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1.
MAGMA ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of available brain MRI phantoms for comparison of structural and functional characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phantoms were identified from a literature search using two databases including Google Scholar and PubMed. Narrow inclusion criteria were followed for identification of only tissue-mimicking MRI phantoms excluding digital, computational, or numerical phantoms. Assessment criteria for the identified phantoms was based on three categories being anatomical accuracy, tissue-mimicking materials, and exhibiting relaxation times approximating in-vivo tissues. The available features and uses of each phantom were reported and discussed using the assessment criteria. RESULTS: Ten phantoms were identified after screening; each proposed phantom was then summarized in a table (Table 2). Significant features and characteristics were shown in the comparisons of phantom type in each category, being anthropomorphic vs. traditional phantoms. Anthropomorphic phantoms had more anatomically accurate features than traditional phantoms. On the other hand, traditional phantoms commonly used effective tissue-mimicking materials and accurate electromagnetic properties. DISCUSSION: The findings provide an overview of the different proposed tissue-mimicking MRI brain phantoms available. Various uses and features are highlighted by comparing criteria such as anatomical accuracy, tissue-mimicking material, and electromagnetic properties. Tissue-mimicking MRI phantoms are an extremely useful tool for researchers and clinicians. Future applications include personalized phantom technology and validation of MR imaging and segmentation methods.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209154

RESUMO

Segmentation of the fetus from 2-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid radiologists with clinical decision making for disease diagnosis. Machine learning can facilitate this process of automatic segmentation, making diagnosis more accurate and user independent. We propose a deep learning (DL) framework for 2D fetal MRI segmentation using a Cross Attention Squeeze Excitation Network (CASE-Net) for research and clinical applications. CASE-Net is an end-to-end segmentation architecture with relevant modules that are evidence based. The goal of CASE-Net is to emphasize localization of contextual information that is relevant in biomedical segmentation, by combining attention mechanisms with squeeze-and-excitation (SE) blocks. This is a retrospective study with 34 patients. Our experiments have shown that our proposed CASE-Net achieved the highest segmentation Dice score of 87.36%, outperforming other competitive segmentation architectures.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Feto , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114919

RESUMO

The objective of this systematic review was to characterise psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic related to fertility care. We conducted a systematic search following PRISMA guidelines of five databases (EMBASE, Medline-OVID, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) from March 17th 2020 to April 10th 2021. Citing articles were also hand-searched using Scopus. Of the 296 original citations, we included fifteen studies that encompassed 5,851 patients seeking fertility care. Eleven studies only included female participants, while four included both male and female participants. The fifteen studies unanimously concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic caused negative psychological impacts on fertility care. Risk factors included female sex, single marital state, previous ART failure, prior diagnoses of anxiety or depression, and length of time trying to conceive. Specific concerns included the worry and frustration of clinic closure, concerns about pregnancy and COVID-19 infection, and advancing age. There were contrasting beliefs on whether the decision to stop fertility treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic was justified. In addition, we found that many patients preferred to resume fertility treatment, despite anxieties regarding the risk of the COVID-19 virus. We recommend that fertility providers screen patients for risk factors for poor mental health and tailor support for virtual care.

5.
J Hosp Med ; 16(6): 333-338, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many initiatives seek to increase the number of morning hospital discharges to improve patient flow, but little evidence supports this practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the number of morning discharges and emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS in general internal medicine (GIM). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all GIM patients discharged between April 1, 2010, and October 31, 2017, at seven hospitals in Ontario, Canada. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcomes were ED LOS and hospital LOS, and secondary outcomes were 30-day readmission and in-hospital mortality. The number of morning GIM discharges (defined as the number of patients discharged alive between 8:00 AM and 12:00 PM) on the day of each hospital admission was the primary exposure. Multivariable regression models were fit to control for patient characteristics and situational factors, including GIM census. RESULTS: The sample included 189,781 patient admissions. In total, 36,043 (19.0%) discharges occurred between 8:00 AM and 12:00 PM. The average daily number of morning discharges and total discharges per hospital was 1.7 (SD, 1.4) and 8.4 (SD, 4.6), respectively. The median ED LOS was 14.5 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 10.0- 23.1), and the median hospital LOS was 4.6 days (IQR, 2.4-9.0). After multivariable adjustment, there was not a significant association between morning discharge and hospital LOS (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.000; 95% CI, 0.996-1.000; P = .997), ED LOS (aRR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.997-1.000; P = .307), 30-day readmission (aRR, 1.010; 95% CI, 0.991-1.020; P = .471), or in-hospital mortality (aRR, 0.967; 95% CI, 0.920-1.020; P = .183). The lack of association between morning discharge and LOS was generally consistent across all seven hospitals. At one hospital, morning discharge was associated with a 1.9% shorter ED LOS after multivariable adjustment (aRR, 0.981; 95% CI, 0.966-0.996; P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: The number of morning discharges was not significantly associated with shorter ED LOS or hospital LOS in GIM. Our findings suggest that increasing the number of morning discharges alone is unlikely to substantially improve patient throughput in GIM, but further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Admissão do Paciente , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ontário/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083370

