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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907879

RESUMO

Long-term survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) currently approaches that of the general population. The average age of PLWH is currently in the mid-50s in resource-rich countries and is predicted that over 40% of PLWH will be older than 60 within a decade. Similar trends have been confirmed in all communities of PLWH with access to antiretroviral therapies. However, the positive impact on survival has been challenged by several developments. Ageing PLWH have clinical features similar to the general population about 5-10 years older. In addition to the earlier occurrence of common age-related conditions common geriatric syndromes have also impacted this population prematurely. These are often difficult to evaluate and manage conditions usually of multifactorial aetiology. They include polypharmacy, frailty, impaired mobility and falls, sarcopenia, sensory impairment, and increasingly, non-dementing cognitive decline. Cognitive decline is of particular concern to PLWH and their care providers. In the general geriatric population cognitive impairment increases with age and occurs in all populations with a prevalence of over 25% in people over 80. Effective treatments are lacking and therefore minimizing risk factors plays an important role in maintaining healthspan. In the general population geriatric syndromes may increase the risk of cognitive decline. The corollary is that decreasing the risk of their development may limit cognitive impairment. Whether a similar status holds in PLWH is uncertain. This chapter will address the question of whether common geriatric syndromes in PLWH contribute to cognitive impairment. Common risk factors may provide clues to limit or delay cognitive decline.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4676, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611556

RESUMO

Resident adult epithelial stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and differentiation. The stem cell potential of human epidermal keratinocytes is retained in vitro but lost over time suggesting extrinsic and intrinsic regulation. Transcription factor-controlled regulatory circuitries govern cell identity, are sufficient to induce pluripotency and transdifferentiate cells. We investigate whether transcriptional circuitry also governs phenotypic changes within a given cell type by comparing human primary keratinocytes with intrinsically high versus low stem cell potential. Using integrated chromatin and transcriptional profiling, we implicate IRF2 as antagonistic to stemness and show that it binds and regulates active cis-regulatory elements at interferon response and antigen presentation genes. CRISPR-KD of IRF2 in keratinocytes with low stem cell potential increases self-renewal, migration and epidermis formation. These data demonstrate that transcription factor regulatory circuitries, in addition to maintaining cell identity, control plasticity within cell types and offer potential for therapeutic modulation of cell function.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

6.
Psychol Assess ; 31(9): 1081-1091, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135167

RESUMO

Large-scale studies present the opportunity to create normative comparison standards relevant to populations. Sampling weights applied to the sample data facilitate extrapolation to the population of origin, but normative scores are often developed without the use of these sampling weights because the values derived from large samples are presumed to be precise estimates of the population parameter. The present article examines whether applying sample weights in the context of deriving normative comparison standards for measures of cognition would affect the distributions of regression-based normative data when using data from a large population-based study. To address these questions, we examined 3 cognitive measures from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging tracking cohort (N = 14,110, Age 45-84 years at recruitment): Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - Immediate Recall, Animal Fluency, and the Mental Alternation Test. The use of sampling weights resulted in similar model parameter estimates to unweighted regression analyses and similar cumulative frequency distributions to the unweighted analyses. We randomly sampled progressively smaller subsets from the full database to test the hypothesis that sampling weights would help maintain the estimates from the full sample, but discovered that the weighted and unweighted estimates were similar and were less precise with smaller samples. These findings suggest that although use of sampling weights can help mitigate biases in data from sampling procedures, the application of weights to adjust for sampling biases do not appreciably impact the normative data, which lends support to the current practice in creation of normative data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.

9.
Clin Neuropsychol ; : 1-30, 2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present descriptive information on the cognitive measures used in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Comprehensive Cohort, relate this to information on these measures in the extant literature, and identify key considerations for their use in research and clinical practice. METHOD: The CLSA Comprehensive Cohort is composed of 30,097 participants aged 45-85 years at baseline who provided a broad range of sociodemographic, physical, social, and psychological health information via questionnaire and took part in detailed physical and cognitive assessments. Cognitive measures included: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - immediate and 5-min delayed recall, Animal Fluency, Mental Alternation Test (MAT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Stroop Test - Victoria Version, Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT), and a Choice Reaction Time (CRT) task. RESULTS: CLSA Comprehensive Cohort sample sizes were far larger than previous studies, and performances on the cognitive measures were similar to comparable groups. Within the CLSA Comprehensive Cohort, main effects of age were observed for all cognitive measures, and main effects of language were observed for all measures except the CRT. Interaction effects (language × age) were observed for the MAT, MPMT Event-based score, all time scores on the Stroop Test, and most COWAT scores. Main effects of education were observed for all measures except for the MPMT Time score in the French sample, and interaction effects (age × education) were observed for the RAVLT (immediate and delayed) for the English sample and the Stroop Dot time for the French sample. CONCLUSION: This examination of the cognitive measures used in the CLSA Comprehensive Cohort lends support to their use in large studies of health and aging. We propose further exploration of the cognitive measures within the CLSA to make this information relevant to and available for clinical practice.

