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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 61, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420340

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. Here we show that mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is an important small molecule druggable target in AD. Partial inhibition of complex I triggers the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling network leading to neuroprotection in symptomatic APP/PS1 female mice, a translational model of AD. Treatment of symptomatic APP/PS1 mice with complex I inhibitor improved energy homeostasis, synaptic activity, long-term potentiation, dendritic spine maturation, cognitive function and proteostasis, and reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in brain and periphery, ultimately blocking the ongoing neurodegeneration. Therapeutic efficacy in vivo was monitored using translational biomarkers FDG-PET, 31P NMR, and metabolomics. Cross-validation of the mouse and the human transcriptomic data from the NIH Accelerating Medicines Partnership-AD database demonstrated that pathways improved by the treatment in APP/PS1 mice, including the immune system response and neurotransmission, represent mechanisms essential for therapeutic efficacy in AD patients.

2.
Aging Cell ; 20(2): e13296, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470505

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is a major contributor to aging and age-related diseases. Clearance of senescent cells has been shown to improve brain function in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is still unknown whether senescent cell clearance alleviates cognitive dysfunction during the aging process. To investigate this, we first conducted single-nuclei and single-cell RNA-seq in the hippocampus from young and aged mice. We observed an age-dependent increase in p16Ink4a senescent cells, which was more pronounced in microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and characterized by a SASP. We then aged INK-ATTAC mice, in which p16Ink4a -positive senescent cells can be genetically eliminated upon treatment with the drug AP20187 and treated them either with AP20187 or with the senolytic cocktail Dasatinib and Quercetin. We observed that both strategies resulted in a decrease in p16Ink4a exclusively in the microglial population, resulting in reduced microglial activation and reduced expression of SASP factors. Importantly, both approaches significantly improved cognitive function in aged mice. Our data provide proof-of-concept for senolytic interventions' being a potential therapeutic avenue for alleviating age-associated cognitive impairment.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406219

RESUMO

Cellular senescence contributes to age-related disorders including physical dysfunction, disabilities and mortality caused by tissue inflammation and damage. Senescent cells accumulate in multiple tissues with aging and at etiological sites of multiple chronic disorders. The senolytic drug combination, Dasatinib plus Quercetin (D+Q), is known to reduce senescent cell abundance in aged mice. However, the effects of long-term D+Q treatment on intestinal senescent cell and inflammatory burden and microbiome composition in aged mice remain unknown. Here, we examine the effect of D+Q on senescence (p16 Ink4a and p21 Cip1) and inflammation (Cxcl1, Il1ß, Il6, Mcp1, and Tnfα) markers in small (ileum) and large (caecum and colon) intestine in aged mice (n=10) compared to age-matched placebo-treated mice (n=10). Additionally, we examine microbial composition along the intestinal tract in these mice. D+Q-treated mice show significantly lower senescent cell (p16 and p21 expression) and inflammatory (Cxcl1, Il1ß, Il6, Mcp1 and Tnfα expression) burden in small and large intestine compared with control mice. Further, we find specific microbial signatures in ileal, cecal, colonic and fecal regions that are distinctly modulated by D+Q, with modulation being most prominent in small intestine. Further analyses reveal specific correlation of senescence and inflammation markers with specific microbial signatures. Together, these data demonstrate that the senolytic treatment reduces intestinal senescence and inflammation while altering specific microbiota signatures and suggest that the optimized senolytic regimens might improve health via reducing intestinal senescence, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis in older subjects.

4.
Geroscience ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428109

RESUMO

SMAD4 encodes a member of the SMAD family of proteins involved in the TGF-ß signaling pathway. Potentially heritable, autosomal dominant, gain-of-function heterozygous variants of SMAD4 cause a rare developmental disorder, the Myhre syndrome, which is associated with a wide range of developmental and post-developmental phenotypes that we now characterize as a novel segmental progeroid syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing of a patient referred to our International Registry of Werner Syndrome revealed a heterozygous p.Arg496Cys variant of the SMAD4 gene. To investigate the role of SMAD4 mutations in accelerated senescence, we generated cellular models overexpressing either wild-type SMAD4 or mutant SMAD4-R496C in normal skin fibroblasts. We found that cells expressing the SMAD4-R496C mutant exhibited decreased proliferation and elevated expression of cellular senescence and inflammatory markers, including IL-6, IFNγ, and a TGF-ß target gene, PAI-1. Here we show that transient exposure to TGF-ß, an inflammatory cytokine, followed by chronic IFNγ stimulation, accelerated rates of senescence that were associated with increased DNA damage foci and SMAD4 expression. TGF-ß, IFNγ, or combinations of both were not sufficient to reduce proliferation rates of fibroblasts. In contrast, TGF-ß alone was able to induce preadipocyte senescence via induction of the mTOR protein. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin mitigated TGF-ß-induced expression of p21, p16, and DNA damage foci and improved replicative potential of preadipocytes, supporting the cell-specific response to this cytokine. These findings collectively suggest that persistent DNA damage and cross-talk between TGF-ß/IFNγ pathways contribute to a series of molecular events leading to cellular senescence and a segmental progeroid syndrome.

