confirms that the natural resource commodity prices volatility significantly causes economic performance only in the medium-run. Based on the empirical findings, this study recommends that innovative technological and precautionary measures must be taken to accommodate or overcome natural disasters in the future, and tackle natural resources commodity prices volatility.

2.
Int J Energy Res ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518726

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has made a significant disruption in the renewable industry, and the effects will last longer. In this context, understanding how and which specific renewable power got affected due to this crisis is of crucial importance. This study examines the nexus between COVID-19 and Sweden's renewable electricity production from three sources of energy such as nuclear, solar, and wind, where the data ranges from January 1, 2019, to February 17, 2021. Since this study compares the period before and during the pandemic event, the study uses Air Quality Index as a measure of COVID-19 induced event and thus study the linkage between air quality and electricity production from three types of renewable energy. To analyse the above issue, several advanced techniques such as Wavelet Power Spectrum, Wavelet Coherence, Partial and Multiple Wavelet Coherence have been applied. The findings from the Wavelet Coherence approach demonstrate that COVID-19 has disrupted the linkage between wind energy generation and air quality, while the disruption in the case of solar and nuclear electricity generation has been minimal. Moreover, solar energy generation and air pollution both negatively affect each other, implying the need to generate solar power as well as reduce the level of air pollution in Sweden. In light of the above findings, the study discusses possible policy actions the country can take to fulfil its renewable development goals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469047

RESUMO

Although numerous studies in the literature have been conducted to model CO2 emissions, there is a lack of empirical knowledge of consumption-based CO2 emissions, which are adjusted for international trade, specifically. Therefore, the present study aims to close this gap in the literature in the case of Italy, while capturing the asymmetric effect of trade, renewable energy, and economic growth on consumption-based CO2 emissions. The present study uses the Gregory-Hansen test for cointegration with regime shifts, Markov switching regression, nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL), and frequency domain causality test. The study's outcomes reveal that (1) the asymmetric effect of import on consumption-based CO2 emissions is positive, implying that rising import is associated with declining consumption-based environmental quality; (2) export, renewable consumption, and economic growth reduce consumption-based CO2 emissions in Italy. Moreover, these outcomes are supported by the outcomes of the frequency domain causality test. These innovative insights may prompt policy-makers to implement eco-friendly methods, such as renewable energy distribution and environmental innovation, to achieve a greener future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021;00:1-12. © 2021 SETAC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510351

RESUMO

The present study assesses the effect of public-private partnerships in energy and financial development on Brazil's ecological footprint and also takes into account the role of renewable energy and economic growth using data spanning from 1983 to 2017. The study utilized several techniques including autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) to examine the relationship between ecological footprint and the determinants, while the gradual shift causality test was utilized to capture the causal linkage between the series in the presence of a single structural break. The outcomes of the Maki co-integration test revealed evidence of a long-run association among the variables of interest. Furthermore, the results of the ARDL and DOLS tests revealed that economic growth and public and private investment in energy increase environmental degradation, while it is mitigated by both renewable energy and financial development. Moreover, the gradual shift causality test revealed a bidirectional causal linkage between ecological footprint and economic growth. The present study recommends the establishment of a forum that will foster public and private partnerships to enhance communication, which will promote collaboration on new initiatives involving green technological innovations.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113335, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375227

RESUMO

During the last few decades, China's transformation from a low-income country to an emerging economy causes carbon emission to rise extensively. Being the largest carbon emitter, China's continuous economic growth may inevitably cause more carbon emissions in the future. To achieve carbon neutrality targets, the country is striving to promote cleaner technologies. However, to finance these environmentally friendly projects, a well-developed financial system is a pre-requisite. This study examines the role of financial development along with output, financial risk index, renewable energy electricity and human capital on carbon emissions. This study uses updated time series data from 1988 to 2018 for China employing novel econometric approaches, i.e., Narayan and Pop unit root test with structural breaks, Maki cointegration and frequency domain causality test for long, short and medium run causality. The empirical outcome shows that improvement in financial development, renewable energy electricity, and human capital index cause to limit carbon emissions. In contrast, gross domestic product, financial risk index and structural break of 2001 increase carbon emissions. Moreover, structural break year of 2008 and financial development index reduces carbon emissions. The negative association between financial development and carbon emissions supports the positive school of thoughts of financial development that promotes a sustainable environment. This study recommends the promotion of quality human capital and green financial development along with increasing the shares of renewable energy in electricity for achieving China 2030 climate targets of reducing pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Humanos , Energia Renovável
6.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113419, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378543

