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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1863(1): 148504, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619092

RESUMO

The Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is a soluble photoactive protein involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. It is formed by the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domain, which establish interactions in the orange inactive form and share a ketocarotenoid molecule. Upon exposure to intense blue light, the carotenoid molecule migrates into the NTD and the domains undergo separation. The free NTD can then interact with the phycobilisome (PBS), the extramembrane cyanobacterial antenna, and induces thermal dissipation of excess absorbed excitation energy. The OCP and PBS amino acids involved in their interactions remain undetermined. To identify the OCP amino acids essential for this interaction, we constructed several OCP mutants (23) with modified amino acids located on different NTD surfaces. We demonstrated that only the NTD surface that establishes interactions with the CTD in orange OCP is involved in the binding of OCP to PBS. All amino acids surrounding the carotenoid ß1 ring in the OCPR-NTD (L51, P56, G57, N104, I151, R155, N156) are important for binding OCP to PBS. Additionally, modification of the amino acids influences OCP photoactivation and/or recovery rates, indicating that they are also involved in the translocation of the carotenoid.

2.
Plant Cell ; 33(2): 358-380, 2021 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793852

RESUMO

Phycobilisomes (PBSs), the principal cyanobacterial antenna, are among the most efficient macromolecular structures in nature, and are used for both light harvesting and directed energy transfer to the photosynthetic reaction center. However, under unfavorable conditions, excess excitation energy needs to be rapidly dissipated to avoid photodamage. The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) senses light intensity and induces thermal energy dissipation under stress conditions. Hence, its expression must be tightly controlled; however, the molecular mechanism of this regulation remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe the discovery of a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in which the expression of the operon encoding the allophycocyanin subunits of the PBS is directly and in an inverse fashion linked to the expression of OCP. This regulation is mediated by ApcZ, a small regulatory RNA that is derived from the 3'-end of the tetracistronic apcABC-apcZ operon. ApcZ inhibits ocp translation under stress-free conditions. Under most stress conditions, apc operon transcription decreases and ocp translation increases. Thus, a key operon involved in the collection of light energy is functionally connected to the expression of a protein involved in energy dissipation. Our findings support the view that regulatory RNA networks in bacteria evolve through the functionalization of mRNA 3'-UTRs.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Luz , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Synechocystis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Óperon/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Synechocystis/genética
3.
Plant Physiol ; 186(1): 569-580, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576804

RESUMO

State transitions are a low-light acclimation response through which the excitation of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) is balanced; however, our understanding of this process in cyanobacteria remains poor. Here, picosecond fluorescence kinetics was recorded for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), both upon chlorophyll a and phycobilisome (PBS) excitation. Fluorescence kinetics of single cells obtained using FLIM were compared with those of ensembles of cells obtained with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The global distribution of PSI and PSII and PBSs was mapped making use of their fluorescence kinetics. Both radial and lateral heterogeneity were found in the distribution of the photosystems. State transitions were studied at the level of single cells. FLIM results show that PSII quenching occurs in all cells, irrespective of their state (I or II). In S. elongatus cells, this quenching is enhanced in State II. Furthermore, the decrease of PSII fluorescence in State II was homogeneous throughout the cells, despite the inhomogeneous PSI/PSII ratio. Finally, some disconnected PBSs were resolved in most State II cells. Taken together our data show that PSI is enriched in the inner thylakoid, while state transitions occur homogeneously throughout the cell.

4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371249

RESUMO

Cryptophycin-1 is a cyanotoxin produced by filamentous cyanobacteria. It has been evaluated as an anticancer agent with great potential. However, its synthesis provides insufficient yield for industrial use. An alternative solution for metabolite efficient production is to stress cyanobacteria by modifying the environmental conditions of the culture (Nostoc sp. ATCC 53789). Here, we examined the effects of light photoperiod, wavelength, and intensity. In light photoperiod, photoperiods 24:0 and 16:8 (light:dark) were tested while in wavelength, orange-red light was compared with blue. Medium, high, and very high light intensity experiments were performed to test the effect of light stress. For a 10-day period, growth was measured, metabolite concentration was calculated through HPLC, and the related curves were drawn. The differentiation of light wavelength had a major effect on the culture, as orange-red filter contributed to noticeable increase in both growth and doubled the cyanotoxin concentration in comparison to blue light. Remarkably, constant light provides higher cryptophycin yield, but slightly lower growth rate. Lastly, the microorganism prefers medium light intensities for both growth and metabolite expression. The combination of these optimal conditions would contribute to the further exploitation of cryptophycin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Luz , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Nostoc , Fotoperíodo , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/efeitos da radiação , Depsipeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Depsipeptídeos/efeitos da radiação , Toxinas Marinhas/efeitos da radiação , Microcistinas/efeitos da radiação , Nostoc/isolamento & purificação , Nostoc/efeitos da radiação
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(10): 148255, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619427