5.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1332-1344, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657444

RESUMO

Cell stress may give rise to insuperable growth arrest, which is defined as cellular senescence. Stenotic kidney (STK) ischemia and injury induced by renal artery stenosis (RAS) may be associated with cellular senescence. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decrease some forms of STK injury, but their ability to reverse senescence in RAS remains unknown. We hypothesized that RAS evokes STK senescence, which would be ameliorated by MSCs. Mice were studied after 4 weeks of RAS, RAS treated with adipose tissue-derived MSCs 2 weeks earlier, or sham. STK senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) activity was measured. Protein and gene expression was used to assess senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and staining for renal fibrosis, inflammation, and capillary density. In addition, senescence was assessed as p16+ and p21+ urinary exosomes in patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH) without or 3 months after autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC delivery, and in healthy volunteers (HV). In RAS mice, STK SA-ß-Gal activity increased, and senescence and SASP marker expression was markedly elevated. MSCs improved renal function, fibrosis, inflammation, and capillary density, and attenuated SA-ß-Gal activity, but most senescence and SASP levels remained unchanged. Congruently, in human RVH, p21+ urinary exosomes were elevated compared to HV, and only slightly improved by MSC, whereas p16+ exosomes remained unchanged. Therefore, RAS triggers renal senescence in both mice and human subjects. MSCs decrease renal injury, but only partly mitigate renal senescence. These observations support exploration of targeted senolytic therapy in RAS.

6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(23): 2002611, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304768

RESUMO

Aging is a physiological decline in both structural homeostasis and functional integrity, progressively affecting organismal health. A major hallmark of aging is the accumulation of senescent cells, which have entered a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest after experiencing inherent or environmental stresses. Although cellular senescence is essential in several physiological events, it plays a detrimental role in a large array of age-related pathologies. Recent biomedical advances in specifically targeting senescent cells to improve healthy aging, or alternatively, postpone natural aging and age-related diseases, a strategy termed senotherapy, have attracted substantial interest in both scientific and medical communities. Challenges for aging research are highlighted and potential avenues that can be leveraged for therapeutic interventions to control aging and age-related disorders in the current era of precision medicine.

7.
Nat Metab ; 2(11): 1284-1304, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199925

RESUMO

Decreased NAD+ levels have been shown to contribute to metabolic dysfunction during aging. NAD+ decline can be partially prevented by knockout of the enzyme CD38. However, it is not known how CD38 is regulated during aging, and how its ecto-enzymatic activity impacts NAD+ homeostasis. Here we show that an increase in CD38 in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver during aging is mediated by accumulation of CD38+ immune cells. Inflammation increases CD38 and decreases NAD+. In addition, senescent cells and their secreted signals promote accumulation of CD38+ cells in WAT, and ablation of senescent cells or their secretory phenotype decreases CD38, partially reversing NAD+ decline. Finally, blocking the ecto-enzymatic activity of CD38 can increase NAD+ through a nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)-dependent process. Our findings demonstrate that senescence-induced inflammation promotes accumulation of CD38 in immune cells that, through its ecto-enzymatic activity, decreases levels of NMN and NAD+.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155651

RESUMO

The elderly population is increasing faster than other segments of the population throughout the world. Age is the leading predictor for most chronic diseases and disorders, multimorbidity, geriatric syndromes, and impaired ability to recover from accidents or illnesses. Enhancing the duration of health and independence, termed healthspan, would be more desirable than extending lifespan merely by prolonging the period of morbidity toward the end of life. The geroscience hypothesis posits that healthspan can be extended by targeting fundamental aging mechanisms, rather than attempting to address each age-related disease one at a time, only so the afflicted individual survives disabled and dies shortly afterward of another age-related disease. These fundamental aging mechanisms include, among others, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, stem cell/ progenitor dysfunction, DNA damage, epigenetic changes, metabolic shifts, destructive metabolite generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, misfolded or aggregated protein accumulation, and cellular senescence. These processes appear to be tightly interlinked, as targeting any one appears to affect many of the rest, underlying our Unitary Theory of Fundamental Aging Mechanisms. Interventions targeting many fundamental aging processes are being developed, including dietary manipulations, metformin, mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitors, and senolytics, which are in early human trials. These interventions could lead to greater healthspan benefits than treating age-related diseases one at a time. To illustrate these points, we focus on cellular senescence and therapies in development to target senescent cells. Combining interventions targeting aging mechanisms with disease-specific drugs could result in more than additive benefits for currently difficult-to-treat or intractable diseases. More research attention needs to be devoted to targeting fundamental aging processes.

