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1.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439924

RESUMO

The acute loss of kidney function has been diagnosed for many decades using the serum concentration of creatinine - a muscle metabolite that is an insensitive and non-specific marker of kidney function, but is now used for the very definition of acute kidney injury (AKI). Fortunately, myriad new tools have now been developed to better understand the relationship between acute tubular injury and elevation in serum creatinine (SCr). These tools include unbiased gene and protein expression analyses in kidney, urine and blood, the localization of specific gene transcripts in pathological biopsy samples by rapid in-situ RNA technology and single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses. However, this molecular approach to AKI has produced a series of unexpected problems, because the expression of specific kidney-derived molecules that are indicative of injury often do not correlate with SCr levels. This discrepancy between kidney injury markers and SCr level can be reconciled by the recognition that many separate subtypes of AKI exist, each with distinct patterning of molecular markers of tubular injury and SCr data. In this Review, we describe the weaknesses of isolated SCr-based diagnoses, the clinical and molecular subtyping of acute tubular injury, and the role of non-invasive biomarkers in clinical phenotyping. We propose a conceptual model that synthesizes molecular and physiological data along a time course spanning from acute cellular injury to organ failure.

3.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(9): 1306-1314, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poor identification of individuals with CKD is a major barrier to research and appropriate clinical management of the disease. We aimed to develop and validate a pragmatic electronic (e-) phenotype to identify patients likely to have CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The e-phenotype was developed by an expert working group and implemented among adults receiving in- or outpatient care at five healthcare organizations. To determine urine albumin (UA) dipstick cutoffs for CKD to enable use in the e-phenotype when lacking urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), we compared same day UACR and UA results at four sites. A sample of patients, spanning no CKD to ESKD, was randomly selected at four sites for validation via blinded chart review. RESULTS: The CKD e-phenotype was defined as most recent eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with at least one value <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 >90 days prior and/or a UACR of ≥30 mg/g in the most recent test with at least one positive value >90 days prior. Dialysis and transplant were identified using diagnosis codes. In absence of UACR, a sensitive CKD definition would consider negative UA results as normal to mildly increased (KDIGO A1), trace to 1+ as moderately increased (KDIGO A2), and ≥2+ as severely increased (KDIGO A3). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the CKD e-phenotype were 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. For dialysis sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 89%. For transplant, sensitivity was 97% and specificity was 91%. CONCLUSIONS: The CKD e-phenotype provides a pragmatic and accurate method for EHR-based identification of patients likely to have CKD.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(20): 1918-1928, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of kidney transplantation, genomic incompatibilities between donor and recipient may lead to allosensitization against new antigens. We hypothesized that recessive inheritance of gene-disrupting variants may represent a risk factor for allograft rejection. METHODS: We performed a two-stage genetic association study of kidney allograft rejection. In the first stage, we performed a recessive association screen of 50 common gene-intersecting deletion polymorphisms in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients. In the second stage, we replicated our findings in three independent cohorts of donor-recipient pairs. We defined genomic collision as a specific donor-recipient genotype combination in which a recipient who was homozygous for a gene-intersecting deletion received a transplant from a nonhomozygous donor. Identification of alloantibodies was performed with the use of protein arrays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, which included 705 recipients, we found a significant association with allograft rejection at the LIMS1 locus represented by rs893403 (hazard ratio with the risk genotype vs. nonrisk genotypes, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 2.50; P = 9.8×10-5). This effect was replicated under the genomic-collision model in three independent cohorts involving a total of 2004 donor-recipient pairs (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.93; P = 6.5×10-5). In the combined analysis (discovery cohort plus replication cohorts), the risk genotype was associated with a higher risk of rejection than the nonrisk genotype (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.37 to 1.95; P = 4.7×10-8). We identified a specific antibody response against LIMS1, a kidney-expressed protein encoded within the collision locus. The response involved predominantly IgG2 and IgG3 antibody subclasses. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the LIMS1 locus appeared to encode a minor histocompatibility antigen. Genomic collision at this locus was associated with rejection of the kidney allograft and with production of anti-LIMS1 IgG2 and IgG3. (Funded by the Columbia University Transplant Center and others.).


