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1.
Mol Metab ; 29: 76-85, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human blood metabolites are influenced by a number of lifestyle and environmental factors. Identification of these factors and the proper quantification of their relevance provides insights into human biological and metabolic disease processes, is key for standardized translation of metabolite biomarkers into clinical applications, and is a prerequisite for comparability of data between studies. However, so far only limited data exist from large and well-phenotyped human cohorts and current methods for analysis do not fully account for the characteristics of these data. The primary aim of this study was to identify, quantify and compare the impact of a comprehensive set of clinical and lifestyle related factors on metabolite levels in three large human cohorts. To achieve this goal, we improve current methodology by developing a principled analysis approach, which could be translated to other cohorts and metabolite panels. METHODS: 63 Metabolites (amino acids, acylcarnitines) were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in three cohorts (total N = 16,222). Supported by a simulation study evaluating various analytical approaches, we developed an analysis pipeline including preprocessing, identification, and quantification of factors affecting metabolite levels. We comprehensively identified uni- and multivariable metabolite associations considering 29 environmental and clinical factors and performed metabolic pathway enrichment and network analyses. RESULTS: Inverse normal transformation of batch corrected and outlier removed metabolite levels accompanied by linear regression analysis proved to be the best suited method to deal with the metabolite data. Association analyses revealed numerous uni- and multivariable significant associations. 15 of the analyzed 29 factors explained >1% of variance for at least one of the metabolites. Strongest factors are application of steroid hormones, reticulocytes, waist-to-hip ratio, sex, haematocrit, and age. Effect sizes of factors are comparable across studies. CONCLUSIONS: We introduced a principled approach for the analysis of MS data allowing identification, and quantification of effects of clinical and lifestyle factors with metabolite levels. We detected a number of known and novel associations broadening our understanding of the regulation of the human metabolome. The large heterogeneity observed between cohorts could almost completely be explained by differences in the distribution of influencing factors emphasizing the necessity of a proper confounder analysis when interpreting metabolite associations.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222927, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) may be caused by oxidative stress. An important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the methylglyoxal-derived formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Methylglyoxal is detoxified by Glyoxalase I (GLO1). A reduction in GLO1 activity results in increased ROS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GLO1 have been linked to various inflammatory diseases. Here, we analyzed whether common GLO1 variants are associated with alcoholic (ACP) and non-alcoholic CP (NACP). METHODS: Using melting curve analysis, we genotyped a screening cohort of 223 ACP, 218 NACP patients, and 328 controls for 11 tagging SNPs defined by the SNPinfo LD TAG SNP Selection tool and the functionally relevant variant rs4746. For selected variants the cohorts were extended to up to 1,441 patient samples. RESULTS: In the ACP cohort, comparison of genotypes for rs1937780 between patients and controls displayed an ambiguous result in the screening cohort (p = 0.08). However, in the extended cohort of 1,441 patients no statistically significant association was found for the comparison of genotypes (p = 0.11), nor in logistic regression analysis (p = 0.214, OR 1.072, 95% CI 0.961-1.196). In the NACP screening cohort SNPs rs937662, rs1699012, and rs4746 displayed an ambiguous result when patients were compared to controls in the recessive or dominant model (p = 0.08, 0.08, and 0.07, respectively). Again, these associations were not confirmed in the extended cohorts (rs937662, dominant model: p = 0.07, logistic regression: p = 0.07, OR 1.207, 95% CI 0.985-1.480) or in the replication cohorts for rs4746 (Germany, p = 0.42, OR 1.080, 95% CI 0.673-1.124; France, p = 0.19, OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06; China, p = 0.24, OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.90-1.54) and rs1699012 (Germany, Munich; p = 0.279, OR 0.903, 95% CI 0.750-1.087). CONCLUSIONS: Common GLO1 variants do not increase chronic pancreatitis risk.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proper fixation of central venous catheters (CVCs) is an integral part of safety to avoid dislodgement and malfunction. However, the effectiveness of different CVC securement sutures is unknown. METHODS: Analysis of maximum dislodgement forces for CVCs from three different manufacturers using four different suture techniques in an in vitro tensile loading experiment: 1. "clamp only", 2. "clamp and compression suture", 3. "finger trap" and 4. "complete", i.e., "clamp + compression suture + finger trap". Twenty-five tests were performed for each of the three CVC models and four securement suture techniques (n = 300 test runs). RESULTS: The primary cause of catheter dislodgement was sliding through the clamp in techniques 1 and 2. In contrast, rupture of the suture was the predominant cause for dislodgement in techniques 2 and 3. Median (IQR 25-75%) dislodgement forces were 26.0 (16.6) N in technique 1, 26.5 (18.8) N in technique 2, 76.7 (18.7) N in technique 3, and 84.8 (11.8) N in technique 4. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences (P < .001) between all pairwise combinations of techniques except technique 1 vs. 2 (P = .98). CONCLUSIONS: "Finger trap" fixation at the segmentation site considerably increases forces required for dislodgement compared to clamp-based approaches.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

