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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657123

RESUMO

Large singlet exciton diffusion lengths are a hallmark of high performance in organic based devices such as photovoltaics, chemical sensors, and photodetectors. In this study, exciton dynamics of a two-dimensional covalent organic framework, COF-5, is investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation, the COF-5 exciton decays via three pathways: 1) excimer formation (4 ± 2 ps), 2) excimer relaxation (160 ± 40 ps), and 3) excimer decay (>3 ns). Excita-tion fluence-dependent transient absorption studies suggest that COF-5 has a relatively large diffusion coefficient (0.08 cm2/s). Furthermore, exciton-exciton annihilation processes are characterized as a function of COF-5 crystallite domain size in four different samples, which reveal domain-size dependent exciton diffusion kinetics. These results reveal that exciton diffusion in COF-5 is constrained by its crystalline domain size. These insights indicate the outstanding promise of delocalized excitonic processes available in 2D COFs, which motivate their continued design and implementation into optoelectronic devices.

2.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456192

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that molecular aggregation structures in precursor solutions of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers have substantial influence on polymer film morphology, exciton and charge carrier transport dynamics, and hence, the resultant device performance. To distinguish photophysical impacts due to increasing π-conjugation from chain lengthening and π-π stacking from single/multi chain aggregation in solution and film, we used oligomers of a well-studied charge transfer polymer PTB7 with different lengths as models to reveal intrinsic photophysical properties of a conjugated segment in the absence of inter-segment aggregation. In comparison with previously studied photophysical properties in polymeric PTB7, we found that oligomer dynamics are dominated by a process of planarization of the conjugated backbone into a quinoidal structure that resembles the self-folded polymer and that, when its emission is isolated, this quinoidal excited state resembling the planar polymer chain exhibits substantial charge transfer character via solvent-dependent emission shifts. Furthermore, the oligomers distinctly lack the long-lived charge separated species characteristic of PTB7, suggesting that the progression from charge transfer character in isolated chains to exciton splitting in neat polymer solution is modulated by the interchain interactions enabled by self-folding.

3.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 70: 353-377, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112459

RESUMO

This article reviews thermal properties of semiconductor and emergent plasmonic nanomaterials, focusing on mechanisms through which hot carriers and phonons are produced and dissipated as well as the related impacts on optoelectronic properties. Elevated equilibrium temperatures, of particular relevance for implementation of nanomaterials in devices, affect absorptive and radiative transitions as well as emission efficiency that can present reversible and irreversible changes with temperature. In noble metal or doped semiconductor/insulator nanomaterials, hot carriers and lattice heating can substantially influence localized surface plasmon resonances and yield large ultrafast changes in transmission or strongly oscillatory coherences. Transient optical and diffraction characterizations enable nonequilibrium investigations of phonon dynamics and cooling such as lattice expansion and crystal phase stability. Timescales of nanoparticle thermalization with surroundings and transport of heat within films of such materials are also discussed.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

5.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10008-10015, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226751

RESUMO

The optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have led to efforts to integrate them as the active material in light-emitting diodes, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Understanding related high carrier injection conditions is therefore critical as resultant thermal effects can impact optical properties. The physical integrity of NCs is indeed questionable as recent transient X-ray diffraction studies have suggested that nanoscopic particles reversibly lose crystalline order, or melt, under high fluence photoexcitation. Informed by such studies, here, we examine CdSe NCs under elevated fluences to determine the impact of lattice disordering on optical properties. To this end, we implement intensity-dependent transient absorption using both one- and two-pump methods where the latter effectively subtracts out the NC optical signatures associated with lower fluence photoexcitation, especially band-edge features. At elevated fluences, we observe a long-lived induced absorption at a lower energy than the crystalline-NC bandgap across a wide range of sizes that follows power-dependent trends and kinetics consistent with the prior transient X-ray measurements. NC photoluminescence studies provide further evidence that melting influences optical properties. These methods of characterizing bandgap narrowing caused by lattice disordering could facilitate routes to improved optical amplification and band-edge emission at high excitation density.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 149(5): 054201, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089377