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Transplante de Rim , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doadores de Tecidos
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(6): 1109-1122, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have identified many common genetic associations that influence renal function and all-cause CKD, but these explain only a small fraction of variance in these traits. The contribution of rare variants has not been systematically examined. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing of 3150 individuals, who collectively encompassed diverse CKD subtypes, and 9563 controls. To detect causal genes and evaluate the contribution of rare variants we used collapsing analysis, in which we compared the proportion of cases and controls carrying rare variants per gene. RESULTS: The analyses captured five established monogenic causes of CKD: variants in PKD1, PKD2, and COL4A5 achieved study-wide significance, and we observed suggestive case enrichment for COL4A4 and COL4A3. Beyond known disease-associated genes, collapsing analyses incorporating regional variant intolerance identified suggestive dominant signals in CPT2 and several other candidate genes. Biallelic mutations in CPT2 cause carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, sometimes associated with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal injury. Genetic modifier analysis among cases with APOL1 risk genotypes identified a suggestive signal in AHDC1, implicated in Xia-Gibbs syndrome, which involves intellectual disability and other features. On the basis of the observed distribution of rare variants, we estimate that a two- to three-fold larger cohort would provide 80% power to implicate new genes for all-cause CKD. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that rare-variant collapsing analyses can validate known genes and identify candidate genes and modifiers for kidney disease. In so doing, these findings provide a motivation for larger-scale investigation of rare-variant risk contributions across major clinical CKD categories.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(9): 643-650, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035287

RESUMO

A couple is planning to start a family, and they decide to order a 23andMe test after reading about the company's carrier screening test and the new BRCA1/BRCA2 test. They bring the results to their internist for advice on how to proceed. Given the rise in public interest in human genetics and precision medicine, direct-to-consumer genetic testing is becoming increasingly popular, and clinicians should expect patients to present the results of these tests more frequently. This article uses a case scenario to provide information about what the results of these tests mean, and what they do not mean.

8.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(9): 635-642, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035290

RESUMO

Medicine has long sought to match diagnostic and treatment approaches to the particular needs and risks of individual patients. The decreasing cost and increasing ease of genetic sequencing have propelled the rise of precision medicine. Precision medicine aims to use genetic and other information to provide care tailored to the individual patient, with the goal of improving clinical outcomes and minimizing unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Although developments in genetic sequencing have the potential to transform clinical care, there are important limitations, including uncertainty in the clinical interpretation of many genetic variants and concerns about privacy, discrimination, and cost. To help clinicians understand the basics of genetic sequencing and how to apply it in clinical practice, Annals of Internal Medicine is launching a new "Precision Medicine" series. This introduction provides a general overview of clinical sequencing, with a focus on germline variation. Subsequent articles will use a case-based format to provide concise summaries of specific clinical precision medicine scenarios that are relevant to the practice of internal medicine. These cases will highlight specific clinical indications; interpretation of genetic test results; and ethical, legal, cost, and privacy issues related to genetic testing. The goal is to provide practical information on the appropriate application and interpretation of genomics in routine clinical practice.

9.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recruitment of participants from diverse backgrounds is crucial to the generalizability of genetic research, but has proven challenging. We retrospectively evaluated recruitment methods used for a study on return of genetic results. METHODS: The costs of study design, development, and participant enrollment were calculated, and the characteristics of the participants enrolled through the seven recruitment methods were examined. RESULTS: A total of 1118 participants provided consent, a blood sample, and questionnaire data. The estimated cost across recruitment methods ranged from $579 to $1666 per participant and required a large recruitment team. Recruitment methods using flyers and staff networks were the most cost-efficient and resulted in the highest completion rate. Targeted sampling that emphasized the importance of Latino/a participation, utilization of translated materials, and in-person recruitments contributed to enrolling a demographically diverse sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although all methods were deployed in the same hospital or neighborhood and shared the same staff, each recruitment method was different in terms of cost and characteristics of the enrolled participants, suggesting the importance of carefully choosing the recruitment methods based on the desired composition of the final study sample. This analysis provides information about the effectiveness and cost of different methods to recruit adults for genetic research.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 117-127, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578417

