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2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964805

RESUMO

Importance: Heart failure (HF) is often characterized by an insidious disease course leading to frequent rehospitalizations and a high use of ambulatory care. Remote cardiac monitoring is a promising approach to detect worsening HF early and intervene prior to an overt decompensation. Observations: Recently, a multitude of novel technologies for remote cardiac monitoring (RCM) in patients with HF have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials. This development has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: This review summarizes the major clinical trials on RCM in patients with HF and present the most recent developments in noninvasive and invasive RCM technologies.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(22): 2161-2172, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent trends, including survival beyond 30 days, in aortic valve replacement (AVR) following the expansion of indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are not well-understood. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to characterize the trends in characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing AVR. METHODS: The authors analyzed Medicare beneficiaries who underwent TAVR and SAVR in 2012 to 2019. They evaluated case volume, demographics, comorbidities, 1-year mortality, and discharge disposition. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the annual change in outcomes. RESULTS: Per 100,000 beneficiary-years, AVR increased from 107 to 156, TAVR increased from 19 to 101, whereas SAVR declined from 88 to 54. The median [interquartile range] age remained similar from 77 [71-83] years to 78 [72-84] years for overall AVR, decreased from 84 [79-88] years to 81 [75-86] years for TAVR, and decreased from 76 [71-81] years to 72 [68-77] years for SAVR. For all AVR patients, the prevalence of comorbidities remained relatively stable. The 1-year mortality for all AVR decreased from 11.9% to 9.4%. Annual change in the adjusted odds of 1-year mortality was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.94) for TAVR and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99) for SAVR, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93-0.95) for all AVR. Patients discharged to home after AVR increased from 24.2% to 54.7%, primarily driven by increasing home discharge after TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: The advent of TAVR has led to about a 60% increase in overall AVR in older adults. Improving outcomes in AVR as a whole following the advent of TAVR with increased access is a reassuring trend.