6.
Exp Dermatol ; 28(9): 1079-1082, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338879

RESUMO

Since Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system to study phenotypes of oncogenic mutations and to identify new anti-cancer drugs, we generated human BRAFV600E homologous dRaf mutant (dRafA572E ) Drosophila melanogaster strains to use these for characterisation of mutant phenotypes and exploit these phenotypes for drug testing. For mutant gene expression, the GAL4/UAS expression system was used. dRafA572E was expressed tissue-specific in the eye, epidermis, heart, wings, secretory glands and in the whole animal. Expression of dRaf A572E under the control of an eye-specific driver led to semi-lethality and a rough eye phenotype. The vast majority of other tissue-specific and ubiquitous drivers led to a lethal phenotype only. The rough eye phenotype was used to test BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and MEK1/2 inhibitor cobimetinib. There was no phenotype rescue by this treatment. However, a significant rescue of the lethal phenotype was observed under a gut-specific driver. Here, MEK1/2 inhibitor cobimetinib rescued Drosophila larvae to reach pupal stage in 37% of cases as compared to 1% in control experiments. Taken together, the BRAFV600E homolog dRaf A572E exerts mostly lethal effects in Drosophila. Gut-specific dRaf A572E expression might in future be developed further for drug testing.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5008-5023, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169883

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Steroid hormones are important regulators of physiological processes in humans and are under genetic control. A link to coronary artery disease (CAD) is supposed. OBJECTIVE: Our main objective was to identify genetic loci influencing steroid hormone levels. As a secondary aim, we searched for causal effects of steroid hormones on CAD. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide meta-association studies for eight steroid hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), estradiol, and testosterone in two independent cohorts (LIFE-Adult, LIFE-Heart, maximum n = 7667), and progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and aldosterone in LIFE-Heart only (maximum n = 2070). All genome-wide significant loci were tested for sex interactions. Furthermore, we tested whether previously reported CAD single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with our steroid hormone panel and investigated causal links between hormone levels and CAD status using Mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. RESULTS: We discovered 15 novel associated loci for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, DHEAS, cortisol, androstenedione, and estradiol. Five of these loci relate to genes directly involved in steroid metabolism, that is, CYP21A1, CYP11B1, CYP17A1, STS, and HSD17B12, almost completing the set of steroidogenic enzymes with genetic associations. Sexual dimorphisms were found for seven of the novel loci. Other loci correspond, for example, to the WNT4/ß-catenin pathway. MR revealed that cortisol, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and DHEA-S had causal effects on CAD. We also observed enrichment of cortisol and testosterone associations among known CAD hits. CONCLUSION: Our study greatly improves insight into genetic regulation of steroid hormones and their dependency on sex. These results could serve as a basis for analyzing sexual dimorphism in other complex diseases.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893847

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyse (i) the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the JUN and FOS core promoters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), knee-osteoarthritis (OA), and normal controls (NC); (ii) their functional influence on JUN/FOS transcription levels; and (iii) their associations with the occurrence of RA or knee-OA. JUN and FOS promoter SNPs were identified in an initial screening population using the Non-Isotopic RNase Cleavage Assay (NIRCA); their functional influence was analysed using reporter gene assays. Genotyping was done in RA (n = 298), knee-OA (n = 277), and NC (n = 484) samples. For replication, significant associations were validated in a Finnish cohort (OA: n = 72, NC: n = 548). Initially, two SNPs were detected in the JUN promoter and two additional SNPs in the FOS promoter in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD). JUN promoter SNP rs4647009 caused significant downregulation of reporter gene expression, whereas reporter gene expression was significantly upregulated in the presence of the FOS promoter SNPs. The homozygous genotype of FOS promoter SNPs showed an association with the susceptibility for knee-OA (odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2⁻3.7, p = 0.0086). This association was successfully replicated in the Finnish Health 2000 study cohort (allelic OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.2⁻2.5, p = 0.006). FOS Promoter variants may represent relevant susceptibility markers for knee-OA.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Finlândia , Genes Reporter , Alemanha , Células HeLa , Humanos
10.
Int J Legal Med ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167776

