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1.
Can J Diabetes ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skipping meals is an increasingly common practice to lose weight among North American adults. However, the long-term effect of this practice on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unknown. We assessed whether skipping meals to lose weight is associated with T2DM risk and whether this association is modified by cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Skipping meals to lose weight was assessed by questionnaire in 2,288 adults from the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey and was linked to administrative health databases to determine T2DM incidence in the following 23 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for T2DM. RESULTS: During follow up, 378 T2DM cases were diagnosed. Compared with participants who did not skip meals to lose weight, those who did (2.2%) had a 125% higher risk of T2DM (aHR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.86). This association was no longer present after further adjustment for baseline body mass index (BMI) (aHR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.85). Skipping meals to lose weight was associated with T2DM among participants who were men (n=1,135; aHR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.02) or had a BMI <30 kg/m2 (n=1,676; aHR, 2.64, 95% CI, 1.15 to 6.06), elevated cholesterol (n=1,146; aHR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06 to 4.22), high blood pressure (n=1,133; aHR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.01) and restless sleep (n=1,186; aHR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.25), but not among women, those with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 and those without elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure or restless sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Skipping meals to lose weight may be a predictive modifiable risk factor for developing T2DM over time, potentially working in connection with other T2DM risk factors.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113382, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010636

RESUMO

Self-rated health is widely used in studies of the socioeconomic gradient of health in community-based populations. Its subjectivity may lead to under- or over-estimation of a true underlying socioeconomic gradient and has increased interest in searching for alternative, objective measures of health. Grip strength has emerged as one such alternative for community-based older populations, yet no study has directly assessed the relationship between these two measures and compared their associations with socioeconomic status and health behaviours. Using 26,754 participants aged 45-85 years in the baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging Comprehensive Cohort, we estimated adjusted-grip strength through indirect standardization using age, sex, height, weight, and their square terms and used ANOVA to assess the variance of adjusted-grip strength within and between each self-rated health category. We ran four separate logistic regression models, examining unhealthy tails (those reporting poor health vs. not and those at the bottom 8th percentile of adjusted-grip strength vs. above) and healthy tails (those reporting excellent health vs. not and those at the top 20th percentile of adjusted-grip strength vs. below). Stronger adjusted-grip strength correlated with better self-rated health, but only 2% of the total variance of adjusted-grip strength was explained by variance between the self-rated health categories. While self-rated health largely showed the expected socioeconomic gradients and positive relationships with health enhancing behaviours, adjusted-grip strength showed no clear, consistent associations with either socioeconomic or health behaviour variables. The results give caution about using grip strength as an objective alternative to self-rated health in studies of social inequalities in health. Empirical approaches demand careful considerations as to which dimensions of health and corresponding measures of health are most relevant to the context being studied.

4.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that degree of frailty and neuropathologic burden independently contribute to global cognition and odds of dementia. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of older adults living in Illinois, USA. Participants underwent an annual neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. We included 625 participants (mean age 89.7 ± 6.1 years; 67.5% female) who died and had autopsy. We quantified neuropathology using an index measure of 10 neuropathologic features: ß-amyloid deposition, hippocampal sclerosis, Lewy bodies, tangle density, TDP-43, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, arteriolosclerosis, atherosclerosis, gross and chronic cerebral infarcts. Clinical consensus determined dementia status, which we coded as no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia. A battery of 19 tests spanning multiple domains quantified global cognition. We operationalized frailty using a 41-item frailty index. We employed regression analyses to model relationships between neuropathology, frailty, and dementia. RESULTS: Both frailty and a neuropathology index were independently associated with global cognition and dementia status. These results held after controlling for traditional pathologic measures in a sample of participants with Alzheimer's clinical syndrome. Frailty improved the fit of the model for dementia status (χ2(2) = 72.64; p < 0.0001), and explained an additional 11%-12% of the variance in the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Dementia is a multiply determined condition, to which both general health, as captured by frailty, and neuropathology significantly contribute. This integrative view of dementia and health has implications for prevention and therapy; specifically, future research should evaluate frailty as a means of dementia risk reduction.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947325

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sedentary time (ST) and lack of physical activity increase the risk of adverse outcomes for those living with coronary artery disease (CAD). Little is known about how much ST, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that CAD participants not attending cardiac rehabilitation engage in, the locations where they engage in these behaviors, and how far from home the locations are. METHODS: Participants completed a survey and wore an accelerometer and global positioning system receiver for 7 d at baseline and 6 mo later. RESULTS: Accelerometer analyses (n = 318) showed that participants averaged 468.4 ± 102.7 of ST, 316.1 ± 86.5 of LPA, and 32.9 ± 28.9 of MVPA min/d at baseline. ST and LPA remained stable at 6 mo, whereas MVPA significantly declined. The global positioning system (GPS) analyses (n = 315) showed that most of participant ST, LPA, and MVPA time was spent at home followed by other residential, retail/hospitality, and work locations at baseline and 6 mo. When not at home, the average distance to a given location ranged from approximately 9 to 18 km. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with CAD spent the majority of their time being sedentary. Home was the location used the most to engage in ST, LPA, and MVPA. When not home, ST, LPA, and MVPA were distributed across a variety of locations. The average distance from home to a given location suggests that proximity to home may not be a barrier from an intervention perspective.