RESUMO

We propose a method for interactively controlling multi-species atomic and molecular systems with incoherent light. The technique is referred to as shaped incoherent light for control (SILC), which entails dynamically tailoring the spectrum of a broadband incoherent source to control atomic and molecular scale kinetics. Optimal SILC light patterns can be discovered with adaptive learning techniques where the system's observed response is fed back to the control for adjustment aiming to improve the objective. To demonstrate this concept, we optimized a SILC source to optimally control the evolving hue in near-IR to visible upconverting phosphors, which share many similarities with chemical reaction kinetics including non-linear behavior. Thus, the results suggest that SILC may be a valuable tool for the control of chemical kinetics with tailored incoherent light.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(16): 4481-4487, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011208

RESUMO

We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) measurements on dispersions of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as a function of particle size and pump fluence. Upon photoexcitation, we observe depletion of stimulated Raman gain corresponding to generation of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons followed by recovery on picosecond timescales. At higher fluences, production of multiple excitons slows recovery of FSRS signals, which we attribute to sustained increases of LO phonon populations due to multiexcitonic Auger heating. Owing to the discretized electronic structure of these NCs, such heating cannot be readily monitored via electronic spectroscopic analysis of high-energy band tails as has been performed for higher-dimensional materials. Notably, recovery timescales exceed those of the biexcitonic Auger recombination process and as such reveal overall thermalization timescales likely owing to an acoustic phonon thermalization bottleneck that dictates the cooling timescale.

8.
Science ; 361(6397): 52-57, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930093

RESUMO

Polymerization of monomers into periodic two-dimensional networks provides structurally precise, layered macromolecular sheets that exhibit desirable mechanical, optoelectronic, and molecular transport properties. Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) offer broad monomer scope but are generally isolated as powders comprising aggregated nanometer-scale crystallites. We found that 2D COF formation could be controlled using a two-step procedure in which monomers are added slowly to preformed nanoparticle seeds. The resulting 2D COFs are isolated as single-crystalline, micrometer-sized particles. Transient absorption spectroscopy of the dispersed COF nanoparticles revealed improvement in signal quality by two to three orders of magnitude relative to polycrystalline powder samples, and suggests exciton diffusion over longer length scales than those obtained through previous approaches. These findings should enable a broad exploration of synthetic 2D polymer structures and properties.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(1): 442-448, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191022

RESUMO

We demonstrate that coherent acoustic phonons derived from plasmonic nanoparticles can modulate electronic interactions with proximal excitonic molecular species. A series of gold bipyramids with systematically varied aspect ratios and corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance energies, functionalized with a J-aggregated thiacarbocyanine dye molecule, produces two hybridized states that exhibit clear anticrossing behavior with a Rabi splitting energy of 120 meV. In metal nanoparticles, photoexcitation generates coherent acoustic phonons that cause oscillations in the plasmon resonance energy. In the coupled system, these photogenerated oscillations alter the metal nanoparticle's energetic contribution to the hybridized system and, as a result, change the coupling between the plasmon and exciton. We demonstrate that such modulations in the hybridization are consistent across a wide range of bipyramid ensembles. We also use finite-difference time domain calculations to develop a simple model describing this behavior. Such oscillatory plasmonic-excitonic nanomaterials offer a route to manipulate and dynamically tune the interactions of plasmonic/excitonic systems and unlock a range of potential applications.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5314-5320, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753318

RESUMO

Ultrafast optical pump, X-ray diffraction probe experiments were performed on CdSe nanocrystal (NC) colloidal dispersions as functions of particle size, polytype, and pump fluence. Bragg peak shifts related to heating and peak amplitude reduction associated with lattice disordering are observed. For smaller NCs, melting initiates upon absorption of as few as ∼15 electron-hole pair excitations per NC on average (0.89 excitations/nm3 for a 1.5 nm radius) with roughly the same excitation density inducing melting for all examined NCs. Diffraction intensity recovery kinetics, attributable to recrystallization, occur over hundreds of picoseconds with slower recoveries for larger particles. Zincblende and wurtzite NCs revert to initial structures following intense photoexcitation suggesting melting occurs primarily at the surface, as supported by simulations. Electronic structure calculations relate significant band gap narrowing with decreased crystallinity. These findings reflect the need to consider the physical stability of nanomaterials and related electronic impacts in high intensity excitation applications such as lasing and solid-state lighting.

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