9.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032498

RESUMO

Geroscience-based therapeutics have the opportunity to transform the field of geriatric medicine, yet few training programs afford scholars with the necessary skills, knowledge, and experiences needed to successfully design and implement geroscience trials. We have developed a 2 year curriculum with two different training tracks for aging science scholars. The training tracks capitalize on the strengths and skillsets of eligible candidates. Both pathways afford scholars the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of aging research and the opportunity to apply this knowledge via a mentored translational research project. The two training pathways capitalize on existing clinical and research training infrastructures and include required and elective coursework, longitudinal clinical experiences, small group discussions, laboratory experience, and mentored translational research. This first of its kind geroscience training program is a potential feasible, scalable solution to the existing training gap. We believe that the Kogod Scholars Program at the Mayo Clinic can serve as a prototype for other academic aging centers.

10.
Exp Gerontol ; 142: 111113, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065227

RESUMO

Menopause is a natural physiological process in older women that is associated with reduced estrogen production and results in increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) treatment in males, but not females, reverses several metabolic conditions associated with advancing age, highlighting sexually dimorphic actions on age-related pathologies. In this study we sought to determine if 17α-E2 could prevent ovariectomy (OVX)-mediated detriments on adiposity and bone parameters in females. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to SHAM or OVX surgery and received dietary 17α-E2 during a six-week intervention period. We observed that 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced increases in body weight and adiposity. Similarly, uterine weight and luminal cell thickness were decreased by OVX and prevented by 17α-E2 treatment. Interestingly, 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced declines in tibial metaphysis cancellous bone. And similarly, 17α-E2 improved bone density parameters in both tibia and femur cancellous bone, primarily in OVX mice. In contrast, to the effects on cancellous bone, cortical bone parameters were largely unaffected by OVX or 17α-E2. In the non-weight bearing lumbar vertebrae, OVX reduced trabecular thickness but not spacing, while 17α-E2 increased trabecular thickness and reduced spacing. Despite this, 17α-E2 did improve bone volume/tissue volume in lumbar vertebrae. Overall, we found that 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced increases in adiposity and changes in bone mass and architecture, with minimal effects in SHAM-operated mice. We also observed that 17α-E2 rescued uterine tissue mass and lining morphology to control levels without inducing hypertrophy, suggesting that 17α-E2 could be considered as an adjunct to traditional hormone replacement therapies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997601

RESUMO

Senescence is the consequence of a signaling mechanism activated in stressed cells to prevent proliferation of cells with damage. Senescent cells (Sncs) often develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype to prompt immune clearance, which drives chronic sterile inflammation and plays a causal role in aging and age-related diseases. Sncs accumulate with age and at anatomical sites of disease. Thus, they are regarded as a logical therapeutic target. Senotherapeutics are a new class of drugs that selectively kill Sncs (senolytics) or suppress their disease-causing phenotypes (senomorphics/senostatics). Since 2015, several senolytics went from identification to clinical trial. Preclinical data indicate that senolytics alleviate disease in numerous organs, improve physical function and resilience, and suppress all causes of mortality, even if administered to the aged. Here, we review the evidence that Sncs drive aging and disease, the approaches to identify and optimize senotherapeutics, and the current status of preclinical and clinical testing of senolytics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 61 is January 7, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4289, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855397

RESUMO

Older organs represent an untapped potential to close the gap between demand and supply in organ transplantation but are associated with age-specific responses to injury and increased immunogenicity, thereby aggravating transplant outcomes. Here we show that cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mt-DNA) released by senescent cells accumulates with aging and augments immunogenicity. Ischemia reperfusion injury induces a systemic increase of cf-mt-DNA that promotes dendritic cell-mediated, age-specific inflammatory responses. Comparable events are observed clinically, with the levels of cf-mt-DNA elevated in older deceased organ donors, and with the isolated cf-mt-DNA capable of activating human dendritic cells. In experimental models, treatment of old donor animals with senolytics clear senescent cells and diminish cf-mt-DNA release, thereby dampening age-specific immune responses and prolonging the survival of old cardiac allografts comparable to young donor organs. Collectively, we identify accumulating cf-mt-DNA as a key factor in inflamm-aging and present senolytics as a potential approach to improve transplant outcomes and availability.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Doadores de Tecidos
13.
Aging Cell ; 19(10): e13219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856419