RESUMO

The aim of the given study was to test the in situ stability of biochemical markers of cerebral damage and acute phase response in the early post-mortem interval to assess their usability for forensic pathology. A monocentric, prospective study investigated post-mortem femoral venous blood samples at four time points obtained within 48 h post-mortem starting at the death of 20 deceased, using commercial immunoassays for the ten parameters: S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Significant changes in serum levels were observed only later than 2 h after death for all markers. Inter-laboratory comparability was high, and intra-assay precision was sufficient for most markers. Most of the biomarker levels depended on the severity of hemolysis and lipemia but were robust against freeze-thaw cycles. Serum levels increased with longer post-mortem intervals for S100B, NSE, ferritin, sTNFR1, and LDH (for all p < 0.001) but decreased over this period for CRP (p = 0.089) and PCT (p < 0.001). Largely unchanged median values were found for GFAP (p = 0.139), BDNF (p = 0.106), and IL-6 (p = 0.094). Serum levels of CRP (p = 0.059) and LDH (p = 0.109) did not differ significantly between the final ante-mortem (resuscitation) and the first post-mortem sample (moment of death). Collecting the post-mortem blood sample as soon as possible will reduce the influence of post-mortem blood changes. Serum GFAP for detection of cerebral damage as well as serum IL-6 and CRP as proof of acute phase response seemed to be preferable due to their in situ stability in the first 2 days after death.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12811, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143737

RESUMO

Post-mortem biochemistry of serum markers has been the subject of numerous studies, but in-situ marker stability after death has not been sufficiently evaluated yet. Such laboratory analyses are especially necessary in the cases of functional deaths without morphological evidence of the death causes and also in cardiac death cases with only very short survival times. The aim of the study was to determine the post-mortem stability of commonly-used serum markers at predefined time points. In 20 cases, peripheral venous samples were taken starting immediately after circulatory arrest and ending 48 hours after death. Serum creatinine, urea, 3-ß-hydroxybutyrate, tryptase, myoglobin, troponin T, creatin kinase and creatin kinase-MB have been included. For all markers, we observed increasing marker levels for longer post-mortem intervals. Significant marker level changes began two hours after death. Excessive increases were observed for cardiac and muscle markers. Marker levels showed high intra-assay precision. Furthermore, the markers were robust enough to withstand freeze-thaw cycles. Potential contamination of arteriovenous blood did not influence the post-mortem marker levels. Post-mortem blood should be sampled as soon as possible, as increased post-mortem intervals may heavily change marker levels in-situ in individual cases, whereas the markers are mostly unaffected by laboratory conditions.

12.
Int J Implant Dent ; 4(1): 16, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implant and superstructure provide a complex system, which has to withstand oral conditions. Concerning the brittleness of many ceramics, fractures are a greatly feared issue. Therefore, polymer-infiltrated ceramic networks (PICNs) were developed. Because of its low Young's modulus and high elastic modulus, the PICN crown on a one-piece zirconia implant might absorb forces to prevent the system from fracturing in order to sustain oral forces. Recommendations for the material of superstructure on zirconia implants are lacking, and only one study investigates PICN crowns on these types of implants. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine PICN crowns on one-piece zirconia implants regarding bond strength and surface wear after long-term chewing simulation (CS). METHODS: Twenty-five hybrid ceramic crowns (Vita Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were produced using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology and adhesively bonded (RelyX™ Ultimate, 3M ESPE) to zirconia implants. Twenty of the specimens underwent simultaneous mechanical loading and thermocycling simulating a 5-year clinical situation (SD Mechatronik GmbH). Wear depth and wear volume, based on X-ray micro-computed tomography volume scans (Skyscan 1172-100-50, Bruker) before and after CS, were evaluated. All crowns were removed from the implants using a universal testing machine (Z010, Zwick GmbH&Co.KG). Subsequently, luting agent was light microscopically localized (Stemi 2000-C, Zeiss). With a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Phenom™ G2 pro, Phenom World), the area of abrasion was assessed. RESULTS: 1. After CS, none of the tested crowns were fractured or loosened. 2. The maximum vertical wear after CS was M = 0.31 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± standard deviation), and the surface wear was M = 0.74 ± 0.23 mm3. 3. The pull-off tests revealed a 1.8 times higher bond strength of the control group compared to the experimental group (t(23) = 8.69, p < 0.001). 4. Luting agent was mostly located in the crowns, not on the implants. 5. The area of abrasion showed avulsion and a rough surface. CONCLUSIONS: PICN on one-piece zirconia implants showed high bond strength and high wear after CS.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e001992, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a novel strategy to treat hypercholesterolemia and reduce cardiovascular events. However, the potential role of circulating plasma PCSK9 concentrations as a diagnostic and predictive biomarker remains uncertain as of now. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with plasma PCSK9 and investigate possible causal effects on atherosclerotic vascular disease phenotypes. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of plasma PCSK9 levels in a cohort of suspected and confirmed coronary artery disease (LIFE-Heart; n=3290). RESULTS: Several independent variants at the PCSK9 gene locus were associated with circulating PCSK9 levels at genome-wide significance (lead SNP rs11591147, PCSK9-R46L; P=1.94×10-17). We discovered 4 independent PCSK9 SNPs explaining 4.4% of the variance of plasma PCSK9. In addition, we identified a genome-wide significant locus at chromosome 7p22.1 (rs6957201; P=7.01×10-9) and 7 suggestive hits (P<1×10-6). Using MR (Mendelian Randomization), we detected significant causal effects of circulating PCSK9 on coronary artery disease status and severity, carotid plaques, and intima-media thickness. CONCLUSIONS: Variants at the PCSK9 gene locus seem to be the major genetic determinants of plasma PCSK9 levels with 4 independent variants at the PCSK9 gene locus expressing allelic heterogeneity. The detected MR estimates support the hypothesis of a causal effect of PCSK9 on coronary artery disease and other vascular phenotypes. Other observed genetic associations for PCSK9 require validation in independent cohorts. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00497887.