6.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: frailty is a public health priority now that the global population is ageing at a rapid rate. A scientifically sound tool to measure frailty and generate population-based reference values is a starting point. OBJECTIVE: in this report, our objectives were to operationalize frailty as deficit accumulation using a standard frailty index (FI), describe levels of frailty in Canadians ≥45 years old and provide national normative data. DESIGN: this is a secondary analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) baseline data. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: about 51,338 individuals (weighted to represent 13,232,651 Canadians), aged 45-85 years, from the tracking and comprehensive cohorts of CLSA. METHODS: after screening all available variables in the pooled dataset, 52 items were selected to construct an FI. Descriptive statistics for the FI and normative data derived from quantile regressions were developed. RESULTS: the average age of the participants was 60.3 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.2-60.5), and 51.5% were female (95% CI: 50.8-52.2). The mean FI score was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.07-0.08) with a standard deviation of 0.06. Frailty was higher among females and with increasing age, and scores >0.2 were present in 4.2% of the sample. National normative data were identified for each year of age for males and females. CONCLUSIONS: the standardized frailty tool and the population-based normative frailty values can help inform discussions about frailty, setting a new bar in the field. Such information can be used by clinicians, researchers, stakeholders and the general public to understand frailty, especially its relationship with age and sex.

7.
Can J Aging ; : 1-16, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419685

RESUMO

There is increasing recognition that using assistive devices can support healthy aging. Minimizing discomfort and loss of function and increasing independence can have a substantial impact physically, psychologically, and financially on persons with functional impairments and resulting activity limitations, as well as on caregivers and communities. However, it remains unclear who uses assistive devices and how device use can influence social participation. The current analysis used CLSA baseline data from 51,338 older adults between the ages of 45 and 85. Measures of socio-demographic, health, and social characteristics were analyzed by sex and age groups. Weighted cross-tabulations were used to report correlations between independent variables and assistive device use for hearing, vision, and mobility. We found that assistive device use was higher among those who were of older age, had less education, were widowed, had lower income, and had poorer health. Assistive devices were used differently according to sex and social participation, providing insight into assistive device use for the well-being of older adults and their families.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907879

RESUMO

Long-term survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) currently approaches that of the general population. The average age of PLWH is currently in the mid-50s in resource-rich countries and is predicted that over 40% of PLWH will be older than 60 within a decade. Similar trends have been confirmed in all communities of PLWH with access to antiretroviral therapies. However, the positive impact on survival has been challenged by several developments. Ageing PLWH have clinical features similar to the general population about 5-10 years older. In addition to the earlier occurrence of common age-related conditions common geriatric syndromes have also impacted this population prematurely. These are often difficult to evaluate and manage conditions usually of multifactorial aetiology. They include polypharmacy, frailty, impaired mobility and falls, sarcopenia, sensory impairment, and increasingly, non-dementing cognitive decline. Cognitive decline is of particular concern to PLWH and their care providers. In the general geriatric population cognitive impairment increases with age and occurs in all populations with a prevalence of over 25% in people over 80. Effective treatments are lacking and therefore minimizing risk factors plays an important role in maintaining healthspan. In the general population geriatric syndromes may increase the risk of cognitive decline. The corollary is that decreasing the risk of their development may limit cognitive impairment. Whether a similar status holds in PLWH is uncertain. This chapter will address the question of whether common geriatric syndromes in PLWH contribute to cognitive impairment. Common risk factors may provide clues to limit or delay cognitive decline.