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is recognized as a major source of systemic inflammation with age, driving age-related tissue dysfunction and pathogenesis. Macrophages (Mφ) are central to these changes yet adipose tissue Mφ (ATMs) from aged mice remain poorly characterized. To identify biomarkers underlying changes in aged adipose tissue, we performed an unbiased RNA-seq analysis of ATMs from young (8-week-old) and healthy aged (80-week-old) mice. One of the genes identified, V-set immunoglobulin-domain-containing 4 (VSIG4/CRIg), encodes a Mφ-associated complement receptor and B7 family-related immune checkpoint protein. Here, we demonstrate that Vsig4 expression is highly upregulated with age in perigonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) in two mouse strains (inbred C57BL/6J and outbred NIH Swiss) independent of gender. The accumulation of VSIG4 was mainly attributed to a fourfold increase in the proportion of VSIG4+ ATMs (13%-52%). In a longitudinal study, VSIG4 expression in gWAT showed a strong correlation with age within a cohort of male and female mice and correlated strongly with physiological frailty index (PFI, a multi-parameter assessment of health) in male mice. Our results indicate that VSIG4 is a novel biomarker of aged murine ATMs. VSIG4 expression was also found to be elevated in other aging tissues (e.g., thymus) and was strongly induced in tumor-adjacent stroma in cases of spontaneous and xenograft lung cancer models. VSIG4 expression was recently associated with cancer and several inflammatory diseases with diagnostic and prognostic potential in both mice and humans. Further investigation is required to determine whether VSIG4-positive Mφ contribute to immunosenescence and/or systemic age-related deficits.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752135

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a key component of human aging that can be induced by a range of stimuli, including DNA damage, cellular stress, telomere shortening, and the activation of oncogenes. Senescence is generally regarded as a tumour suppressive process, both by preventing cancer cell proliferation and suppressing malignant progression from pre-malignant to malignant disease. It may also be a key effector mechanism of many types of anticancer therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapies, both directly and via bioactive molecules released by senescent cells that may stimulate an immune response. However, senescence may contribute to reduced patient resilience to cancer therapies and may provide a pathway for disease recurrence after cancer therapy. A new group of drugs, senotherapies, (drugs which interact with senescent cells to interfere with their pro-aging impacts by either selectively destroying senescent cells (senolytic drugs) or inhibiting their function (senostatic drugs)) are under active investigation to determine whether they can enhance the efficacy of cancer therapies and improve resilience to cancer treatments. Senolytic drugs include quercetin, navitoclax, and fisetin and preclinical and early phase clinical data are emerging of their potential role in cancer treatments, although none are yet in routine use clinically. This article provides a review of these issues.

15.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 155: 203-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854855

RESUMO

Aging is the major predictor for developing multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) other dementias, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Senescent cells, which can drive aging phenotypes, accumulate at etiological sites of many age-related chronic diseases. These cells are resistant to apoptosis and can cause local and systemic dysfunction. Decreasing senescent cell abundance using senolytic drugs, agents that selectively target these cells, alleviates neurodegenerative diseases in preclinical models. In this review, we consider roles of senescent cells in neurodegenerative diseases and potential implications of senolytic agents as an innovative treatment.

16.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 45(7): 578-592, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531228

RESUMO

Aging is a major risk factor for numerous human pathologies, including cardiovascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal, and neurodegenerative conditions and various malignancies. While our understanding of aging is far from complete, recent advances suggest that targeting fundamental aging processes can delay, prevent, or alleviate age-related disorders. Cellular senescence is physiologically beneficial in several contexts, but it has causal roles in multiple chronic diseases. New studies have illustrated the promising feasibility and safety to selectively ablate senescent cells from tissues, a therapeutic modality that holds potential for treating multiple chronic pathologies and extending human healthspan. Here, we review molecular links between cellular senescence and age-associated complications and highlight novel therapeutic avenues that may be exploited to target senescent cells in future geriatric medicine.