4.
Lancet ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with visual angiographic assessment, pressure wire-based physiological measurement more accurately identifies flow-limiting lesions in patients with coronary artery disease. Nonetheless, angiography remains the most widely used method to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In FAVOR III China, we aimed to establish whether clinical outcomes might be improved by lesion selection for PCI using the quantitative flow ratio (QFR), a novel angiography-based approach to estimate the fractional flow reserve. METHODS: FAVOR III China is a multicentre, blinded, randomised, sham-controlled trial done at 26 hospitals in China. Patients aged 18 years or older, with stable or unstable angina pectoris or patients who had a myocardial infarction at least 72 h before screening, who had at least one lesion with a diameter stenosis of 50-90% in a coronary artery with a reference vessel of at least 2·5 mm diameter by visual assessment were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to a QFR-guided strategy (PCI performed only if QFR ≤0·80) or an angiography-guided strategy (PCI based on standard visual angiographic assessment). Participants and clinical assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the 1-year rate of major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03656848). FINDINGS: Between Dec 25, 2018, and Jan 19, 2020, 3847 patients were enrolled. After exclusion of 22 patients who elected not to undergo PCI or who were withdrawn by their physicians, 3825 participants were included in the intention-to-treat population (1913 in the QFR-guided group and 1912 in the angiography-guided group). The mean age was 62·7 years (SD 10·1), 2699 (70·6%) were men and 1126 (29·4%) were women, 1295 (33·9%) had diabetes, and 2428 (63·5%) presented with an acute coronary syndrome. The 1-year primary endpoint occurred in 110 (Kaplan-Meier estimated rate 5·8%) participants in the QFR-guided group and in 167 (8·8%) participants in the angiography-guided group (difference, -3·0% [95% CI -4·7 to -1·4]; hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·51 to 0·83]; p=0·0004), driven by fewer myocardial infarctions and ischaemia-driven revascularisations in the QFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group. INTERPRETATION: In FAVOR III China, among patients undergoing PCI, a QFR-guided strategy of lesion selection improved 1-year clinical outcomes compared with standard angiography guidance. FUNDING: Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(20): 1968-1986, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a 1-year duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is used in many patients after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, the evidence supporting this duration is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the risk-benefit profile of 1-year vs ≤6-month DAPT after DES using 2 novel scores to risk stratify bleeding and ischemic events. METHODS: Ischemic and bleeding risk scores were generated from ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents), a multicenter, international, "all-comers" registry that enrolled 8,665 patients treated with DES. The risk-benefit profile of 1-year vs ≤6-month DAPT was then investigated across risk strata from an individual patient data pooled dataset of 7 randomized trials that enrolled 15,083 patients treated with DES. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the ischemic score and the bleeding score had c-indexes of 0.76 and 0.66, respectively, and both were well calibrated. In the pooled dataset, no significant difference was apparent in any ischemic endpoint between 1-year and ≤6-month DAPT, regardless of the risk strata. In the overall dataset, there was no significant difference in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding between 1-year and ≤6-month DAPT; however, among 2,508 patients at increased risk of bleeding, 1-year compared with ≤6-month DAPT was associated with greater bleeding (HR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.12-7.13) without a reduced risk of ischemic events in any risk strata, including those with acute coronary syndromes. These results were consistent in a network meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the present large-scale study, compared with ≤6-month DAPT, a 1-year duration of DAPT was not associated with reduced adverse ischemic events in any risk strata (including acute coronary syndromes) but was associated with greater bleeding in patients at increased risk of bleeding.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the variability of renal artery (RA) anatomy and presence of RA-pathology in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension enrolled in the RADIANCE-HTN SOLO trial. BACKGROUND: RADIANCE-HTN SOLO was a multicenter, international, blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial evaluating ultrasound-based endovascular renal denervation (RDN) in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension while off antihypertensive medications. METHODS: Eligible subjects had pre-randomization renal CT- or MR- angiography (CTA, MRA) to confirm anatomic suitability and to define RA ablation sites. All images were sent for independent review for evaluation of RA anatomy and other vascular pathology. RESULTS: A total of 324 patients underwent RA imaging (282 CTA and 42 MRA). Of those, 178 had simple anatomy with a single left and single right RA with mean diameters of 5.4 ± 0.9 and 5.1 ± 0.8 mm and mean lengths of 40.0 ± 12.9 and 52.0 ± 13.1 mm, respectively. Twenty-seven patients (8.3%) had unilateral or bilateral dual RAs with mean diameters of 4.0 ± 0.9 mm on the left and 3.9 ± 0.9 mm on the right. Forty percent (129/324) of patients had at least 1 accessory RA, with mean accessory diameters of 2.4 ± 0.8 mm on the left and 2.3 ± 0.8 mm on the right. Twenty-eight patients (8.6%) had at least 1 short (<25 mm) main RA. Incidental findings included: 9 patients (2.8%) with atherosclerotic RA stenosis ≥30%, 9 patients (2.8%) with fibromuscular dysplasia of RA and 2 patients (0.6%) with kidney and adrenal gland tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-procedure CTA or MRA imaging is a valuable aid in assessing RA anatomy prior to RDN because of variable RA anatomy. CTA or MRA may detect RA lesions, and renal or adrenal tumors which may need additional workup prior to consideration of RDN. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02649426.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients with and without complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treated with Resolute Onyx zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) after 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). BACKGROUND: PCI with 1-month DAPT has been demonstrated to be safe in HBR patients treated with Resolute Onyx ZES. Whether these outcomes are consistent in patients with complex lesions is uncertain. METHODS: Among HBR patients who were event-free 1 month after PCI with ZES and treated thereafter with single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT), the clinical outcomes between 1 month and 1 year were compared after complex PCI (3 vessels treated, ≥ 3 lesions treated, total stent length > 60 mm, bifurcation with ≥ 2 stents implanted, atherectomy, or left main, surgical bypass graft or chronic total occlusion PCI) versus noncomplex PCI. Propensity score adjustment was performed to adjust for baseline differences among complex and noncomplex patients. RESULTS: Complex patients (N = 401, 26.6% of total) had a higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction (MI). Between 1 month and 1 year, rates of MI (7.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.02) and cardiac death/MI (9.3% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.04) were higher among complex versus noncomplex patients, although stent thrombosis rates were similar. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, differences in outcomes were no longer significant between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of ischemic outcomes in complex PCI patients were largely explained by baseline clinical differences, rather than lesion complexity, among HBR patients treated with 1-month DAPT following PCI with Resolute Onyx ZES.