9.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(1): 174-203, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638131

RESUMO

Objective: We present descriptive information on the cognitive measures used in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Comprehensive Cohort, relate this to information on these measures in the extant literature, and identify key considerations for their use in research and clinical practice.Method: The CLSA Comprehensive Cohort is composed of 30,097 participants aged 45-85 years at baseline who provided a broad range of sociodemographic, physical, social, and psychological health information via questionnaire and took part in detailed physical and cognitive assessments. Cognitive measures included: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - immediate and 5-min delayed recall, Animal Fluency, Mental Alternation Test (MAT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Stroop Test - Victoria Version, Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT), and a Choice Reaction Time (CRT) task.Results: CLSA Comprehensive Cohort sample sizes were far larger than previous studies, and performances on the cognitive measures were similar to comparable groups. Within the CLSA Comprehensive Cohort, main effects of age were observed for all cognitive measures, and main effects of language were observed for all measures except the CRT. Interaction effects (language × age) were observed for the MAT, MPMT Event-based score, all time scores on the Stroop Test, and most COWAT scores. Main effects of education were observed for all measures except for the MPMT Time score in the French sample, and interaction effects (age × education) were observed for the RAVLT (immediate and delayed) for the English sample and the Stroop Dot time for the French sample.Conclusion: This examination of the cognitive measures used in the CLSA Comprehensive Cohort lends support to their use in large studies of health and aging. We propose further exploration of the cognitive measures within the CLSA to make this information relevant to and available for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(4): 658-666, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short Form 36) were assessed. Baseline SLICC FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1,549 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with a mean ± SD age of 35.7 ± 13.3 years and a median disease duration of 1.2 years (interquartile range 0.9-1.5 years) at baseline. The mean ± SD baseline SLICC FI was 0.17 ± 0.08. Over a mean ± SD follow-up of 7.2 ± 3.7 years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC FI values (per 0.05 increase) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.19 [95% confidence interval 1.13-1.25]), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLE Disease Activity Index 2000, baseline SDI, and baseline use of glucocorticoids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressive agents. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the SLICC FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC FI as a valid health measure in SLE.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 72-81, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4676, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611556

RESUMO

Resident adult epithelial stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and differentiation. The stem cell potential of human epidermal keratinocytes is retained in vitro but lost over time suggesting extrinsic and intrinsic regulation. Transcription factor-controlled regulatory circuitries govern cell identity, are sufficient to induce pluripotency and transdifferentiate cells. We investigate whether transcriptional circuitry also governs phenotypic changes within a given cell type by comparing human primary keratinocytes with intrinsically high versus low stem cell potential. Using integrated chromatin and transcriptional profiling, we implicate IRF2 as antagonistic to stemness and show that it binds and regulates active cis-regulatory elements at interferon response and antigen presentation genes. CRISPR-KD of IRF2 in keratinocytes with low stem cell potential increases self-renewal, migration and epidermis formation. These data demonstrate that transcription factor regulatory circuitries, in addition to maintaining cell identity, control plasticity within cell types and offer potential for therapeutic modulation of cell function.


Assuntos
Fator Regulador 2 de Interferon/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fator Regulador 2 de Interferon/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Ativação Transcricional/fisiologia
15.
Psychol Assess ; 31(9): 1081-1091, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135167

RESUMO

Large-scale studies present the opportunity to create normative comparison standards relevant to populations. Sampling weights applied to the sample data facilitate extrapolation to the population of origin, but normative scores are often developed without the use of these sampling weights because the values derived from large samples are presumed to be precise estimates of the population parameter. The present article examines whether applying sample weights in the context of deriving normative comparison standards for measures of cognition would affect the distributions of regression-based normative data when using data from a large population-based study. To address these questions, we examined 3 cognitive measures from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging tracking cohort (N = 14,110, Age 45-84 years at recruitment): Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - Immediate Recall, Animal Fluency, and the Mental Alternation Test. The use of sampling weights resulted in similar model parameter estimates to unweighted regression analyses and similar cumulative frequency distributions to the unweighted analyses. We randomly sampled progressively smaller subsets from the full database to test the hypothesis that sampling weights would help maintain the estimates from the full sample, but discovered that the weighted and unweighted estimates were similar and were less precise with smaller samples. These findings suggest that although use of sampling weights can help mitigate biases in data from sampling procedures, the application of weights to adjust for sampling biases do not appreciably impact the normative data, which lends support to the current practice in creation of normative data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Canadá , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Valores de Referência
16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/mortalidade , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
17.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(1): 137-165, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of age, education and sex on Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT) performance obtained at baseline of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) by neurologically healthy French- and English-speaking subsamples of participants (N = 18,511). METHOD: The CLSA is a nation-wide large epidemiological study with participants aged 45-85 years old at baseline. The MPMT is an event- and time-based measure of prospective memory, with scores of intention, accuracy and need for reminders, administered as part of the Comprehensive data collection. Participants who did not self-report any conditions that could impact cognition were selected, which resulted in 15,103 English- and 3408 French-speaking participants. The samples are stratified according to four levels of education and four age groups (45-54; 55-64; 65-74; 75+). RESULTS: There is a significant age effect for English- and French-speaking participants on the Event-based, Time-based, and Event- + Time-based scores of the MPMT. The effect of the education level was also demonstrated on the three MPMT scores in the English-speaking group. The score 'Intention to perform' was the most sensitive to the effect of age in both the English and French samples. Sex had no impact on performance on the MPMT. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of age and level of education on this new prospective memory task. It informs future research with this measure including the development of normative data in French- and English-speaking Canadians on the Event-based and Time-based MPMT.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336568