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria can rapidly regulate the relative activity of their photosynthetic complexes photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) in response to changes in the illumination conditions. This process is known as state transitions. If PSI is preferentially excited, they go to state I whereas state II is induced either after preferential excitation of PSII or after dark adaptation. Different underlying mechanisms have been proposed in literature, in particular i) reversible shuttling of the external antenna complexes, the phycobilisomes, between PSI and PSII, ii) reversible spillover of excitation energy from PSII to PSI, iii) a combination of both and, iv) increased excited-state quenching of the PSII core in state II. Here we investigated wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at room temperature. Our observations support model iv, meaning that increased excited-state quenching of the PSII core occurs in state II thereby balancing the photochemistry of photosystems I and II.


Assuntos
Synechococcus/metabolismo , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Temperatura , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Ficobilissomas/metabolismo , Ficocianina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(8): 148214, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360310

RESUMO

The structural features enabling carotenoid translocation between molecular entities in nature is poorly understood. Here, we present the three-dimensional X-ray structure of an expanded oligomeric state of the C-terminal domain homolog (CTDH) of the orange carotenoid protein, a key water-soluble protein in cyanobacterial photosynthetic photo-protection, at 2.9 Å resolution. This protein binds a canthaxanthin carotenoid ligand and undergoes structural reorganization at the dimeric level, which facilitates cargo uptake and delivery. The structure displays heterogeneity revealing the dynamic nature of its C-terminal tail (CTT). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the CTDH structures identified specific residues that govern the dimeric transition mechanism. Mutagenesis based on the crystal structure and these MD simulations then confirmed that these specific residues within the CTT are critical for carotenoid uptake, encapsulation and delivery processes. We present a mechanism that can be applied to other systems that require cargo uptake.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
7.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 19(5): 585-603, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163064

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms are exposed to a fluctuating environment in which light intensity and quality change continuously. Specific illumination of either photosystem (PSI or PSII) creates an energy imbalance, leading to the reduction or oxidation of the intersystem electron transport chain. This redox imbalance could trigger the formation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Cyanobacteria, like plants and algae, have developed a mechanism to re-balance this preferential excitation of either reaction center, called state transitions. State transitions are triggered by changes in the redox state of the membrane-soluble plastoquinone (PQ) pool. In plants and green algae, these changes in redox potential are sensed by Cytochrome b6f, which interacts with a specific kinase that triggers the movement of the main PSII antenna (the light-harvesting complex II). By contrast, although cyanobacterial state transitions have been studied extensively, there is still no agreement about the molecular mechanism, the PQ redox state sensor and the signaling pathways involved. In this review, we aimed to critically evaluate the results published on cyanobacterial state transitions, and discuss the "new" and "old" models in the subject. The phycobilisome and membrane contributions to this physiological process were addressed and the current hypotheses regarding its signaling transduction pathway were discussed.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/química , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química
8.
Trends Plant Sci ; 25(1): 92-104, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679992

RESUMO

Under high irradiance, light becomes dangerous for photosynthetic organisms and they must protect themselves. Cyanobacteria have developed a simple mechanism, involving a photoactive soluble carotenoid protein, the orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which increases thermal dissipation of excess energy by interacting with the cyanobacterial antenna, the phycobilisome. Here, we summarize our knowledge of the OCP-related photoprotective mechanism, including the remarkable progress that has been achieved in recent years on OCP photoactivation and interaction with phycobilisomes, as well as with the fluorescence recovery protein, which is necessary to end photoprotection. A recently discovered unique mechanism of carotenoid transfer between soluble proteins related to OCP is also described.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Cianobactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias , Carotenoides , Ficobilissomas
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(4): 148037, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228405