RESUMO

Since climate change mitigation is the central debate of modern literature, the realization of carbon neutrality in response to diversified macroeconomic variables is the most crucial concern of international economies. However, the critical role of trade and renewable electricity output in export diversification-environmental nexus is missing. Therefore, this study investigates the combined influence of trade openness, exports diversification, and renewable electricity output on carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in China from 1989 through 2019. Applying novel time series econometric techniques robust to structural breaks, following new outcomes are obtained. Firstly, long-run equilibrium cointegration existed among the under-analysis variables. Secondly, export diversification and renewable electricity output are predicted to decelerate CO2, supporting carbon neutrality in the long run. Thirdly, trade openness and gross domestic product accelerated the CO2, delaying carbon neutrality accomplishment. Most importantly, significant structural break dummy interacting with trade openness implicated that during the post-2001 era, China's trade openness extensively deteriorated the environmental quality in the face of trade liberalization obtained after joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). Based on empirical results, export diversification and renewable electricity production policies should be mutually non-exclusive and closely coordinated. Further, to counter the carbon emission acceleration impact of trade openness, increasing the share of green tradable products is suggested. Finally, bilateral trade restructuring is recommended to realize the long-term dream of economic sustainability and carbon neutrality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Eletricidade , Produto Interno Bruto , Energia Renovável
7.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113464, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385111

RESUMO

Carbon neutrality target is of great importance to all countries around the globe recently. Innovative methods are being evaluated to achieve the environmental sustainability. In this study, we aim to inspect the influence of public-private partnership in energy and energy efficiency on CO2 emissions in China from 1991Q1 to 2017Q4. In doing so, we include other important determinants of CO2 emissions also, such as environmental innovation, renewable energy, energy productivity and economic growth in our model. We employ the advanced cointegration methods that are developed recently. Moreover, spectral Breitung and Candelon (BC) causality test is used to find the causal effects of technological innovation, energy productivity, public-private partnership in energy, renewable energy consumption and GDP on CO2 emissions. The results suggest that increase in income and public-private partnership enhance carbon emission in China. Conversely, an improvement in energy productivity, renewable energy and technological innovation exert negative influence over CO2 emissions. There is a need to improve the efficiency of public-private partnership in energy projects in terms of carbon emission. Policymakers in China need to ensure an effective and timely transition towards renewable energy sources through environment related innovations and improved efficiency in all sources of energy.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável
8.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113463, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426223

RESUMO

The current research assesses the impact of political risk on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil while controlling the role of financial development, GDP growth, trade openness, and technological innovation. In doing so, the quarterly dataset from 1990 to 2018 is utilized with Bayer and Hanck cointegration, dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) and canonical correlation regression (CCR), and frequency-domain causality tests. The cointegration test revealed a long-run association amongst the variables of interest. Furthermore, the outcomes from the DOLS and CCR revealed that increasing financial development, technological innovation, trade openness, and real growth increase CO2 emissions while a better political environment reduces environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Condições Sociais
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396480

RESUMO

In recent years, many empirical studies investigated the effects of globalization on the ecological footprint (EF). Most of these studies relied on the KOF index of globalization and studied the effects of total globalization and disaggregated impacts of economic, social, and political globalization on the EF. However, less attention has been given to financial globalization which can also influence the EF. Hence, this study investigates the association between financial globalization (FG), economic growth (GDP), and EF controlling population density (PD) in the selected West Asian and the Middle East (WAME) nations from 1990 to 2017. The study relied upon second-generation methods for checking stationary properties and Westerlund and other techniques to scrutinize cointegration. The evidence showed cointegration in the model. The long-run approximations from continuously updated fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated bias corrected (CUP-BC) tests divulge that financial globalization is an important factor to promote ecological sustainability in the sample countries because it decreases EF. Population density exacerbates EF and worsens environmental deterioration in sample countries. The study detected the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) between EF and economic growth in the presence of financial globalization and population density. Besides, financial globalization Granger causes EF, while the feedback effect exists between EF and economic growth. Based on these results, WAME economies can accomplish ecological sustainability and sustainable development by enhancing their financial globalization levels.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389954