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are a major cause of pediatric kidney failure. We performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in 2,824 cases and 21,498 controls. Affected individuals carried a significant burden of rare exonic (that is, affecting coding regions) CNVs and were enriched for known genomic disorders (GD). Kidney anomaly (KA) cases were most enriched for exonic CNVs, encompassing GD-CNVs and novel deletions; obstructive uropathy (OU) had a lower CNV burden and an intermediate prevalence of GD-CNVs; and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) had the fewest GD-CNVs but was enriched for novel exonic CNVs, particularly duplications. Six loci (1q21, 4p16.1-p16.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11, 17q12 and 22q11.2) accounted for 65% of patients with GD-CNVs. Deletions at 17q12, 4p16.1-p16.3 and 22q11.2 were specific for KA; the 16p11.2 locus showed extensive pleiotropy. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified TBX6 as a driver for the CAKUT subphenotypes in the 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Rim/anormalidades , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
13.
N Engl J Med ; 380(2): 142-151, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing is emerging as a first-line diagnostic method in some clinical disciplines, but its usefulness has yet to be examined for most constitutional disorders in adults, including chronic kidney disease, which affects more than 1 in 10 persons globally. METHODS: We conducted exome sequencing and diagnostic analysis in two cohorts totaling 3315 patients with chronic kidney disease. We assessed the diagnostic yield and, among the patients for whom detailed clinical data were available, the clinical implications of diagnostic and other medically relevant findings. RESULTS: In all, 3037 patients (91.6%) were over 21 years of age, and 1179 (35.6%) were of self-identified non-European ancestry. We detected diagnostic variants in 307 of the 3315 patients (9.3%), encompassing 66 different monogenic disorders. Of the disorders detected, 39 (59%) were found in only a single patient. Diagnostic variants were detected across all clinically defined categories, including congenital or cystic renal disease (127 of 531 patients [23.9%]) and nephropathy of unknown origin (48 of 281 patients [17.1%]). Of the 2187 patients assessed, 34 (1.6%) had genetic findings for medically actionable disorders that, although unrelated to their nephropathy, would also lead to subspecialty referral and inform renal management. CONCLUSIONS: Exome sequencing in a combined cohort of more than 3000 patients with chronic kidney disease yielded a genetic diagnosis in just under 10% of cases. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Circulation ; 138(22): 2469-2481, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteomic approaches allow measurement of thousands of proteins in a single specimen, which can accelerate biomarker discovery. However, applying these technologies to massive biobanks is not currently feasible because of the practical barriers and costs of implementing such assays at scale. To overcome these challenges, we used a "virtual proteomic" approach, linking genetically predicted protein levels to clinical diagnoses in >40 000 individuals. METHODS: We used genome-wide association data from the Framingham Heart Study (n=759) to construct genetic predictors for 1129 plasma protein levels. We validated the genetic predictors for 268 proteins and used them to compute predicted protein levels in 41 288 genotyped individuals in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) cohort. We tested associations for each predicted protein with 1128 clinical phenotypes. Lead associations were validated with directly measured protein levels and either low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or subclinical atherosclerosis in the MDCS (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study; n=651). RESULTS: In the virtual proteomic analysis in eMERGE, 55 proteins were associated with 89 distinct diagnoses at a false discovery rate q<0.1. Among these, 13 associations involved lipid (n=7) or atherosclerosis (n=6) phenotypes. We tested each association for validation in MDCS using directly measured protein levels. At Bonferroni-adjusted significance thresholds, levels of apolipoprotein E isoforms were associated with hyperlipidemia, and circulating C-type lectin domain family 1 member B and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.08-1.58; P=0.006) per 1-SD increment in C-type lectin domain family 1 member B and 0.79 (0.66-0.94; P=0.008) per 1-SD increment in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a biomarker discovery paradigm to identify candidate biomarkers of cardiovascular and other diseases.

15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420158

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Glomerular diseases, including minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, share clinical presentations, yet result from multiple biological mechanisms. Challenges to identifying underlying mechanisms, biomarkers, and new therapies include the rarity of each diagnosis and slow progression, often requiring decades to measure the effectiveness of interventions to prevent end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or death. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Cure Glomerulonephropathy (CureGN) will enroll 2,400 children and adults with minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, or IgA nephropathy (including IgA vasculitis) and a first diagnostic kidney biopsy within 5 years. Patients with ESKD and those with secondary causes of glomerular disease are excluded. EXPOSURES: Clinical data, including medical history, medications, family history, and patient-reported outcomes, are obtained, along with a digital archive of kidney biopsy images and blood and urine specimens at study visits aligned with clinical care 1 to 4 times per year. OUTCOMES: Patients are followed up for changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate, disease activity, ESKD, and death and for nonrenal complications of disease and treatment, including infection, malignancy, cardiovascular, and thromboembolic events. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: The study design supports multiple longitudinal analyses leveraging the diverse data domains of CureGN and its ancillary program. At 2,400 patients and an average of 2 years' initial follow-up, CureGN has 80% power to detect an HR of 1.4 to 1.9 for proteinuria remission and a mean difference of 2.1 to 3.0mL/min/1.73m2 in estimated glomerular filtration rate per year. LIMITATIONS: Current follow-up can only detect large differences in ESKD and death outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Study infrastructure will support a broad range of scientific approaches to identify mechanistically distinct subgroups, identify accurate biomarkers of disease activity and progression, delineate disease-specific treatment targets, and inform future therapeutic trials. CureGN is expected to be among the largest prospective studies of children and adults with glomerular disease, with a broad goal to lessen disease burden and improve outcomes.