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms need to sense and respond to fluctuating environmental conditions, to perform efficient photosynthesis and avoid the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Cyanobacteria have developed a photoprotective mechanism that decreases the energy arriving at the reaction centers by increasing thermal energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome, the extramembranal light-harvesting antenna. This mechanism is triggered by the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP). In this study, we characterized OCP and the related photoprotective mechanism in non-stressed and light-stressed cells of three different strains of Planktothrix that can form impressive blooms. In addition to changing lake ecosystemic functions and biodiversity, Planktothrix blooms can have adverse effects on human and animal health as they produce toxins (e.g., microcystins). Three Planktothrix strains were selected: two green strains, PCC 10110 (microcystin producer) and PCC 7805 (non-microcystin producer), and one red strain, PCC 7821. The green strains colonize shallow lakes with higher light intensities while red strains proliferate in deep lakes. Our study allowed us to conclude that there is a correlation between the ecological niche in which these strains proliferate and the rates of induction and recovery of OCP-related photoprotection. However, differences in the resistance to prolonged high-light stress were correlated to a better replacement of damaged D1 protein and not to differences in OCP photoprotection. Finally, microcystins do not seem to be involved in photoprotection as was previously suggested.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Cianobactérias/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/ultraestrutura , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Nat Plants ; 5(10): 1076-1086, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527845

RESUMO

The photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a blue-light intensity sensor involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Three OCP families co-exist (OCPX, OCP1 and OCP2), having originated from the fusion of ancestral domain genes. Here, we report the characterization of an OCPX and the evolutionary characterization of OCP paralogues focusing on the role of the linker connecting the domains. The addition of the linker with specific amino acids enabled the photocycle of the OCP ancestor. OCPX is the paralogue closest to this ancestor. A second diversification gave rise to OCP1 and OCP2. OCPX and OCP2 present fast deactivation and weak antenna interaction. In OCP1, OCP deactivation became slower and interaction with the antenna became stronger, requiring a further protein to detach OCP from the antenna and accelerate its deactivation. OCP2 lost the tendency to dimerize, unlike OCPX and OCP1, and the role of its linker is slightly different, giving less controlled photoactivation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Mutação , Processos Fotoquímicos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Synechocystis/genética
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1860(6): 488-498, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029593

RESUMO

The phycobilisome, the cyanobacterial light harvesting complex, is a huge phycobiliprotein containing extramembrane complex, formed by a core from which rods radiate. The phycobilisome has evolved to efficiently absorb sun energy and transfer it to the photosystems via the last energy acceptors of the phycobilisome, ApcD and ApcE. ApcF also affects energy transfer by interacting with ApcE. In this work we studied the role of ApcD and ApcF in energy transfer and state transitions in Synechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis PCC6803. Our results demonstrate that these proteins have different roles in both processes in the two strains. The lack of ApcD and ApcF inhibits state transitions in Synechocystis but not in S. elongatus. In addition, lack of ApcF decreases energy transfer to both photosystems only in Synechocystis, while the lack of ApcD alters energy transfer to photosystem I only in S. elongatus. Thus, conclusions based on results obtained in one cyanobacterial strain cannot be systematically transferred to other strains and the putative role(s) of phycobilisomes in state transitions need to be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ficobilissomas/metabolismo , Ficocianina/metabolismo , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Mutação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
FEBS J ; 286(10): 1908-1924, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843329

RESUMO

Carotenoids are lipophilic pigments with multiple biological functions from coloration to vision and photoprotection. Still, the number of water-soluble carotenoid-binding proteins described to date is limited, and carotenoid transport and carotenoprotein maturation processes are largely underexplored. Recent studies revealed that CTDHs, which are natural homologs of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the orange carotenoid protein (OCP), a photoswitch involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection, are able to bind carotenoids, with absorption shifted far into the red region of the spectrum. Despite the recent discovery of their participation in carotenoid transfer processes, the functional roles of the diverse family of CTDHs are not well understood. Here, we characterized CTDH carotenoproteins from Anabaena variabilis (AnaCTDH) and Thermosynechococcus elongatus and examined their ability to participate in carotenoid transfer processes with a set of OCP-derived proteins. This revealed that carotenoid transfer occurs in several directions guided by different affinities for carotenoid and specific protein-protein interactions. We show that CTDHs have higher carotenoid affinity compared to the CTD of OCP from Synechocystis, which results in carotenoid translocation from the CTD into CTDH via a metastable heterodimer intermediate. Activation of OCP by light, or mutagenesis compromising the OCP structure, provides AnaCTDH with an opportunity to extract carotenoid from the full-length OCP, either from Synechocystis or Anabaena. These previously unknown reactions between water-soluble carotenoproteins demonstrate multidirectionality of carotenoid transfer, allowing for efficient and reversible control over the carotenoid-mediated protein oligomerization by light, which gives insights into the physiological regulation of OCP activity by CTDH and suggests multiple applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Anabaena variabilis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte Biológico , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Domínios Proteicos , Solubilidade , Água
14.
Plant Cell ; 31(4): 911-931, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852554