17.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(7): 630-638, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589933

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a primary aging process and tumor suppressive mechanism characterized by irreversible growth arrest, apoptosis resistance, production of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), mitochondrial dysfunction, and alterations in DNA and chromatin. In preclinical aging models, accumulation of senescent cells is associated with multiple chronic diseases and disorders, geriatric syndromes, multimorbidity, and accelerated aging phenotypes. In animals, genetic and pharmacologic reduction of senescent cell burden results in the prevention, delay, and/or alleviation of a variety of aging-related diseases and sequelae. Early clinical trials have thus far focused on safety and target engagement of senolytic agents that clear senescent cells. We hypothesize that these pharmacologic interventions may have transformative effects on geriatric medicine.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348501

RESUMO

Up to 85% of adult cancer survivors and 99% of adult survivors of childhood cancer live with an accumulation of chronic conditions, frailty, and/or cognitive impairments resulting from cancer and its treatment. Thus, survivors often show an accelerated development of multiple geriatric syndromes and need therapeutic interventions. To advance progress in this area, the National Cancer Institute convened the second of two think tanks under the auspices of the Cancer and Accelerated Aging: Advancing Research for Healthy Survivors initiative. Experts assembled to share evidence of promising strategies to prevent, slow, or reverse the aging consequences of cancer and its treatment. The meeting identified research and resource needs, including geroscience-guided clinical trials; comprehensive assessments of functional, cognitive, and psychosocial vulnerabilities to assess and predict age-related outcomes; preclinical and clinical research to determine the optimal dosing for behavioral (e.g., diet, exercise) and pharmacologic (e.g., senolytic) therapies; healthcare delivery research to evaluate the efficacy of integrated cancer care delivery models; optimization of intervention implementation, delivery, and uptake; and patient/provider education on cancer and treatment-related late and long-term adverse effects. Addressing these needs will expand knowledge of aging-related consequences of cancer and cancer treatment and inform strategies to promote healthy aging of cancer survivors.

19.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1167-F1176, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223312

RESUMO

Cellular senescence, a permanent arrest of cell proliferation, is characterized by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which reinforces senescence and exerts noxious effects on adjacent cells. Recent studies have suggested that transplanting small numbers of senescent cells suffices to provoke tissue inflammation. We hypothesized that senescent cells can directly augment renal injury. Primary scattered tubular-like cells (STCs) acquired from pig kidneys were irradiated by 10 Gy of cesium radiation, and 3 wk later cells were characterized for levels of senescence and SASP markers. Control or senescent STCs were then prelabeled and injected (5 × 105 cells) into the aorta of C57BL/6J mice. Four weeks later, renal oxygenation was studied in vivo using 16.4-T magnetic resonance imaging and function by plasma creatinine level. Renal markers of SASP, fibrosis, and microvascular density were evaluated ex vivo. Per flow cytometry, irradiation induced senescence in 80-99% of STCs, which showed increased gene expression of senescence and SASP markers, senescence-associated ß-galactosidase staining, and cytokine levels (especially IL-6) secreted in conditioned medium. Four weeks after injection, cells were detected engrafted in the mouse kidneys with no evidence for rejection. Plasma creatinine and renal tissue hypoxia increased in senescent compared with control cells. Senescent kidneys were more fibrotic, with fewer CD31+ endothelial cells, and showed upregulation of IL-6 gene expression. Therefore, exogenously delivered senescent renal STCs directly injure healthy mouse kidneys. Additional studies are needed to determine the role of endogenous cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and evaluate the utility of senolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Túbulos Renais/transplante , Rim/cirurgia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fibrose , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Sus scrofa , Transplante Heterólogo
20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274385

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammatory conditions like obesity may adversely impact the biological functions underlying the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC). Obesity can impair MSC function by inducing cellular senescence, a growth-arrest program that transitions cells to a pro-inflammatory state. However, the effect of obesity on adipose tissue-derived MSC in human subjects remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that obesity induces senescence and dysfunction in human MSC. Methods: MSC were harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat collected from obese and age-matched non-obese subjects (n = 40) during bariatric or kidney donation surgeries, respectively. MSC were characterized, their migration and proliferation assessed, and cellular senescence evaluated by gene expression of cell-cycle arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype markers. In vitro studies tested MSC effect on injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) function. Results: Mean age was 59 ± 8 years, 66% were females. Obese subjects had higher body-mass index (BMI) than non-obese. MSC from obese subjects exhibited lower proliferative capacities than non-obese-MSC, suggesting decreased function, whereas their migration remained unchanged. Senescent cell burden and phenotype, manifested as p16, p53, IL-6, and MCP-1 gene expression, were significantly upregulated in obese subjects' MSC. BMI correlated directly with expression of p16, p21, and IL-6. Furthermore, co-incubation with non-obese, but not with obese-MSC, restored VEGF expression and tube formation that were blunted in injured HUVEC. Conclusion: Human obesity triggers an early senescence program in adipose tissue-derived MSC. Thus, obesity-induced cellular injury may alter efficacy of this endogenous repair system and hamper the feasibility of autologous transplantation in obese individuals.

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