RESUMO

Reference letters play an important role for both postgraduate residency applications and medical faculty hiring processes. This study seeks to characterise the ways in which gender bias may manifest in the language of reference letters in academic medicine. In particular, we conducted a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO from database inception to July 2020 for original studies that assessed gendered language in medical reference letters for residency applications and medical faculty hiring. A total of 16 studies, involving 12 738 letters of recommendation written for 7074 applicants, were included. A total of 32% of applicants were women. There were significant differences in how women were described in reference letters. A total of 64% (7/11) studies found a significant difference in gendered adjectives between men and women. Among the 7 studies, a total of 86% (6/7) noted that women applicants were more likely to be described using communal adjectives, such as "delightful" or "compassionate", while men applicants were more likely to be described using agentic adjectives, such as "leader" or "exceptional". Several studies noted that reference letters for women applicants had more frequent use of doubt raisers and mentions of applicant personal life and/or physical appearance. Only one study assessed the outcome of gendered language on application success, noting a higher residency match rate for men applicants. Reference letters within medicine and medical education exhibit language discrepancies between men and women applicants, which may contribute to gender bias against women in medicine.

7.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1353-1365, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883396

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Performing a gynecological exam is an essential skill for physicians. While interventions have been implemented to optimize how this skill is taught in medical school, it remains an area of concern and anxiety for many medical students. To date, a comprehensive assessment of these interventions has not been done. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on interventions that aim to improve medical student education on gynecological exams. METHOD: The authors searched 6 databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, and ERIC [Proquest]) from inception to August 4, 2020. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: focus on medical students, intervention with the purpose of teaching students to better perform gynecological exams, and reported outcomes/evaluation. Extracted data included study location, study design, sample size, details of the intervention and evaluation, and context of the pelvic exam. All outcomes were summarized descriptively; key outcomes were coded as subjective or objective assessments. RESULTS: The search identified 5,792 studies; 50 met the inclusion criteria. The interventions described were diverse, with many controlled studies evaluating multiple methods of instruction. Gynecological teaching associates (GTAs), or professional patients, were the most common method of education. GTA-led teaching resulted in improvements in student confidence, competence, and communication skills. Physical adjuncts, or anatomic models and simulators, were the second most common category of intervention. Less resource-intensive interventions, such as self-directed learning packages, online training modules, and video clips, also demonstrated positive results in student comfort and competence. All studies highlighted the need for improved education on gynecological exams. CONCLUSIONS: The literature included evaluations of numerous interventions for improving medical student comfort and competence in performing gynecological exams. GTA-led teaching may be the most impactful educational tool described, though less resource-intensive interventions can also be effective.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Exame Ginecológico/psicologia , Ginecologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 122, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death globally, its incidence is nearly entirely preventable. Young people have been an international priority for screening as this population has historically been under-screened. However, in both high-income and low-income countries, young people have not been screened appropriately according to country-specific guidelines. The aim of this systematic review was to systematically characterize the existing literature on barriers and facilitators for cervical cancer screening (CCS) among adolescents and young people globally. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines of three key databases: Medline-OVID, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Supplementary searches were done through ClinicialTrials.Gov and Scopus. Databases were examined from 1946 until the date of our literature searches on March 12th 2020. We only examined original, peer-reviewed literature. Articles were excluded if they did not specifically discuss CCS, were not specific to individuals under the age of 35, or did not report outcomes or evaluation. All screening, extraction, and synthesis was completed in duplicate with two independent reviewers. Outcomes were summarized descriptively. Risk of bias for individual studies was graded using an adapted rating scale based on the Risk of Bias Instrument for Cross-Sectional Surveys of Attitudes and Practices. RESULTS: Of the 2177 original database citations, we included 36 studies that met inclusion criteria. The 36 studies included a total of 14,362 participants, and around half (17/36, 47.2%) of studies specifically targeted students. The majority of studies (31/36, 86.1%) discussed barriers and facilitators to Pap testing specifically, while one study analyzed self-sampling (1/36, 2.8%), one study targeted HPV DNA testing (1/36, 2.8%), and the remainder (4/36, 11.1%) were not specified. Our systematic review found that there are three large categories of barriers for young people: lack of knowledge/awareness, negative perceptions of the test, and systemic barriers to testing. Facilitators included stronger relationships with healthcare providers, social norms, support from family, and self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: There are unique barriers and facilitators that affect CCS rates in adolescents and young people. Health systems and healthcare providers worldwide should address the challenges for this unique population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
10.