10.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(1): 137-165, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of age, education and sex on Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT) performance obtained at baseline of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) by neurologically healthy French- and English-speaking subsamples of participants (N = 18,511). METHOD: The CLSA is a nation-wide large epidemiological study with participants aged 45-85 years old at baseline. The MPMT is an event- and time-based measure of prospective memory, with scores of intention, accuracy and need for reminders, administered as part of the Comprehensive data collection. Participants who did not self-report any conditions that could impact cognition were selected, which resulted in 15,103 English- and 3408 French-speaking participants. The samples are stratified according to four levels of education and four age groups (45-54; 55-64; 65-74; 75+). RESULTS: There is a significant age effect for English- and French-speaking participants on the Event-based, Time-based, and Event- + Time-based scores of the MPMT. The effect of the education level was also demonstrated on the three MPMT scores in the English-speaking group. The score 'Intention to perform' was the most sensitive to the effect of age in both the English and French samples. Sex had no impact on performance on the MPMT. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of age and level of education on this new prospective memory task. It informs future research with this measure including the development of normative data in French- and English-speaking Canadians on the Event-based and Time-based MPMT.

11.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336568

RESUMO

This study assessed test-retest reliability and relative validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) and usability of an online 24 h recall among 232 participants (62 years ± 9.1; 49.6% female) from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Participants were asked to complete four 24 h dietary recalls (24HRs) using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada-2014), two SDQ administrations (prior to recalls one and four), and the System Usability Scale (SUS) for ASA24. For the SDQ administrations, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ranged from 0.49 to 0.57 for nutrients and 0.35 to 0.72 for food groups. Mean intakes estimated from the SDQ were lower compared than those from the 24HRs. For nutrients, correlation coefficients were highest for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D (45⁻64 years: 0.59, 0.50, 0.51; >65 years: 0.29, 0.38, 0.49, p < 0.01); Kappas ranged from 0.14 to 0.37 in those 45⁻64 years and 0.17 to 0.32 in participants >65 years. Among the 70% who completed all recalls independently, the SUS indicated poor usability, though the majority reported feeling confident using ASA24. Overall, the SDQ captures intake with varying test-retest reliability and accuracy by nutrient and age. Further research is needed to inform use of a more comprehensive dietary measure in the CLSA.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
SSM Popul Health ; 5: 17-32, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069499

RESUMO

Successful aging is an important policy goal in an aging society. A key indicator of successful aging of a population is whether health inequalities (differences) and inequities (unfair differences) in the population increase or decrease with age. This study investigates how health inequalities and inequities differ across age groups in the Canadian population within the equity framework of equal opportunity for health, using two popular measures of health, the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI) and the Frailty Index (FI). We use the 2009-10 Canadian Health Measures Survey. We first quantify the degree of health inequality by calculating the Gini coefficient for the distributions of the HUI and the FI within three age groups (20-44, 45-64, and 65-79 years). We then identify sources of health inequality by using regression models and decomposing inequality into ethically acceptable and unacceptable components. We finally quantify the degree of health inequity by calculating the Gini coefficient for each health measure and each age group after standardizing for fairness. We find that the magnitudes of inequality and inequity in the HUI and the FI in each of the three age groups are policy relevant. The magnitude and age-related dynamics of health inequality and inequity depend on the choice of the health measures. In all three age groups, inequality and inequity in health measured by the HUI are larger than those measured by the FI. Across the three age groups, inequality and inequity are stable in the HUI but divergent in the FI. This study contributes to the methodological development to support policies for successful aging. Examination of alternative notions of health captured by the HUI and the FI contributes to the exploration of how the fair distribution of each aspect of health may characterize a successfully aging population.