10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3720-3725, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402210

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to detail the early clinical experience with pVAD 5.5 at a large academic medical centre. Impella® 5.5 (Abiomed) is a temporary peripherally inserted left ventricular assist device (pVAD) used for the treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). This system has several modifications aimed at improving deliverability and durability over the pVAD 5.0 system, but real-world experience with this device remains limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected clinical and outcome data on all patients supported with pVAD 5.5 at our centre between February and December 2020, including procedural and device-related complications. Fourteen patients with pVAD 5.5 were included. Aetiology of CS was acute myocardial infarction (n = 6), decompensated heart failure (n = 6), suspected myocarditis (n = 1), and post-cardiotomy CS (n = 1). Four patients received pVAD 5.5 after being on inotropes alone, two were escalated from intra-aortic balloon pump, two were escalated from pVAD CP, and six patients were transitioned to pVAD 5.5 from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Median duration of pVAD 5.5 support was 12 (interquartile range 7, 25) days. Complications included axillary insertion site haematoma (n = 3), acute kidney injury (n = 3), severe thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and stroke (n = 1). No valve injury or limb complications occurred. Survival to device explant for recovery or transition to another therapy was 11/14 (79%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this early experience of the pVAD 5.5, procedural and device-related complications were observed but were manageable, and overall survival was high in this critically ill cohort, particularly when the device was used as a bridge to other therapies.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Choque Cardiogênico , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(9): E717-E722, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of distal radial access (dRA) in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) have received limited study. METHODS: We compared the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics of 120 CTO-PCIs performed via dRA access with 2625 CTO-PCIs performed via proximal radial access (pRA) in a large, multicenter registry. RESULTS: The dRA group had lower mean PROGRESS-CTO score than the pRA group (1.0 ± 1 vs 1.2 ± 1, respectively; P=.05), while J-CTO score (2.4 ± 1.2 vs 2.3 ± 1.3; P=.43) and PROGRESS-CTO Complications score (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.6 ± 1.9; P=.16) were similar in the dRA vs pRA groups, respectively. Technical success was similar in the 2 groups (90% dRA vs 86% pRA; P=.14). Concomitant use of femoral access did not alter procedural success. The incidence of major periprocedural adverse cardiac events was similar in the 2 groups (0.8% dRA vs 2.4% pRA; P=.26), whereas the incidence of tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis was lower with dRA (0% dRA vs 4.69% pRA; P<.001), as was air kerma radiation dose (median, 1.7 Gy; interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-2.63 Gy in the dRA group vs median, 2.27 Gy; IQR, 1.2-3.9 Gy in the pRA group; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of dRA in CTO-PCI is associated with similar procedural success and risk of complications as compared with pRA.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The RADIANCE-HTN SOLO trial demonstrated a greater reduction in daytime ambulatory SBP at 2 months by endovascular ultrasound renal denervation than sham procedure. We hypothesized that plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations would be associated with the SBP response to renal denervation. METHODS: Hypertensive patients were randomized to renal denervation (n = 74) or sham (n = 72) after a 4-week washout of antihypertensive medications. In a 53-patient subset, 2-month and 6-month plasma renin and aldosterone concentration were measured. Dietary sodium was not controlled. RESULTS: Mean age of the 29 treatment and 24 sham patients was 54 years; 62% were men; 17% black. Daytime ambulatory SBP fell in the denervation but not the sham group at 2 months (-7.8 ±â€Š10.7 vs. -0.1 ±â€Š10.1 mmHg; P = 0.048). Baseline plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were in the low-normal range, did not change significantly at 2 months in either group and did not predict response to renal denervation. At 6 months, after the addition of antihypertensive medications, there was a significant rise in renin in the sham but not the denervation group. CONCLUSION: Although renal denervation but not sham resulted in a decrease in daytime ambulatory SBP at 2 months, renin and aldosterone concentrations did neither predict the BP response to renal denervation; nor did they fall after denervation. A rise in renin at 6 months in the sham group likely represents confounding from antihypertensive medications. Whether the BP-lowering effect of renal denervation depends on reducing local intrarenal renin release requires further study.