Fertil Steril ; 115(5): 1294-1301, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the patient and provider perspectives on cultural competence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) fertility care. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): LGBTQ+ patients and their partners treated for fertility-related care; fertility providers who treat LGBTQ+ patients. INTERVENTION(S): We conducted a systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines of six databases: Medline-OVID, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.Gov, and PsycInfo. Citations of full-text articles were hand-searched using the Scopus database. Eligible studies were assessed using the Risk of Bias Instrument for Cross-Sectional Surveys of Attitudes and Practices, as well as the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. All screening, extraction, and appraisal were completed in duplicate with two independent reviewers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Patient-reported or provider-reported views on LGBTQ+ cultural competence in fertility care, including barriers and facilitators to inclusive care. RESULT(S): Of the 1,747 original database citations, we included 25 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of the 21 studies that evaluated patient perspectives, 13 studies targeted same-sex cisgender couples while the remainder targeted transgender and gender-nonconforming participants (n = 6) or any individual who identified as a sexual or gender minority (n = 2). Key barriers for LGBTQ+ participants included gender dysphoria, heteronormativity, stigmatization, and psychological distress. The lack of tailored information for LGBTQ+ populations was repeatedly highlighted as a concern. Promising solutions included tailored information, psychosocial interventions, gender-neutral language, and inclusive intake processes. CONCLUSION(S): LGBTQ+ individuals face unique barriers in fertility care, as described by both patients and providers. This review describes a number of implementable solutions for equitable care, which should be given priority for both research and hospital interventions.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Cultural , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Clínicas de Fertilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/fisiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Medicina Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Surgery ; 170(2): 493-498, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survey-based studies are often the basis of policy changes; however, the methodologic quality of such research can be questionable. Methodologic reviews of survey-based studies have been conducted in other medical fields, but the surgical literature has not been assessed. METHODS: All citations published in 9 major surgical journals from 2002 to 2019 were screened for studies administering surveys to health care professionals. Descriptive and methodologic data were collected by 2 reviewers who also assessed the transparency and quality of the methodology. Agreement between reviewers was assessed using a weighted κ-statistic. Survey quality metrics were measured, descriptive statistics were calculated, and regression analysis was used to assess the association between subjective overall study quality and objective quality metrics. RESULTS: We included 271 articles in our analysis; the weighted-κ for reviewer quality assessment was 0.69 and for transparency assessment was 0.71. Deficiencies were identified in questionnaire development methodology and reporting, in which the median number of developmental steps reported was 1 (of 8) and in the reporting of incomplete/missing data where 63% of studies failed to report how incomplete questionnaires were managed; 70% of studies failed to report missing data. Overall subjective quality was positively associated with objective quality metrics. CONCLUSION: The deficiencies identified in the surgical literature highlight the need for improvement in the conduct and reporting of survey-based research, both in the surgical literature and more broadly. Adoption of a standardized reporting guideline for survey-based research may ameliorate the deficiencies identified by this study and other investigations.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal stones are a common cause of non-obstetrical abdominal pain in pregnant women. Though the management of renal stones in pregnancy is challenging, it remains unclear how the incidence of kidney stones may affect the course of pregnancy and delivery. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of renal stones in pregnancy and its impact on adverse obstetrical outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic literature search of three databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. After the selection of articles, an additional hand-search of their citations was completed to maximize sensitivity. Databases were examined from the last four decades (19 March 1970) up to the search date (19 March 2020). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were excluded if they were not relevant to kidney stones or did not report outcomes related to pregnancy. Case reports, animal studies, and cadaveric studies were excluded. Conference abstracts, gray literature, and unpublished data were not eligible. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: All screening, extraction, and synthesis were completed in duplicate with two independent reviewers. All outcomes reported in the included studies were systematically evaluated to determine suitability for meta-analysis. Random-effects models and sensitivity analyses were used to account for interstudy variation. Renal stone incidence rates were pooled to generate summary proportions. Risk of bias assessment was completed using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included through systematic review and approximately 4.7 million pregnancies across nine studies were included for meta-analysis. There are three major findings of this review regarding renal stone incidence in pregnancy and maternal, child, and birth-related outcomes associated with renal stones. First, we found pooled incidence of renal stones was 0.49%, or one case for every 204 pregnancies. Second, renal stones during pregnancy were significantly associated with the development of preeclampsia and urinary tract infection, as well as increased likelihood of low birth weight, preterm labor, and C-section deliveries. However, renal stones were not significantly associated with premature rupture of membranes or infant mortality. Third, there were limited obstetrical complications reported with either medical or surgical therapies although comparative outcomes were not provided in the majority of studies, precluding formal meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Although renal stones in pregnancy are relatively rare, there may be an associated risk of serious adverse obstetrical outcomes. However, further research is required to understand whether these obstetrical outcomes are causal or due to other confounders. Interdisciplinary care and pregnancy-specific counseling should be advised for pregnant women with kidney stones.