RESUMO

This study assessed test-retest reliability and relative validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) and usability of an online 24 h recall among 232 participants (62 years ± 9.1; 49.6% female) from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Participants were asked to complete four 24 h dietary recalls (24HRs) using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada-2014), two SDQ administrations (prior to recalls one and four), and the System Usability Scale (SUS) for ASA24. For the SDQ administrations, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ranged from 0.49 to 0.57 for nutrients and 0.35 to 0.72 for food groups. Mean intakes estimated from the SDQ were lower compared than those from the 24HRs. For nutrients, correlation coefficients were highest for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D (45⁻64 years: 0.59, 0.50, 0.51; >65 years: 0.29, 0.38, 0.49, p < 0.01); Kappas ranged from 0.14 to 0.37 in those 45⁻64 years and 0.17 to 0.32 in participants >65 years. Among the 70% who completed all recalls independently, the SUS indicated poor usability, though the majority reported feeling confident using ASA24. Overall, the SDQ captures intake with varying test-retest reliability and accuracy by nutrient and age. Further research is needed to inform use of a more comprehensive dietary measure in the CLSA.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
SSM Popul Health ; 5: 17-32, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069499

RESUMO

Successful aging is an important policy goal in an aging society. A key indicator of successful aging of a population is whether health inequalities (differences) and inequities (unfair differences) in the population increase or decrease with age. This study investigates how health inequalities and inequities differ across age groups in the Canadian population within the equity framework of equal opportunity for health, using two popular measures of health, the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI) and the Frailty Index (FI). We use the 2009-10 Canadian Health Measures Survey. We first quantify the degree of health inequality by calculating the Gini coefficient for the distributions of the HUI and the FI within three age groups (20-44, 45-64, and 65-79 years). We then identify sources of health inequality by using regression models and decomposing inequality into ethically acceptable and unacceptable components. We finally quantify the degree of health inequity by calculating the Gini coefficient for each health measure and each age group after standardizing for fairness. We find that the magnitudes of inequality and inequity in the HUI and the FI in each of the three age groups are policy relevant. The magnitude and age-related dynamics of health inequality and inequity depend on the choice of the health measures. In all three age groups, inequality and inequity in health measured by the HUI are larger than those measured by the FI. Across the three age groups, inequality and inequity are stable in the HUI but divergent in the FI. This study contributes to the methodological development to support policies for successful aging. Examination of alternative notions of health captured by the HUI and the FI contributes to the exploration of how the fair distribution of each aspect of health may characterize a successfully aging population.

20.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 4, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite knowing better how to screen older adults, understanding how frailty progression might be modified is unclear. We explored effects of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on changes in frailty in community-dwelling adults aged 50+ years who participated in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). METHODS: Rates of change in frailty over 10 years were examined using the 30-item CaMos Frailty Index (CFI). Incident and prevalent low-trauma fractures were categorized by fracture site into hip, clinical vertebral and non-hip-non-vertebral fractures. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models accounted for the time of frailty assessment (baseline, 5 and 10 years), sex, age, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), physical activity, bone mineral density, antiresorptive therapy, health-related quality of life (HRQL), cognitive status, and other factors for frailty or fractures. Multiple imputation and scenario analyses addressed bias due to attrition or missing data. RESULTS: The cohort included 5566 women (mean ± standard deviation: 66.8 ± 9.3 years) and 2187 men (66.3 ± 9.5 years) with the mean baseline CFI scores of 0.15 ± 0.11 and 0.12 ± 0.10, respectively. Incident fractures and obesity most strongly predicted frailty progression in multivariable analyses. The impact of fractures differed between the sexes. With each incident hip fracture, the adjusted mean CFI accelerated per 5 years by 0.07 in women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.11) and by 0.12 in men (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.16). An incident vertebral fracture increased frailty in women (0.05, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.08) but not in men (0.01, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.09). Irrespective of sex and prevalent fractures, baseline obesity was associated with faster frailty progression: a 5-year increase in the adjusted mean CFI ranged from 0.01 in overweight (BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) to 0.10 in obese individuals (BMI: ≥ 40 kg/m2). Greater physical activity and better HRQL decreased frailty over time. The results remained robust in scenario analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Older women and men with new vertebral fractures, hip fractures or obesity represent high-risk groups that should be considered for frailty interventions.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
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