14.
J Neurotrauma ; 35(17): 2044-2055, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732941

RESUMO

Until now, it is impossible to identify a fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) before post-mortem radiological investigations or an autopsy take place. It would be preferable to have an additional diagnostic tool such as post-mortem biochemistry to get greater insight into the pathological pathways and survival times after sustaining TBI. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of 84 autopsy cases were collected from forensic autopsies with post-mortem intervals (PMI) of up to 148 h. The cases were categorized into a fatal TBI case group (n = 42) and non-TBI controls (n = 42). The values of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were analyzed by means of quantitative chemiluminescent multiplex immunoassays. The main results indicate that the usage of liquid samples with good macroscopic quality is more relevant for meaningful biomarker analyses than the length of the PMI. All three proteins were shown to differentiate TBI fatalities from the controls in CSF. In serum, only GFAP could be shown to be able to identify TBI cases. This study is the first approach to measure the three proteins together in CSF and serum in autopsy cases. Determined threshold values may differentiate between fatal TBI and control cases. The presented results emphasize the possible use of post-mortem biochemistry as a supplemental tool in everyday forensic routine.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703947

RESUMO

Arousal affects cognition, emotion, and behavior and has been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Although environmental conditions substantially contribute to the level of arousal, stable interindividual characteristics are well-established and a genetic basis has been suggested. Here we investigated the molecular genetics of brain arousal in the resting state by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We selected N = 1877 participants from the population-based LIFE-Adult cohort. Participants underwent a 20-min eyes-closed resting state EEG, which was analyzed using the computerized VIGALL 2.1 (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig). At the SNP-level, GWAS analyses revealed no genome-wide significant locus (p < 5E-8), although seven loci were suggestive (p < 1E-6). The strongest hit was an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) of TMEM159 (lead-SNP: rs79472635, p = 5.49E-8). Importantly, at the gene-level, GWAS analyses revealed significant evidence for TMEM159 (p = 0.013, Bonferroni-corrected). By mapping our SNPs to the GWAS results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we found that all corresponding markers of TMEM159 showed nominally significant associations with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; 0.006 ≤ p ≤ 0.011). More specifically, variants associated with high arousal levels have previously been linked to an increased risk for MDD. In line with this, the MetaXcan database suggests increased expression levels of TMEM159 in MDD, as well as Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Alzheimer's Disease. Furthermore, our pathway analyses provided evidence for a role of sodium/calcium exchangers in resting state arousal. In conclusion, the present GWAS identifies TMEM159 as a novel candidate gene which may modulate the risk for psychiatric disorders through arousal mechanisms. Our results also encourage the elaboration of the previously reported interrelations between ion-channel modulators, sleep-wake behavior, and psychiatric disorders.