13.
Acad Emerg Med ; 28(8): 890-908, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Corneal abrasions are common ophthalmic presentations to emergency departments. Among emergency physicians and ophthalmologists, there are highly variable practice patterns with regard to management of resultant pain and discomfort. The goal of this study was to review and analyze the efficacy and safety of topical pain therapies for corneal abrasions, including topical anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cycloplegics, steroids, pressure patching, and the use of a bandage contact lens (BCL). METHODS: The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The protocol was established a priori and published on PROSPERO (CRD42020201288). MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched until December 31, 2020. Primary studies comparing topical pain therapies to another therapy or control were included. Primary outcomes included percentage of corneal abrasions healed at 24, 48, and 72 hours, as well as pain control at 24 and 48 hours. Secondary outcomes included use of oral analgesia and incidence of complications. Risk of bias was assessed using validated tools. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Overall, 33 studies (31 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], two cohort studies) comprising 4,167 patients with corneal abrasions were analyzed. Only the data for topical NSAIDs were of adequate evidence from which to draw conclusions; topical NSAIDs demonstrated significantly reduced pain scores at 24 hours (standardized mean differences [SMD] -0.69, 95% CI = -0.98 to -0.41) and 48 hours (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -1.02 to -0.10) as well as 53% (95% CI = 34% to 67%) lower oral analgesia use compared to control. Based on available data, topical anesthetics, cycloplegics, patching, and the use of a BCL did not result in any significant difference in pain scores or use of oral analgesia, while no studies examined topical steroids. No interventions resulted in healing delays or significantly higher rates of complications compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: There was strong evidence to support that topical NSAIDs reduce pain associated with corneal abrasions in the first 48 hours and the need for oral analgesia. The existing evidence was insufficient to support or refute the use of topical anesthetics, cycloplegics, steroids, or BCL for pain control in corneal abrasions. Pressure patching was ineffective at pain reduction and may increase the risk of complications. Delays in healing or other complications were not significantly different between any intervention or control for simple, uncomplicated corneal abrasions; however, larger RCTs are required to identify any differences in rare complications.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Lesões da Córnea , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Lesões da Córnea/complicações , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor
14.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 15(3): E169-E174, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fasting is a common cultural practice worldwide for both religious and dietary reasons. However, there is concern that fasting may be a risk factor for the development of renal stones. To date, there has not been a systematic assessment of the literature regarding the association between renal stones and fasting. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines of three databases: Medline-OVID, EMBASE, and CINAHL. All screening and extraction was completed in parallel with two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of the 1501 database citations, a total of 10 observational studies with a total of 9906 participants were included. Nine of the studies were conducted in the context of Islamic fasting during Ramadan, with the majority (7/9) finding that renal colic incidence was unaffected by the month of fasting. In contrast, two studies noted an increased incidence among fasting populations. Two other studies noted that urine metabolites and density were altered with fasting but did not translate into clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, it is unlikely that fasting significantly increases the risk of renal stones. Physicians should counsel higher-risk patients on safe fasting practices.