RESUMO

To tackle the issue of climate change and environmental degradation debates regarding carbon neutrality is on the rise. Regional Comprehensive Economic Cooperation (RCEP), the leading trading union, covers nearly third of global economy, world population, is responsible for thirty percent of global trade and global gross domestic product. The existent study tests the impact of financial, economic, political, and composite risk on consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions (CCO2) in selected RCEP economies during the period of 1990 to 2020. The empirical analysis consists of cross-sectional dependence, slope heterogeneity, cross-sectional augmented panel unit root test, Westerlund cointegration, second-generation cross-section augmented autoregressive distributed lags model (CS-ARDL), and panel causality test. Further, we explore the role of imports, renewable energy supply, exports, and gross domestic product per-capita on CCO2. The empirical results suggest that the less political risk help to mitigate while the lower financial, economic, and composite risk increase CCO2 emissions in selected RCEP economies. Moreover, exports and renewable energy supply show mitigating effect, whereas imports show upsurge in CCO2. Additionally, a bidirectional causality exists between exports and CCO2, imports and CCO2, GDP per-capita and CCO2, political risk and CCO2, and renewable energy and CCO2 emissions, while a one-way causality from financial risk, composite risk, and economic risk to CCO2. Renewable energy supplies along with the improvement in sub-components of political risk, for instance, corruption, government stability, would help to effectively tackle the issue of CCO2 emissions.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414541

RESUMO

Environmental degradation stemming from the combustion of conventional energy sources is not only a major factor behind climate change but it also poses an adverse impact on human health. Undoubtedly, fossil fuels are major drivers of economic growth; however, their detrimental environmental impacts are of global concern. In the literature, there is no comprehensive empirical evidence on the linkage between the use of different energy sources and carbon dioxide emissions in the context of Russia, a nation that is ranked third in the list of the top carbon dioxide-emitting global countries. Hence, this paper aims to scrutinize the relationships between oil consumption, natural gas consumption, coal consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions controlling economic growth for Russia over the 1990-2016 period. The findings from the econometric analysis indicate that carbon dioxide emissions in Russia have long-run associations with economic growth and consumption of oil, gas, and coal. The long-run elasticity estimates reveal that economic growth is not directly harming Russia's environmental quality. However, higher oil, gas, and coal consumption degrades environmental quality by boosting the level of carbon dioxide emissions in Russia. In addition, the results from the Granger causality analysis confirm the existence of both long and short-term causal connections among the variables of concern. In line with these findings, several policy recommendations to address the environmental challenges in Russia are put forward.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113119, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216897

RESUMO

To achieve zero carbon or achieving carbon neutrality target is of great importance to many countries around the globe especially post Paris climate agreement. This study, unlike previous studies, evaluates the role of environmental policy, green innovation, composite risk index, and renewable energy R&D in achieving carbon neutrality targets for G7 economies from 1990 to 2019. The results confirmed the validity of the EKC hypothesis for G7 economies. Further, the result shows that environmental policy, green innovation, composite risk index, and renewable energy R&D help control carbon emissions. In contrast, income reveals a positive influence on environmental degradation. Furthermore, bidirectional causality has been reported in environmental policy, composite risk index, green innovation, and the CO2 emissions, while unidirectional causality running from GDP and renewable energy R&D to CO2 emissions. Based on the empirical findings, it is suggested that environmental policies should be strengthened, promote green innovation and renewable energy research and development expenditures, and political stability and institutional quality must be stabilized to lowers sectoral risks that would help a sustainable environment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Energia Renovável
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(41): 58787-58798, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120287

RESUMO

The importance of environmental sustainability to all human aspects has been spiking as the world keeps evolving. Economies around the world are on the move to ensure sustainable economic development and a clean atmosphere through the use of renewable energy sources. Since the end of the nineteenth century, it is recognized that a global mean sea level rise speed about 1.7 ± 0.2 mm/year, but the rate has increased to 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/year. In this study, we investigated the dynamic linkage between average temperature and sea level within the global framework covering 1881 to 2013. The paper employs wavelet analysis to investigate the short-term and long-run causal links between global average temperature anomalies and global sea level. In this respect, our findings indicate that (i) a significant vulnerability in global average temperature and sea level is observed over the selected study period; (ii) global average temperature has considerable power for predicting sea level, particularly in the long-term. The causality test revealed a bi-directional causal relationship between global average temperature and sea level and unidirectional flow from global average temperature to sea level. And the study confirms the "conservation hypothesis," and it has long-run implications for environmental quality. Thus, minimizing global average temperature anomalies is a decisive ingredient for minimizing sea level rise. Based on these outcomes, both developed and developing countries' policymakers should support the Paris agreement (COP21) agreement to control CO2 emissions growth. Policymakers should encourage the usage of environmentally friendly energy sources that will enhance environmental quality and hold the increase in global average temperature below 1.5 °C.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 113043, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126532