13.
Am Heart J ; 241: 101-107, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-coated balloon (DCB) technology was developed as an alternative treatment for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). Management of coronary ISR is clinically challenging and frequently encountered in practice. The Agent DCB uses an inactive excipient to effectively deliver a targeted, therapeutic dose of paclitaxel to the vessel wall. STUDY DESIGN: AGENT IDE is a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate superiority of the Agent DCB to balloon angioplasty in treating patients with ISR. A total of 480 patients with ISR of a previously treated lesion length <26 mm and reference vessel diameter >2.0 mm to ≤4.0 mm will be initially randomized. Subjects presenting with recent myocardial infarction (MI), complex lesions, or thrombus in the target vessel will be excluded. An adaptive group sequential design with one formal interim analysis for sample size re-estimation will be conducted, and the sample size may be increased to a maximum of 600 subjects. The primary endpoint is the rate of 12-month target lesion failure (TLF; composite of any ischemia-driven revascularization of the target lesion (TLR), target vessel related MI, or cardiac death) and will be tested for superiority in the test arm against the control. Functional status and general health-related quality of life will be measured by changes in the EQ-5D scores. Subjects will be followed for 5 years following the index procedure. CONCLUSION: This study will prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of Agent DCB in patients treated for coronary ISR.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Cateteres Cardíacos/classificação , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reestenose Coronária , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Reoperação , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Reestenose Coronária/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/instrumentação , Reoperação/métodos
14.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The multicentre, randomised, sham-controlled RADIANCE-HTN SOLO trial reported the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy and safety of ultrasound renal denervation (RDN) in the absence (2 months) and presence (6 and 12 months) of antihypertensive medications in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. AIMS: The aim of this report was to evaluate patients originally assigned to the sham group who crossed over to RDN. METHODS: After the primary endpoint was met, patients in the sham arm who remained uncontrolled were allowed to cross over to receive RDN. All patients were unblinded and treated with standard of care medications at the time of crossover. Ambulatory BP was evaluated 2 and 6 months after crossover. RESULTS: Among 72 subjects of the sham arm, 33 underwent ultrasound RDN after an average follow-up of 23±6 months. Prior to crossover, patients had a daytime ambulatory BP of 144.1±10.1/89.9±8.4 mmHg and received 1.2±0.8 antihypertensive medications. Mean change in daytime ambulatory BP from pre-crossover to 2 and 6 months post RDN was -11.2±13.7/-7.1±8.9 mmHg (n=33; p<0.001; p<0.001) and -10.8±17.3/-7.8±11.6 mmHg (n=27; p=0.002; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive medications did not change from pre-crossover baseline to 2 and 6 months. Eighteen of 33 (54.5%) patients had their daytime ambulatory BP controlled (<135/85 mmHg) at 2 months and 44.4% (12/27) at 6 months post RDN. No major procedure-related adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: During unblinded long-term follow-up of the RADIANCE-HTN SOLO study, patients originally assigned to a sham procedure who remained uncontrolled had significant reductions in BP following crossover treatment with ultrasound RDN.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(10): 1129, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190958
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(7): 1349-1357, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080774

RESUMO

The purpose of this position statement is to suggest ways in which future appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization might be restructured to: (1) incorporate improvement in quality of life and angina relief as primary goals of therapy, (2) integrate the findings of recent trials into quality appraisal, (3) employ the combined information of the coronary angiogram and invasive physiologic measurements together with the results of stress test imaging to assess risk, and (4) recognize the essential role that patient preference plays in making individualized therapeutic decisions. The AUC is a valuable tool within the quality assurance process; it is vital that interventionists ensure that percutaneous coronary intervention case selection is both evidence-based and patient oriented. Appropriate patient selection is an important quality indicator and adherence to evidence-based practice should be one metric in a portfolio of process and outcome indicators that measure quality.