15.
Am J Surg ; 222(1): 67-85, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted surgical practice worldwide. There is widespread concern for surgeon and provider safety, and the implications of hospital lockdown on patient care during epidemics. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and PubMed were systematically searched from database inception to July 1, 2020 and ongoing monthly surveillance will be conducted. We included studies that assessed postoperative patient outcomes or protection measures for surgical personnel during epidemics. RESULTS: We included 61 studies relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic and past epidemics. Lockdown measures were noted globally including cancellation of elective surgeries and outpatient clinics. The pooled postoperative complication rate during epidemics was 21.0% among 2095 surgeries. 31 studies followed the health of surgical workers with the majority noting no adverse outcomes with proper safety measures. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights postoperative patient outcomes during worldwide epidemics including the COVID-19 pandemic and identifies specific safety measures to minimize infection of healthcare workers.

16.
J Surg Educ ; 78(2): 548-560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Humanism in surgery is an emerging priority in surgical education. Its emphasis on the patient experience is a key component of the therapeutic relationship between surgeons and their patients. However, the documented high rates of compassion fatigue and burnout among surgical trainees and staff can serve as a barrier in delivering care with empathy and compassion. As such, this systematic review seeks to characterize the outcomes regarding interventions that aim to broadly improve humanism within surgery. METHODS: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane CENTRAL) was conducted through an independent double selection and extraction process from database inception to March 20, 2020. The inclusion criteria consisted of interventional studies aiming to improve humanism in surgery at all levels of training. A qualitative synthesis and thematic analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies (1 RCT, 14 prospective cohort, and 4 cross-sectional studies), with 20 intervention arms, were included from the initial 745 studies that were eligible for title screening. Studies included a total of 1763 surgical trainees at varying levels of training. Two major strategies for improving humanism were identified: (1) directly through the development of empathetic communication skills (n = 11) and (2) indirectly through programs aimed at reducing levels of compassion fatigue and emotional exhaustion by addressing trainee burnout (n = 9). A total of 70% (14/20) of the studied interventions were successful in improving empathy in surgical trainees. CONCLUSION: Interactive workshops around the principles of empathetic communication with patient simulations and small group learning were effective at improving empathy in surgical trainees. Furthermore, mindfulness-based training and the provision of physical resources to support trainee well-being consistently improved rates of burnout among surgical trainees. Overall, further investigation is necessary to better understand methods of improving empathy in surgery.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Fadiga por Compaixão , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Humanismo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 43(4): 490-496, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstetricians and gynaecologists are among the highest risk specialties for burnout. There is growing evidence that physician burnout can be both prevented and reduced. We sought to characterize the evidence base for interventions related to the prevention and treatment of burnout in obstetrics and gynaecology DATA SOURCES: We conducted a scoping review following PRISMA guidelines of 5 databases: (Medline-OVID, EMBASE, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and PsycInfo) from inception to March 17, 2020. Citations of relevant articles were hand-searched to maximize sensitivity. STUDY SELECTION: All interventional study designs were included. The target study population was obstetrics and gynaecology residents, learners, or staff. Published conference posters, papers, and abstracts were eligible for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: All extraction and descriptive analysis was completed by two independent reviewers. Outcomes were summarized descriptively. Appraisal was completed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies. RESULTS: Of the 1540 original database citations, 20 studies met our inclusion criteria. A total of 589 obstetrics/gynaecology participants were included. While there was an overall a lack of research in the field, there were several promising interventions that target residents. There were a combination of preventative interventions (e.g. yoga, nutritional programs, or narrative medicine initiatives) as well as treatments (e.g. counselling appointments or debrief sessions). The vast majority of these interventions focused on individual-specific interventions rather than structural changes. In addition, the majority of interventions appeared to be "proof of concept" and feasability-related studies, with many studies published as conference abstracts rather than peer-reviewed journal publications. CONCLUSIONS: Institutions should continue to implement interventions that address burnout in obstetrics and gynaecology. Further research is required on long-term outcomes of interventions as well as structural strategies.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Estresse Ocupacional , Médicos/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Resiliência Psicológica