13.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 4, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite knowing better how to screen older adults, understanding how frailty progression might be modified is unclear. We explored effects of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on changes in frailty in community-dwelling adults aged 50+ years who participated in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). METHODS: Rates of change in frailty over 10 years were examined using the 30-item CaMos Frailty Index (CFI). Incident and prevalent low-trauma fractures were categorized by fracture site into hip, clinical vertebral and non-hip-non-vertebral fractures. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models accounted for the time of frailty assessment (baseline, 5 and 10 years), sex, age, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), physical activity, bone mineral density, antiresorptive therapy, health-related quality of life (HRQL), cognitive status, and other factors for frailty or fractures. Multiple imputation and scenario analyses addressed bias due to attrition or missing data. RESULTS: The cohort included 5566 women (mean ± standard deviation: 66.8 ± 9.3 years) and 2187 men (66.3 ± 9.5 years) with the mean baseline CFI scores of 0.15 ± 0.11 and 0.12 ± 0.10, respectively. Incident fractures and obesity most strongly predicted frailty progression in multivariable analyses. The impact of fractures differed between the sexes. With each incident hip fracture, the adjusted mean CFI accelerated per 5 years by 0.07 in women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.11) and by 0.12 in men (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.16). An incident vertebral fracture increased frailty in women (0.05, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.08) but not in men (0.01, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.09). Irrespective of sex and prevalent fractures, baseline obesity was associated with faster frailty progression: a 5-year increase in the adjusted mean CFI ranged from 0.01 in overweight (BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) to 0.10 in obese individuals (BMI: ≥ 40 kg/m2). Greater physical activity and better HRQL decreased frailty over time. The results remained robust in scenario analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Older women and men with new vertebral fractures, hip fractures or obesity represent high-risk groups that should be considered for frailty interventions.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185352, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People aging with HIV show variable health trajectories. Our objective was to identify longitudinal predictors of frailty severity and mortality among a group aging with HIV. METHODS: Exploratory analyses employing a multistate transition model, with data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study, based in Northern Italy, begun in 2004. Participants were followed over four years from their first available visit. We included all 963 participants (mean age 46.8±7.1; 29% female; 89% undetectable HIV viral load; median current CD4 count 549, IQR 405-720; nadir CD4 count 180, 81-280) with four-year data. Frailty was quantified using a 31-item frailty index. Outcomes were frailty index score or mortality at four-year follow-up. Candidate predictor variables were baseline frailty index score, demographic (age, sex), HIV-disease related (undetectable HIV viral load, current CD4+ T-cell count, nadir CD4 count, duration of HIV infection, and duration of antiretroviral therapy [ARV] exposure), and behavioral factors (smoking, injection drug use (IDU), and hepatitis C virus co-infection). RESULTS: Four-year mortality was 3.0% (n = 29). In multivariable analyses, independent predictors of frailty index at follow-up were baseline frailty index (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07), female sex (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98), nadir CD4 cell count (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99), duration of HIV infection (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12), duration of ARV exposure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), and smoking pack-years (1.03, 1.01-1.05). Independent predictors of mortality were baseline frailty index (OR 1.19, 1.02-1.38), current CD4 count (0.34, 0.20-0.60), and IDU (2.89, 1.30-6.42). CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, HIV-disease related, and social and behavioral factors appear to confer risk for changes in frailty severity and mortality among people aging with HIV.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Multivariada
15.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 31(6-7): 1188-1203, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. METHOD: We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. CONCLUSIONS: Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
17.
SLAS Discov ; 22(5): 571-582, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345372

RESUMO

Oral and intestinal mucositis is a debilitating side effect of radiation treatment. A mouse model of radiation-induced mucositis leads to weight loss and tissue damage, reflecting the human ailment as it responds to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), the standard-of-care treatment. Cultured intestinal crypt organoids allowed the development of an assay monitoring the effect of treatments of intestinal epithelium to radiation-induced damage. This in vitro assay resembles the mouse model as KGF and roof plate-specific spondin-1 (RSPO1) enhanced crypt organoid recovery following radiation. Screening identified compounds that increased the survival of organoids postradiation. Testing of these compounds revealed that the organoids changed their responses over time. Unbiased transcriptome analysis was performed on crypt organoid cultures at various time points in culture to investigate this adaptive behavior. A number of genes and pathways were found to be modulated over time, providing a rationale for the altered sensitivity of the organoid cultures. This report describes an in vitro assay that reflects aspects of human disease. The assay was used to identify bioactive compounds, which served as probes to interrogate the biology of crypt organoids over prolonged culture. The pathways that are changing over time may offer potential targets for treatment of mucositis.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organoides/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
19.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 33(2): 157-163, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869500

RESUMO

Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living). In cross-sectional analyses, odds of SCA were assessed in relation to HIV-related clinical data, HIV-Associated Non-AIDS (HANA) conditions, multimorbidity (≥2HANA conditions), and frailty. A frailty index was calculated as the number of deficits present out of 37 health variables. SCA was identified in 38.8% of participants. Despite no differences in average chronologic age between groups, SCA participants had significantly fewer HANA conditions, a lower frailty index, and were less likely to have hypertension. In addition, hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, p = .04), multimorbidity (OR = 0.35, p = .05), and frailty (OR = 0.64, p = .04) were significantly associated with odds of SCA. Frailty is associated with the likelihood of SCA in people living with HIV. This defines an opportunity to apply knowledge from geriatric population research to people aging with HIV to better appreciate the complexity of their health status.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 38(9): 827-838, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27670708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of labour and pregnancy factors on long-term pelvic floor health outcomes. METHODS: This population-based cohort study was conducted using linkage between the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, the Medical Services Insurance Database, and the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database from 1988 to 2006; this allowed for the evaluation of patient utilization of care providers for pelvic floor disorders and captured conservative and surgical interventions. We compared rates of urinary and anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fistula disorders in women undergoing Caesarean section (CS) without labour and women undergoing labour with any method of delivery. Multivariate logistic regression and survival (time-to-event) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Absolute risks for the selected pelvic floor health outcomes were low, regardless of whether labour was experienced in the first pregnancy. Women with one or more deliveries who had a CS without labour in their first pregnancy had reduced risks for all pelvic floor health outcomes, except fistula formation, and they were also less likely to develop these outcomes during the study period. CONCLUSION: Women undergoing obstetrically indicated CS without labour in their first delivery may have reduced risks of pelvic floor health disorders, even after multiple deliveries. These findings contribute important information for health care providers when counselling women and their families who are weighing the risk of long-term pelvic floor disorders against the benefits of spontaneous vaginal delivery.

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