19.
Circulation ; 144(3): 186-194, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative therapy for aortic stenosis. Despite rapid improvements in technology and techniques, serious complications remain relatively common and are not well described by single outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is site-level variation in TAVR outcomes in the United States using a novel 30-day composite measure. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry to develop a novel ranked composite performance measure that incorporates mortality and serious complications. The selection and rank order of the complications for the composite was determined by their adjusted association with 1-year outcomes. Sites with risk-adjusted outcomes significantly more or less frequent than the national average based on a 95% probability interval were classified as performing worse or better than expected. RESULTS: The development cohort consisted of 52 561 patients who underwent TAVR between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017. Based on associations with 1-year risk-adjusted mortality and health status, we identified 4 periprocedural complications to include in the composite risk model in addition to mortality. Ranked empirically according to severity, these included stroke, major, life-threatening or disabling bleeding, stage III acute kidney injury, and moderate or severe perivalvular regurgitation. Based on these ranked outcomes, we found that there was significant site-level variation in quality of care in TAVR in the United States. Overall, better than expected site performance was observed in 25/301 (8%) sites, performance as expected was observed in 242/301 sites (80%), and worse than expected performance was observed in 34/301 (11%) sites. Thirty-day mortality; stroke; major, life-threatening, or disabling bleeding; and moderate or severe perivalvular leak were each substantially more common in sites with worse than expected performance as compared with other sites. There was good aggregate reliability of the model. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial variations in the quality of TAVR care received in the United States and 11% of sites were identified as providing care below the average level of performance. Further study is necessary to determine structural, process-related, and technical factors associated with high- and low-performing sites.

20.
Lancet ; 397(10293): 2476-2486, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular renal denervation reduces blood pressure in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, but its efficacy in patients with true resistant hypertension has not been shown. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular ultrasound renal denervation in patients with hypertension resistant to three or more antihypertensive medications. METHODS: In a randomised, international, multicentre, single-blind, sham-controlled trial done at 28 tertiary centres in the USA and 25 in Europe, we included patients aged 18-75 years with office blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg despite three or more antihypertensive medications including a diuretic. Eligible patients were switched to a once daily, fixed-dose, single-pill combination of a calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin receptor blocker, and a thiazide diuretic. After 4 weeks of standardised therapy, patients with daytime ambulatory blood pressure of at least 135/85 mm Hg were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer (stratified by centres) to ultrasound renal denervation or a sham procedure. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to randomisation. Addition of antihypertensive medications was allowed if specified blood pressure thresholds were exceeded. The primary endpoint was the change in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure at 2 months in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was also assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02649426. FINDINGS: Between March 11, 2016, and March 13, 2020, 989 participants were enrolled and 136 were randomly assigned to renal denervation (n=69) or a sham procedure (n=67). Full adherence to the combination medications at 2 months among patients with urine samples was similar in both groups (42 [82%] of 51 in the renal denervation group vs 47 [82%] of 57 in the sham procedure group; p=0·99). Renal denervation reduced daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure more than the sham procedure (-8·0 mm Hg [IQR -16·4 to 0·0] vs -3·0 mm Hg [-10·3 to 1·8]; median between-group difference -4·5 mm Hg [95% CI -8·5 to -0·3]; adjusted p=0·022); the median between-group difference was -5·8 mm Hg (95% CI -9·7 to -1·6; adjusted p=0·0051) among patients with complete ambulatory blood pressure data. There were no differences in safety outcomes between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: Compared with a sham procedure, ultrasound renal denervation reduced blood pressure at 2 months in patients with hypertension resistant to a standardised triple combination pill. If the blood pressure lowering effect and safety of renal denervation are maintained in the long term, renal denervation might be an alternative to the addition of further antihypertensive medications in patients with resistant hypertension. FUNDING: ReCor Medical.

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