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms must sense and respond to fluctuating environmental conditions in order to perform efficient photosynthesis and to avoid the formation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. The excitation energy arriving at each photosystem permanently changes due to variations in the intensity and spectral properties of the absorbed light. Cyanobacteria, like plants and algae, have developed a mechanism, named "state transitions," that balances photosystem activities. Here, we characterize the role of the cytochrome b 6 f complex and phosphorylation reactions in cyanobacterial state transitions using Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 as model organisms. First, large photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence quenching was observed in State II, a result that does not appear to be related to energy transfer from PSII to PSI (spillover). This membrane-associated process was inhibited by betaine, Suc, and high concentrations of phosphate. Then, using different chemicals affecting the plastoquinone pool redox state and cytochrome b 6 f activity, we demonstrate that this complex is not involved in state transitions in S. elongatus or Synechocystis PCC6803. Finally, by constructing and characterizing 21 protein kinase and phosphatase mutants and using chemical inhibitors, we demonstrate that phosphorylation reactions are not essential for cyanobacterial state transitions. Thus, signal transduction is completely different in cyanobacterial and plant (green alga) state transitions.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Complexo Citocromos b6f/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Synechocystis/metabolismo
15.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(15): 3259-3266, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895789

RESUMO

The orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which is essential in cyanobacterial photoprotection, is the first photoactive protein containing a carotenoid as an active chromophore. Static and time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy under continuous illumination at different temperatures was applied to investigate its photoactivation mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that in the OCP, the photo-induced conformational change involves at least two different steps, both in the second timescale at 277 K. Each step involves partial reorganization of α-helix domains. At early illumination times, the disappearance of a nonsolvent-exposed α-helix (negative 1651 cm-1 band) is observed. At longer times, a 1644 cm-1 negative band starts to bleach, showing the disappearance of a solvent-exposed α-helix, either the N-terminal extension and/or the C-terminal tail. A kinetic analysis clearly shows that these two events are asynchronous. Minor modifications in the overall FTIR difference spectra confirm that the global protein conformational change consists of-at least-two asynchronous contributions. Comparison of spectra recorded in H2O and D2O suggests that internal water molecules may contribute to the photoactivation mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 520-530, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511841

RESUMO

The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a two-domain photoactive protein that noncovalently binds an echinenone (ECN) carotenoid and mediates photoprotection in cyanobacteria. In the dark, OCP assumes an orange, inactive state known as OCPO; blue light illumination results in the red active state, known as OCPR. The OCPR state is characterized by large-scale structural changes that involve dissociation and separation of C-terminal and N-terminal domains accompanied by carotenoid translocation into the N-terminal domain. The mechanistic and dynamic-structural relations between photon absorption and formation of the OCPR state have remained largely unknown. Here, we employ a combination of time-resolved UV-visible and (polarized) mid-infrared spectroscopy to assess the electronic and structural dynamics of the carotenoid and the protein secondary structure, from femtoseconds to 0.5 ms. We identify a hereto unidentified carotenoid excited state in OCP, the so-called S* state, which we propose to play a key role in breaking conserved hydrogen-bond interactions between carotenoid and aromatic amino acids in the binding pocket. We arrive at a comprehensive reaction model where the hydrogen-bond rupture with conserved aromatic side chains at the carotenoid ß1-ring in picoseconds occurs at a low yield of <1%, whereby the ß1-ring retains a trans configuration with respect to the conjugated π-electron chain. This event initiates structural changes at the N-terminal domain in 1 µs, which allow the carotenoid to translocate into the N-terminal domain in 10 µs. We identified infrared signatures of helical elements that dock on the C-terminal domain ß-sheet in the dark and unfold in the light to allow domain separation. These helical elements do not move within the experimental range of 0.5 ms, indicating that domain separation occurs on longer time scales, lagging carotenoid translocation by at least 2 decades of time.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
17.
Commun Biol ; 1: 125, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272005