RESUMO

Since the Paris Agreement, countries around the globe have been striving to achieve their carbon neutrality targets. However, because China has one of the largest economies in the world, to achieve its targeted carbon neutrality, the roles of foreign direct investment (FDI), technological innovation (TI), and trade are crucial. Therefore, this study aims to introduce the level of trade, renewable energy consumption (REC), and FDI from the years 1995-2017 as new determinants in promoting a sustainable environment in China. The study employs advanced panel methods based on slope homogeneity and a cross-sectional dependence test. The results confirm a cointegration relationship for all models in this study, suggesting that gross domestic product and FDI positively affect carbon emissions. By contrast, foreign trade, REC, and TI are inversely associated with carbon emissions. Moreover, according to Chinese provincial data, the joint term for FDI with REC and TI is negatively associated with carbon emissions. The policy implications of this study suggest that to achieve sustainable FDI, TI should be encouraged to mitigate the pollution caused by FDI. There is a dire need to implement green practices and eco-friendly policies at a national scale.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Estudos Transversais , Investimentos em Saúde , Paris
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170468

RESUMO

The literature analyzing the ecological impacts of financial development (FD) documents mixed results. In addition, very limited researches consider the role of technological innovation in ecological sustainability even though technological innovation is indispensable to achieve technological advancement, which may help in sustainable development and ecological sustainability. Therefore, this work probes the effects of technological innovation, financial development, and economic growth (GDP) on the ecological footprint (EF) controlling urbanization and employing a STIRPAT framework. The analysis of data from West Asia and Middle East nations from 1990 to 2017 revealed cointegration in the model. The long-run coefficients produced by the continuously updated fully modified technique revealed that a 1% upsurge in technological innovation decreases EF by 0.010%. Interestingly, technological innovation is helpful to decrease EF and enhance economic growth in the West Asia and Middle East (WAME) countries. However, a 1% rise in FD boosts the level of EF by 0.0016% inferring that FD stimulates ecological degradation. Likewise, urbanization in the WAME countries raises EF levels and contributes adversely to ecological quality. In addition to this, the study revealed the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the selected countries accounting for technological innovation, FD, and urbanization in the model. The causal analysis provided evidence of unidirectional causality from FD to EF and bidirectional causality between technological innovation and EF. The study recommends more investment in research and development and strong collaboration between the universities and industries to promote the level of technological innovation for both sustainable development and ecological sustainability. In addition, urban sustainability policies are necessary without decreasing the urbanization level.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 52272-52282, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003441

RESUMO

This research investigates the drivers of consumption-based carbon emissions in Brazil by using a dataset covering the period between 1990 and 2018. These dynamics were examined by employing the ARDL bounds, DOLS, and gradual shift causality tests. The ARDL long- and short-run estimation outcomes reveal that: (a) renewable energy use stimulates the sustainability of the environment; (b) economic growth increases environmental degradation; and (c) technological innovation enhances the quality of the environment. In addition, the gradual shift causality test results disclosed that renewable energy consumption, economic growth, technological innovation and public-private partnership investment in energy can predict consumption-based carbon emissions in Brazil. Therefore, Brazilian policymakers should actively encourage the R&D of low-carbon technologies and renewable energy consumption. Domestic consumption levels, on the other hand, should be targeted, specifically those that are more energy-intensive and cause a rise in CO2 emissions due to consumption.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Invenções , Energia Renovável
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(35): 49179-49190, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932218