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040547, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise published evidence regarding preclinical and clinical interventions to overcome mask shortages during epidemics and pandemics. DESIGN: Systematic scoping review. SETTINGS: All healthcare settings relevant to epidemics and pandemics. SEARCH STRATEGY: English peer-reviewed studies published from January 1995 to June 2020 were included. Literature was identified using four databases (Medline-OVID, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library), forwards-and-backwards searching through Scopus and an extensive grey literature search. Assessment of study eligibility, data extraction and evidence appraisal were performed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of the 11 220 database citations, a total of 47 articles were included. These studies encompassed six broad categories of conservation strategies: decontamination, reusability of disposable masks and/or extended wear, layering, reusable respirators, non-traditional replacements or modifications and stockpiled masks. Promising strategies for mask conservation in the context of pandemics and epidemics include use of stockpiled masks, extended wear of disposable masks and decontamination. CONCLUSION: There are promising strategies for overcoming face mask shortages during epidemics and pandemics. Further research specific to practical considerations is required before implementation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras/provisão & distribuição , Respiradores N95/provisão & distribuição , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Atenção à Saúde , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
19.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 14(8): 259-264, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We implemented an acute care urology (ACU) model at a large Canadian community hospital to determine the impacts on safe and timely care of patients with renal colic. The model includes a dedicated ACU surgeon, a clinic for emergency department (ED) referrals, and additional daytime operating room (OR) blocks for urgent cases. METHODS: We conducted a chart review of 579 patients presenting to the ED with renal colic. Data was collected before (pre-intervention, September to November 2015) and after (post-intervention, September to November 2016) implementation of the ACU model. Secondary methods of evaluation included surveying patients and 20 ED physicians to capture subjective feedback. RESULTS: Of the 579 patients presenting with renal colic,194 were diagnosed with an obstructing kidney stone and were referred to urology for outpatient care. The ED-to-clinic time was significantly lower for those in the ACU model (p<0.001). Furthermore, the ACU clinic resulted in significantly more patients being referred for outpatient care (p=0.0004). There was also higher likelihood that patients would successfully obtain an appointment post-referral (p=0.0242). The number of after-hours and weekend surgeries decreased significantly after dedicated ACU daytime OR blocks were added in September 2015 (p<0.0001). All surveyed patients rated the care as either "excellent" or "very good," and all physicians believed the ACU model has improved patient care. CONCLUSIONS: The ACU model has shown benefit in ensuring timely followup for ED patients, reducing use of after-hour OR time, and improving patient and physician satisfaction.

20.
Neuroophthalmology ; 43(1): 18-25, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the positive yield (utility rate) of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis (GCA). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review (CRD42017078508) and meta-regression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All articles concerning TAB for suspected GCA with English language abstracts from 1998 to 2017 were retrieved. Articles were excluded if they exclusively reported positive TAB, or only cases of known GCA. Where available, the pre-specified predictors of age, sex, vision symptoms, jaw claudication, duration of steroid treatment prior to TAB, specimen length, bilateral TAB, and use of ultrasound/MRI (imaging) were recorded for meta-regression. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen articles met eligibility criteria. The I 2 was 92%, and with such high heterogeneity, meta-analysis is unsuitable. The median yield of TAB was 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.27), with interquartile range 0.17 to 0.34. On univariate meta-regression age (coefficient 0.012, p = 0.025) was the only statistically significant patient factor associated with TAB yield. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic review revealed high heterogeneity in the yield of TAB. The median utility rate of 25% and its interquartile range provides a benchmark for decisions regarding the under/overutilization of TAB and aids in the evaluation of non-invasive alternatives for the investigation of GCA.

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