RESUMO

A recently reported family of soluble cyanobacterial carotenoproteins, homologs of the C-terminal domain (CTDH) of the photoprotective Orange Carotenoid Protein, is suggested to mediate carotenoid transfer from the thylakoid membrane to the Helical Carotenoid Proteins, which are paralogs of the N-terminal domain of the OCP. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of a carotenoid-free CTDH variant from Anabaena (Nostoc) PCC 7120. This CTDH contains a cysteine residue at position 103. Two dimer-forming interfaces were identified, one stabilized by a disulfide bond between monomers and the second between each monomer's ß-sheets, both compatible with small-angle X-ray scattering data and likely representing intermediates of carotenoid transfer processes. The crystal structure revealed a major positional change of the C-terminal tail. Further mutational analysis revealed the importance of the C-terminal tail in both carotenoid uptake and delivery. These results have allowed us to suggest a detailed model for carotenoid transfer via these soluble proteins.

18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1859(10): 1059-1066, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902424

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria use chlorophyll and phycobiliproteins to harvest light. The resulting excitation energy is delivered to reaction centers (RCs), where photochemistry starts. The relative amounts of excitation energy arriving at the RCs of photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) depend on the spectral composition of the light. To balance the excitations in both photosystems, cyanobacteria perform state transitions to equilibrate the excitation energy. They go to state I if PSI is preferentially excited, for example after illumination with blue light (light I), and to state II after illumination with green-orange light (light II) or after dark adaptation. In this study, we performed 77-K time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on wild-type Synechococcus elongatus 7942 cells to measure how state transitions affect excitation energy transfer to PSI and PSII in different light conditions and to test the various models that have been proposed in literature. The time-resolved spectra show that the PSII core is quenched in state II and that this is not due to a change in excitation energy transfer from PSII to PSI (spill-over), either direct or indirect via phycobilisomes.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(9): 2426-2432, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688018

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms have found various smart ways to cope with unexpected changes in light conditions. In many cyanobacteria, the lethal effects of a sudden increase in light intensity are mitigated mainly by the interaction between phycobilisomes (PBs) and the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). The latter senses high light intensities by means of photoactivation and triggers thermal energy dissipation from the PBs. Due to the brightness of their emission, PBs can be characterized at the level of individual complexes. Here, energy dissipation from individual PBs was reversibly switched on and off using only light and OCP. We reveal the presence of quasistable intermediate states during the binding and unbinding of OCP to PB, with a spectroscopic signature indicative of transient decoupling of some of the PB rods during docking of OCP. Real-time control of emission from individual PBs has the potential to contribute to the development of new super-resolution imaging techniques.

20.
Plant Physiol ; 175(3): 1283-1303, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935842

RESUMO

The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) photoprotects cyanobacteria cells by quenching singlet oxygen and excess excitation energy. Its N-terminal domain is the active part of the protein, and the C-terminal domain regulates the activity. Recently, the characteristics of a family of soluble carotenoid-binding proteins (Helical Carotenoid Proteins [HCPs]), paralogs of the N-terminal domain of OCP, were described. Bioinformatics studies also revealed the existence of genes coding for homologs of CTD. Here, we show that the latter genes encode carotenoid proteins (CTDHs). This family of proteins contains two subgroups with distinct characteristics. One CTDH of each clade was further characterized, and they proved to be very good singlet oxygen quenchers. When synthesized in Escherichia coli or Synechocystis PCC 6803, CTDHs formed dimers that share a carotenoid molecule and are able to transfer their carotenoid to apo-HCPs and apo-OCP. The CTDHs from clade 2 have a cysteine in position 103. A disulfide bond is easily formed between the monomers of the dimer preventing carotenoid transfer. This suggests that the transfer of the carotenoid could be redox regulated in clade 2 CTDH. We also demonstrate here that apo-OCPs and apo-CTDHs are able to take the carotenoid directly from membranes, while HCPs are unable to do so. HCPs need the presence of CTDH to become holo-proteins. We propose that, in cyanobacteria, the CTDHs are carotenoid donors to HCPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Cantaxantina/metabolismo , Sequência Consenso , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Análise Espectral
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