16.
Genet. mol. biol ; 41(1): 41-49, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892475

RESUMO

Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

17.
Genet Mol Biol ; 41(1): 41-49, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473935

RESUMO

An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

18.
Gut ; 67(10): 1855-1863, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related pancreatitis is associated with a disproportionately large number of hospitalisations among GI disorders. Despite its clinical importance, genetic susceptibility to alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poorly characterised. To identify risk genes for alcoholic CP and to evaluate their relevance in non-alcoholic CP, we performed a genome-wide association study and functional characterisation of a new pancreatitis locus. DESIGN: 1959 European alcoholic CP patients and population-based controls from the KORA, LIFE and INCIPE studies (n=4708) as well as chronic alcoholics from the GESGA consortium (n=1332) were screened with Illumina technology. For replication, three European cohorts comprising 1650 patients with non-alcoholic CP and 6695 controls originating from the same countries were used. RESULTS: We replicated previously reported risk loci CLDN2-MORC4, CTRC, PRSS1-PRSS2 and SPINK1 in alcoholic CP patients. We identified CTRB1-CTRB2 (chymotrypsin B1 and B2) as a new risk locus with lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8055167 (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.6). We found that a 16.6 kb inversion in the CTRB1-CTRB2 locus was in linkage disequilibrium with the CP-associated SNPs and was best tagged by rs8048956. The association was replicated in three independent European non-alcoholic CP cohorts of 1650 patients and 6695 controls (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.86). The inversion changes the expression ratio of the CTRB1 and CTRB2 isoforms and thereby affects protective trypsinogen degradation and ultimately pancreatitis risk. CONCLUSION: An inversion in the CTRB1-CTRB2 locus modifies risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic CP indicating that common pathomechanisms are involved in these inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Quimotripsina/genética , Pancreatite Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Pancreatite Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(3): 546-558, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186428

RESUMO

Progranulin is a secreted protein with important functions in processes including immune and inflammatory response, metabolism and embryonic development. The present study aimed at identification of genetic factors determining progranulin concentrations. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis for serum progranulin in three independent cohorts from Europe: Sorbs (N = 848) and KORA (N = 1628) from Germany and PPP-Botnia (N = 335) from Finland (total N = 2811). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with progranulin levels were replicated in two additional German cohorts: LIFE-Heart Study (Leipzig; N = 967) and Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (Berlin cohort; N = 833). We measured mRNA expression of genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by micro-arrays and performed mRNA expression quantitative trait and expression-progranulin association studies to functionally substantiate identified loci. Finally, we conducted siRNA silencing experiments in vitro to validate potential candidate genes within the associated loci. Heritability of circulating progranulin levels was estimated at 31.8% and 26.1% in the Sorbs and LIFE-Heart cohort, respectively. SNPs at three loci reached study-wide significance (rs660240 in CELSR2-PSRC1-MYBPHL-SORT1, rs4747197 in CDH23-PSAP and rs5848 in GRN) explaining 19.4%/15.0% of the variance and 61%/57% of total heritability in the Sorbs/LIFE-Heart Study. The strongest evidence for association was at rs660240 (P = 5.75 × 10-50), which was also associated with mRNA expression of PSRC1 in PBMC (P = 1.51 × 10-21). Psrc1 knockdown in murine preadipocytes led to a consecutive 30% reduction in progranulin secretion. In conclusion, the present meta-GWAS combined with mRNA expression identified three loci associated with progranulin and supports the role of PSRC1 in the regulation of progranulin secretion.

20.
Brain Behav ; 7(11): e00851, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201552

RESUMO

Background: Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder affecting reading and spelling abilities. Its prevalence is ~5% in German-speaking individuals. Although the etiology of dyslexia largely remains to be determined, comprehensive evidence supports deficient phonological processing as a major contributing factor. An important prerequisite for phonological processing is auditory discrimination and, thus, essential for acquiring reading and spelling skills. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for auditory discrimination capabilities with dyslexics showing an altered late component of MMR in response to auditory input. Methods: In this study, we comprehensively analyzed associations of dyslexia-specific late MMRs with genetic variants previously reported to be associated with dyslexia-related phenotypes in multiple studies comprising 25 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 genes. Results: First, we demonstrated validity of these SNPs for dyslexia in our sample by showing that additional inclusion of a polygenic risk score improved prediction of impaired writing compared with a model that used MMR alone. Secondly, a multifactorial regression analysis was conducted to uncover the subset of the 25 SNPs that is associated with the dyslexia-specific late component of MMR. In total, four independent SNPs within DYX1C1 and ATP2C2 were found to be associated with MMR stronger than expected from multiple testing. To explore potential pathomechanisms, we annotated these variants with functional data including tissue-specific expression analysis and eQTLs. Conclusion: Our findings corroborate the late component of MMR as a potential endophenotype for dyslexia and support tripartite relationships between dyslexia-related SNPs, the late component of MMR and dyslexia.


Assuntos
Afasia/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/genética , Dislexia/genética , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fonética , Criança , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estatística como Assunto
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