16.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 14(12): 723-724, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279535
17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298529

RESUMO

The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network is a network of medical centers with electronic medical records linked to existing biorepository samples for genomic discovery and genomic medicine research. The network sought to unify the genetic results from 78 Illumina and Affymetrix genotype array batches from 12 contributing medical centers for joint association analysis of 83,717 human participants. In this report, we describe the imputation of eMERGE results and methods to create the unified imputed merged set of genome-wide variant genotype data. We imputed the data using the Michigan Imputation Server, which provides a missing single-nucleotide variant genotype imputation service using the minimac3 imputation algorithm with the Haplotype Reference Consortium genotype reference set. We describe the quality control and filtering steps used in the generation of this data set and suggest generalizable quality thresholds for imputation and phenotype association studies. To test the merged imputed genotype set, we replicated a previously reported chromosome 6 HLA-B herpes zoster (shingles) association and discovered a novel zoster-associated loci in an epigenetic binding site near the terminus of chromosome 3 (3p29).

18.
Kidney Int ; 94(6): 1189-1198, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287079

RESUMO

Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) in the native kidney is associated with heavy proteinuria and accelerated renal failure. However, cFSGS in the renal allograft is less well characterized. Here we report clinico-pathologic features and APOL1 donor risk genotypes in 38 patients with de novo post-kidney transplant cFSGS. Recipients were 34% female and 26% African American. Concurrent viral infections and acute vaso-occlusion (including thrombotic microangiopathy, cortical necrosis, atheroembolization, and cardiac arrest with contralateral graft thrombosis) were present in 13% and 29% of recipients, respectively. Notably, 61% of patients had concurrent acute rejection and 47% received grafts from African American donors, of which 53% carried APOL1 high-risk genotypes. These frequencies of acute rejection and grafts from African American donors were significantly higher than in our general transplant population (35% and 16%, respectively). Patients had a median serum creatinine of 5.4 mg/dl, urine protein/creatinine 3.5 g/g, and 18% had nephrotic syndrome. Graft failure occurred in 63% of patients at an average of eighteen months post-index biopsy. By univariate analysis, donor APOL1 high-risk genotypes, post-transplant time, nephrotic syndrome, and chronic histologic changes were associated with inferior graft survival while acute vaso-occlusion was associated with superior graft survival. Donor APOL1 high-risk genotypes independently predicted poor outcome. Compared to native kidney cFSGS, post-transplant cFSGS had more acute vaso-occlusion but less proteinuria. Thus, de novo cFSGS is associated with variable proteinuria and poor prognosis with potential predisposing factors of African American donor, acute rejection, viral infection and acute vaso-occlusion. Additionally, donor APOL1 high-risk genotypes are associated with higher incidence and worse graft survival.

19.
Semin Nephrol ; 38(5): 443-454, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177016

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents a genetically complex multifactorial trait. Its prevalence and clinical features vary geographically, and the disease has a range of clinical presentations that suggest multiple subtypes. Although familial aggregation of IgAN has been reported and prior linkage studies have highlighted significant locus heterogeneity, specific genetic variants underlying familial IgAN have not yet been defined. Population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered nearly 20 IgAN risk loci, providing novel insights into disease epidemiology and molecular mechanisms, shifting old paradigms of the disease pathogenesis. Follow-up fine-mapping studies have identified specific causal variants, and genotype-phenotype correlation studies have begun to delineate clinical consequences of GWAS risk alleles. The association between IgAN and galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), a validated serum biomarker of IgAN, presented another avenue for genetic discovery because elevated serum levels of Gd-IgA1 are highly heritable. Recent GWAS for serum Gd-IgA1 levels provided novel insights into genetic regulation of this trait, but the genetic link between Gd-IgA1 and IgAN has not yet been established. In this review, we discuss these developments in the broader context of modern genetic approaches to complex traits, and provide our perspective on the critical challenges that need to be addressed to advance the field.

20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054024

RESUMO

The presence of 2 APOL1 risk variants (G1/G1, G1/G2, or G2/G2) is an important predictor of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and chronic kidney disease in individuals of African descent. Although recipient APOL1 genotype is not associated with allograft survival, kidneys from deceased African American donors with 2 APOL1 risk variants demonstrate shorter graft survival. We present a series of cases of presumed de novo collapsing FSGS in 5 transplanted kidneys from 3 deceased donors later identified as carrying 2 APOL1 risk alleles, including 2 recipients from the same donor whose kidneys were transplanted in 2 different institutions. Four of these recipients had viremia in the period preceding the diagnosis of collapsing FSGS. Cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection were present in 3 and 1 of our 5 cases, respectively, around the time that collapsing FSGS occurred. We discuss viral infections, including active cytomegalovirus infection, as possible "second hits" that may lead to glomerular injury and allograft failure in these recipients. Further studies to identify additional second hits are necessary to better understand the pathologic mechanisms of donor APOL1-associated kidney disease in the recipient.

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