RESUMO

This study provides new insight by introducing the role of fiscal decentralization and natural resources rent in affecting CO2 emissions. For assessing this objective, this paper use panel data from seven highly fiscal decentralized Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1990 to 2018. For empirical analysis, we use the Westerlund test and cross-sectional autoregressive distributive lag model. In order to ascertain the integration order of variables, the study utilizes the Pesaran second-generation unit-root test. The findings reveal that all the variables are stationary at first difference. The long-run results confirm that fiscal decentralization and natural resources rent improve the atmosphere by reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, gross domestic product and total natural resources rent increase, while improvement in institutional quality reduces CO2 emissions. For policy implication, this study recommends that transferring the power to the local governments will further reduce CO2 emissions and shift these countries to more environmentally friendly sources.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Recursos Naturais , Política
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(35): 47942-47956, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895956

RESUMO

To minimize the awful situation confronting the entire globe, the global warming danger has raised the intensity of consciousness from all areas of life. Therefore, the research assesses the impact of CO2 emissions and energy use on economic performance and considers trade openness, urbanization, and agriculture in Indonesia utilizing data covering the period from 1965 to 2019. The current research employed the dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) tests to capture the long-run association between these economic indicators. Furthermore, the gradual shift and wavelet coherence tests are utilized to capture the direction of causality. The ARDL bound test discloses a long-run interconnection among the variables of interest. The outcomes of the ARDL and DOLS depict that CO2 emissions, agriculture, energy use, and urbanization trigger economic growth. Moreover, the wavelet coherence test findings revealed a positive correlation between economic growth and urbanization, CO2 emissions, agriculture, and energy consumption. Furthermore, there is evidence of a weak and positive correlation between economic growth and trade openness. The gradual shift causality test outcomes disclosed that economic growth can predict urbanization and energy consumption, while agriculture can predict economic growth. These outcomes have far-reaching significance for economic growth and the selected variables in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Indonésia , Urbanização
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43908-43922, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840031

RESUMO

In recent years, a growing number of scholars have employed various proxies of environmental degradation to understand the reasons behind rising environmental degradation. However, very few studies have considered consumption-based carbon emissions, even though a clear understanding of the impact of consumption patterns is essential for redirecting the pattern to more sustainable consumption. Thus, this study takes a step forward by using consumption-based carbon emissions (CCO2) as a proxy of environmental degradation using the novel non-linear ARDL technique for Chilefrom 1990 to 2018. To the best understanding of the investigators, no prior studies have investigated the drivers of consumption-based carbon emissions utilizing non-linear ARDL. The study employed ADF and KSS (non-linear) tests to check the data series' stationary level. Additionally, the symmetric and asymmetric ARDL approaches are utilized to explore cointegration and long-run linkages. According to the results, there is no symmetric cointegration among the variables; however, the empirical estimates reveal a long-run asymmetric connection between the indicators and CCO2 emissions. The novel results from the asymmetric ARDL indicate that negative and positive changes in economic growth deteriorate the quality of the environment. Interestingly, a reduction in economic growth makes a more dominant contribution to environmental degradation. Moreover, positive changes in renewable energy usage improve the quality of Chile's environment, inferring that the country can achieve a reduction in environmental degradation by boosting renewable energy consumption. Surprisingly, the study found that technological innovation is ineffective in reducing consumption-based carbon emissions, which implies that Chile's technological innovation is not directed towards manufacturing green technology. Finally, the policy implications are discussed with respect to reducing consumption-based carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Chile , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(29): 38969-38984, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745052

RESUMO

Following the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs), which place emphasis on relevant concerns that encompass access to energy (SDG-7) and sustainable development (SDG-8), this research intends to re-examine the relationship between urbanization, CO2 emissions, gross capital formation, energy use, and economic growth in South Korea, which has not yet been assessed using recent econometric techniques, based on data covering the period between 1965 and 2019. The present study utilized the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL), dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) methods, while the gradual shift and wavelet coherence techniques are utilized to determine the direction of the causality. The ARDL bounds test reveals a long-run linkage between the variables of interest. Empirical evidence shows that CO2 emissions trigger economic growth. Thus, based on increasing environmental awareness across the globe, it is necessary to change the energy mix in South Korea to renewables to enable the use of sustainable energy sources and establish an environmentally sustainable ecosystem. Moreover, the energy-induced growth hypothesis is validated. This result is supported by the causality analysis, which shows a one-way causality running from energy consumption to GDP in South Korea. This suggests that South Korea cannot embark on conservative energy policies, as such actions will damage economic progress. Additionally, a unidirectional causality is seen from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth. These findings have far-reaching consequences for GDP growth and macroeconomic indicators in South Korea.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , República da Coreia
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