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J Atten Disord ; 25(8): 1146-1159, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718386


Objective: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of attention training delivered in class on cognitive attention processes, inattention, hyperactivity, working memory, and numeracy in primary school children. Method: Eight classes (n = 98 children; 5-9 years) were cluster randomized to gamified attention training, a placebo program, or a no-contact control condition. Assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately after the 5-week intervention (posttraining), and 6 months later (follow-up). Results: Posttraining, attention training was associated with reduced inattention and hyperactivity within the classroom compared with controls, and reduced hyperactivity at home compared with the no-contact control. At follow-up, reduced hyperactivity within the classroom compared with the no-contact control persisted. No effects of training on cognitive attention processes, working memory, and numeracy were observed posttraining. Conclusion: Classroom-based attention training has select benefits in reducing inattention and hyperactivity, but may not promote gains in cognitive or academic skills in primary school children.

Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Instituições Acadêmicas
Dev Sci ; 20(6)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649816


Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms. In addition, parents and teachers completed rating scales of inattention and hyperactivity. Concurrent associations between attention abilities and early literacy and numeracy skills were also examined. Children completed measures of receptive vocabulary, phonological abilities and cardinality skills. As expected, the results indicated that all groups had relatively comparable levels of inattentive/hyperactive behaviours as rated by parents and teachers. However, the extent of visual attention deficits varied as a result of group; namely children with DS had poorer visual search and vigilance abilities than children with ASD and NSID. Further, significant associations between visual attention difficulties and poorer literacy and numeracy skills were observed, regardless of group. Collectively the findings demonstrate that in children with IDD who present with homogenous behavioural attention difficulties, at the cognitive level, subtle profiles of attentional problems can be delineated.

Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Escalas de Wechsler
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 57(12): 1380-1389, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550746


BACKGROUND: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience heightened attention difficulties which have been linked to poorer cognitive, academic and social outcomes. Although, increasing research has focused on the potential of computerised cognitive training in reducing attention problems, limited studies have assessed whether this intervention could be utilised for those with IDD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a computerised attention training programme in children with IDD. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, children (n = 76; IQ < 75) aged 4-11 years were assigned to an adaptive attention training condition or a nonadaptive control condition. Both conditions were completed at home over a 5-week period and consisted of 25 sessions, each of 20-min duration. Outcome measures (baseline, posttraining and 3-month follow-up) assessed core attention skills (selective attention, sustained attention and attentional control) and inattentive/hyperactive behaviour. RESULTS: Children in the attention training condition showed greater improvement in selective attention performance compared to children in the control condition (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI 0.02, 0.45). These improvements were maintained 3 months after training had ceased (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.04, 0.48). The attention training programme was not effective in promoting improvements in sustained attention, attentional control or inattentive/hyperactive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that attention training may enhance some aspects of attention (selective attention) in children with IDD, but the small to medium effect sizes indicate that further refinement of the training programme is needed to promote larger, more global improvements.

Atenção/fisiologia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Res Dev Disabil ; 35(1): 203-14, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24176260


In neurodevelopmental disorders, unique profiles of executive control and attention appear to co-occur with poor motor coordination. However, less is known about how syndrome-specific cognitive profiles interact with motor control and impact behavioural outcomes in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Williams syndrome (WS) and Down syndrome (DS). Here we aimed to examine the extent to which specific components of executive function interact with gait control when performing cognitive dual-tasks (verbal fluency, digit span) in WS and DS. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics and intra-individual variability of gait were assessed in individuals with WS who were matched on spatial ability to individuals with DS, and chronologically age (CA) matched controls. During the concurrent verbal fluency task, the WS group had greater dual-task costs on spatiotemporal gait parameters and variability than CA controls. Conversely, individuals with DS had selective gait interference during the concurrent digit span task when compared to CA controls, but only under increased demands on cognitive control where there was greater variability in step timing in DS. The interrelationships between cognitive-motor interference and behavioural measures of executive functioning appeared to differentiate between WS and DS, and emphasise the importance of task modality in unpacking the executive control profile in these neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings support the notion that associated cerebellar-cortico abnormalities may produce quite distinct profiles of executive control across cognitive and motor domains that impact on behavioural outcomes in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
Res Dev Disabil ; 34(12): 4608-16, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24210355


The neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with a social phenotype of hypersociability, non-social anxiety and an unusual attraction to faces. The current study uses eye tracking to explore attention allocation to emotionally expressive faces. Eye gaze and behavioural measures of anxiety and social reciprocity were investigated in adolescents and adults with WS when compared to typically developing individuals of comparable verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age (CA). Results showed significant associations between high levels of behavioural anxiety and attention allocation away from the eye regions of threatening facial expressions in WS. The results challenge early claims of a unique attraction to the eyes in WS and suggest that individual differences in anxiety may mediate the allocation of attention to faces in WS.

Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem