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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 125: 28-32, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203736

RESUMO

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis most commonly presents to psychiatric services, so early identification of this disorder is essential. We aim to validate the two screening criteria (Scott et al. and Herken and Pruss) which have been proposed to identify first episode psychosis patients who should have anti-NMDAR antibody testing. The performance of the screening criteria were assessed using anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases published in the literature, and antibody positive and negative cases from a state-wide cohort (Queensland, Australia). Sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed. There were 258 anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases and 103 control cases, which demonstrated high performance of both Scott et al. "screening recommended" criteria (sensitivity 97.3%, specificity 85.4%, AUC 0.914) and Herken and Pruss "yellow flags" criteria (sensitivity 91.5%, specificity 83.5%, AUC 0.875). These criteria remained accurate when neurological variables were excluded, and in cases without psychosis. The Scott et al. "screening not recommended", and Herken and Pruss "red flags" criteria did not demonstrate clinical utility for first episode psychosis case screening. The screening criteria with good performance identify an atypical picture of psychiatric presentation with increased risk of anti-NMDAR positivity prior to overt neurological symptoms or investigations and may be beneficial to include in the routine psychiatric assessment process.

2.
Int J Drug Policy ; 78: 102699, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086156

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the policy positions of health and medical organisations across Australia, New Zealand, and the UK as they relate to sale and supply of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) and evaluate factors that have informed the differences in policy recommendations among these countries. METHODS: We used mixed methods to analyse data from position or policy statements published by health and medical organisations regarding NVPs (n = 30) and consultation documents submitted to government committees regarding policy options for the regulation of NVPs (n = 26). Quality assessment of included documents was conducted using the six-item Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Text and Opinion Papers, and findings were presented narratively. Qualitative data were coded using NVivo 12 software and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: An overwhelming majority of health bodies, charities and government agencies in the UK and New Zealand portrayed NVPs as a life-saving harm reduction tool. In contrast, concerns about addicting non-smoking youth to nicotine, a perceived lack of clear and convincing evidence of safety and efficacy and the potential to undermine tobacco control progress continues to define attitudes and recommendations towards NVPs among Australian health and medical organisations. Although the profoundly divided views among stakeholders seem to arise from empirical uncertainties and disagreements over the level and credibility of evidence, the source of most of these disagreements can be traced back to the fundamental and irreconcilable differences in the framing of the NVP debate, and varied tolerability of risk trade-offs associated with NVPs. CONCLUSION: Progress in resolving the controversy surrounding NVP policy requires stakeholders to be frame-reflective and engage in a meaningful dialogue of risk trade-offs, as well as both intended and unintended consequences of proposed policies.

3.
Australas Psychiatry ; : 1039856220901478, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) for patients with chronic pain. METHOD: A sample of 228 pain patients was drawn from a larger naturalistic study of ISTDP. They received an average of 6.1 sessions delivered by 31 therapists. Psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems were assessed at three time points. Healthcare data from baseline year and three years following treatment came from independent governmental databases. RESULTS: Multilevel models indicated significant reductions in symptoms and interpersonal problems during treatment, including a moderate to large pre-post effect size (d = 0.76) for somatization. Further, the sample had successive reductions in yearly healthcare costs, reaching the normal population mean two years post-treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the uncontrolled design, our study suggests that ISTDP may be both clinically effective and cost-effective for patients with chronic pain.

4.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419898760, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia, but is associated with cardiac adverse drug reactions. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are the most serious cardiac adverse drug reactions although reported rates of these conditions vary in the literature. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the event rates, the absolute death rates and case fatality rates of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy associated with clozapine. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for studies that reported on the incidence of cardiomyopathy or myocarditis in people exposed to clozapine. Data were meta-analysed using a random effects model, with subgroup analysis on study size, time frame, region, quality, retrospective vs prospective, and diagnostic criteria of myocarditis or cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: 28 studies of 258,961 people exposed to clozapine were included. The event rate of myocarditis was 0.007 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.003, 0.016]), absolute death rate was 0.0004 (95% CI = [0.0002, 0.0009]) and case fatality rate was 0.127 (95% CI = [0.034, 0.377]). The cardiomyopathy event rate was 0.006 (95% CI = [0.002, 0.023]), absolute death rate was 0.0003 (95% CI = [0.0001, 0.0012]) and case fatality rate was 0.078 (95% CI = [0.018, 0.285]). Few included studies provided information on criteria for diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Event rates of cardiomyopathy and myocarditis were higher in Australia. CONCLUSION: Clarity of diagnostic criteria for myocarditis remains a challenge. Observation bias may, in part, influence higher reported rates in Australia. Monitoring for myocarditis is warranted in the first 4 weeks, and treatment of comorbid metabolic syndrome and diabetes may reduce the risk of cardiomyopathy. The risks of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are low and should not present a barrier to people with treatment refractory schizophrenia being offered a monitored trial of clozapine.

5.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(1): 11-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia frequently have cognitive dysfunction, which does not respond to pharmacological interventions. Varenicline has been identified as a potential treatment option for nicotinic receptor dysfunction with a potential to treat cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of Pubmed, Embase, Psycinfo, CINAHL and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Trial Registry for randomised controlled trials of varenicline in people with schizophrenia for cognitive dysfunction. We excluded trials among people with dementia. We then undertook a meta-analysis with the primary outcome of difference in change of cognitive measures between varenicline and placebo as well as secondary outcomes of difference in rates of adverse events. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on smoking status and study duration. RESULTS: We included four papers in the meta-analysis (n = 339). Varenicline was not superior to placebo for overall cognition (SMD = -0.022, 95% CI -0.154-0.110; Z = -0.333; p = 0.739), attention (SMD = -0.047, 95% CI -0.199-0.104; Z = -0.613; p = 0.540), executive function (SMD = -0.060, 95% CI -0.469-0.348; Z =- 0.290; p = 0.772) or processing speed (SMD = 0.038, 95% CI -0.232-0.308; Z = 0.279; p = 0.780). There was no difference in psychotic symptoms, but varenicline was associated with higher rates of nausea. Sensitivity analyses for smoking status and study duration did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Within the present literature, varenicline does not appear to be a useful target compound for improving cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Based on these results, a trial would need over 2500 participants to be powered to show statistically significant findings.

6.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(1): 106-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper is a follow-up of a previous introduction to systematic reviews and presents a step-by-step approach updated in the light of developments in the field. CONCLUSIONS: We describe resources such as bibliographic software, electronic translation and programs to assist in article selection, as well as the need for prospective registration of a protocol with an appropriate register. Lastly, we suggest freeware for meta-analysis and basic techniques.

7.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(1): 76-88, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting and equivocal evidence for the efficacy of compulsory community treatment within Australia and overseas, but no study from Queensland. In addition, although people from Indigenous or culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are over-represented in compulsory admissions to hospital, little is known about whether this also applies to compulsory community treatment. AIMS: We initially investigated whether people from Indigenous or culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in terms of country of birth, or preferred language, were more likely to be on compulsory community treatment using statewide databases from Queensland. We then assessed the impact of compulsory community treatment on health service use over the following 12 months. Compulsory community treatment included both community treatment orders and forensic orders. METHODS: Cases and controls from administrative health data were matched on age, sex, diagnosis and time of hospital discharge (the index date). Multivariate analyses were used to examine potential predictors of compulsory community treatment, as well as impact on bed-days, time to readmission or contacts with public mental health services in the subsequent year. RESULTS: We identified 7432 cases and controls from January 2013 to February 2017 (total n = 14,864). Compulsory community treatment was more likely in Indigenous Queenslanders (adjusted odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = [1.28, 1.65]) subjects coming from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (adjusted odds ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval = [1.37, 1.72]), or those who had a preferred language other than English (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66; 95% confidence interval = [1.30, 2.11]). While community contacts were significantly greater in patients on compulsory community treatment, there was no difference in bed-days while time to readmission was shorter. Restricting the analyses to just community treatment orders did not alter these results. CONCLUSION: In common with other coercive treatments, Indigenous Australians and people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are more likely to be placed on compulsory community treatment. The evidence for effectiveness remains inconclusive.

8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(1): 52-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since people with mental illness are more likely to die from cancer, we assessed whether people with mental illness undergo less cancer screening compared with the general population. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO, without a language restriction, and hand-searched the reference lists of included studies and previous reviews for observational studies from database inception until May 5, 2019. We included all published studies focusing on any type of cancer screening in patients with mental illness; and studies that reported prevalence of cancer screening in patients, or comparative measures between patients and the general population. The primary outcome was odds ratio (OR) of cancer screening in people with mental illness versus the general population. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality and I2 to assess study heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018114781. FINDINGS: 47 publications provided data from 46 samples including 4 717 839 individuals (501 559 patients with mental illness, and 4 216 280 controls), of whom 69·85% were women, for screening for breast cancer (k=35; 296 699 individuals with mental illness, 1 023 288 in the general population), cervical cancer (k=29; 295 688 with mental illness, 3 540 408 in general population), colorectal cancer (k=12; 153 283 with mental illness, 2 228 966 in general population), lung and gastric cancer (both k=1; 420 with mental illness, none in general population), ovarian cancer (k=1; 37 with mental illness, none in general population), and prostate cancer (k=6; 52 803 with mental illness, 2 038 916 in general population). Median quality of the included studies was high at 7 (IQR 6-8). Screening was significantly less frequent in people with any mental disease compared with the general population for any cancer (k=37; OR 0·76 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]; I2=98·53% with publication bias of Egger's p value=0·025), breast cancer (k=27; 0·65 [0·60-0·71]; I2=97·58% and no publication bias), cervical cancer (k=23; 0·89 [0·84-0·95]; I2=98·47% and no publication bias), and prostate cancer (k=4; 0·78 [0·70-0·86]; I2=79·68% and no publication bias), but not for colorectal cancer (k=8; 1·02 [0·90-1·15]; I2=97·84% and no publication bias). INTERPRETATION: Despite the increased mortality from cancer in people with mental illness, this population receives less cancer screening compared with that of the general population. Specific approaches should be developed to assist people with mental illness to undergo appropriate cancer screening, especially women with schizophrenia. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
9.
Addiction ; 115(1): 61-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most studies of the association between child maltreatment and subsequent problem alcohol use are retrospective. We studied the association of prospectively substantiated child maltreatment with problem alcohol use in adulthood. DESIGN: We used a prospective cohort record linkage correlational design using data from a statutory child protection agency of prospectively substantiated child maltreatment linked to a birth cohort from a major metropolitan maternity hospital. SETTING: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 3762 young people at the 21-year follow-up, 169 (4.5%) had a history of substantiated maltreatment by 16 years. This was most commonly emotional abuse (n = 90). MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome was heavy alcohol use at the 21-year follow-up, defined as four or more standard drinks per day. Secondary outcomes were life-time and 12-month diagnoses of alcohol use disorders in  2531 participants who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-auto (CIDI-auto) version. Predictor variables were physical, sexual and emotional abuse, as well as neglect. FINDINGS: At follow-up, 407 of the 3762 participants reported heavy alcohol use (10.8%). On adjusted analyses, participants who had experienced emotional abuse were significantly more likely to report heavy alcohol use at the time of interview (adjusted odds ratio = 1.856; 95% confidence interval = 1.038-3.319; P = 0.037). Neglect was associated with a life-time CIDI diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder. Other types of child maltreatment were not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Prospectively identified experience of childhood emotional abuse and neglect appears to be positively associated with problem alcohol use at age 21.

10.
Med J Aust ; 212(1): 15-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816093
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(1): 66-73, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prospective record-linkage analysis to examine whether notified and/or substantiated child maltreatment is associated with the prevalence and persistence of smoking in early adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3758 participants enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia, who were followed up at both 14 and 21 years of age. Suspected experience of child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data. The two main outcomes were the prevalence and persistence of smoking at 21-year follow-up, as well as the 12-month prevalence of nicotine use disorder for participants who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Auto version. RESULTS: Of the 3758 young people at the 21-year follow-up, 7.5% (n = 282) had a history of notified maltreatment by the age of 16 years. Of these, 167 cases were substantiated. There were 1362 (35.3%) smokers at 21-year follow-up, although only 220 (5.9%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily. Of the 602 participants who smoked at 14 years, 289 were still smoking 7 years later. On adjusted analyses, participants who had experienced any form of notified and/or substantiated maltreatment were approximately twice as likely to be smokers at 21 years old and persistent smokers from 14 years of age. Any form of maltreatment, except sexual abuse, was also associated with an increase in the 12-month prevalence of nicotine use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Child maltreatment is associated with both an increased onset and persistence of smoking from adolescence into young adulthood. This may have implications for smoking cessation programs and early interventions for individuals who have experienced maltreatment.

12.
J Ment Health ; 29(1): 40-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792087

RESUMO

Background: Social cognition is commonly affected in psychiatric disorders and is a determinant of quality of life. However, there are few studies of treatment.Objective: To investigate the efficacy of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy on social cognition in major depression.Method: This study used a parallel group randomized control design to compare pre-test and post-test social cognition scores between depressed participants receiving ISTDP and those allocated to a wait-list control group. Participants were adults (19-40 years of age) who were diagnosed with depression. We recruited 32 individuals, with 16 participants allocated to the ISTDP and control groups, respectively. Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex and educational level.Results: Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) demonstrated that the intervention was effective in terms of the total score of social cognition: the experimental group had a significant increase in the post-test compared to the control group. In addition, the experimental group showed a significant reduction in the negative subjective score compared to the control group as well as an improvement in response to positive neutral and negative states.Conclusion: Depressed patients receiving ISTDP show a significant improvement in social cognition post treatment compared to a wait-list control group.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112601, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883740

RESUMO

There is a mortality gap of 15 to 20 years for people with severe mental illness (SMI - psychotic spectrum, bipolar, major depressive disorders). Modifiable risk factors include inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Exercise can improve mental and physical outcomes; optimal type and intensity of exercise for people with SMI has yet to be determined. High Intensity Interval training (HIIT) is an exercise with distinct cardio-metabolic advantages in other disease populations compared to traditional moderate intensity continuous training (MCT). We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HIIT for people with SMI. Major electronic databases were searched, identifying HIIT studies for adults experiencing SMI.Data on feasibility, safety, study design, sample characteristics, and physical and psychological outcomes were extracted and systematically reviewed. Meta-analyses were conducted within group, pre and post HIIT interventions, and between group, to compare HIIT with control conditions. Nine articles were identified including three pre/post studies, one non randomised and five randomised trials, (366 participants, 45.1% female). HIIT appears as feasible as MCT, with few safety concerns. Following HIIT, there was a moderate improvement in CRF and depression. There was no difference between HIIT and MCT for adherence or CRF.HIIT improved depression more than MCT.

14.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706390

RESUMO

The use of compulsion has become one of the most contentious issues in psychiatry. This special edition, guest edited by Professor Steve Kisely and Professor Lisa Brophy, brings together a range of perspectives on Community Treatment Orders or outpatient commitment.

15.
BJPsych Open ; 5(6): e100, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727201

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Mental health is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health. In recognition of this fact, the European Union funded the Emerald programme (Emerging Mental Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries). The aims were to improve mental health in the following six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. The Emerald programme offers valuable insights into addressing the mental health needs of LMICs. It provides a framework and practical tools. However, it will be important to evaluate longer-term effects including improvements in mental health outcomes, as well as the applicability to LMICs beyond existing participant countries. Importantly, this must be coupled with efforts to improve health worker retention in LMICs.

16.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(12): 1149-1160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564170

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients living with schizophrenia have a marked risk of clinically significant weight gain and obesity compared to the general population. The risks have been highlighted following the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics. In turn, obesity is associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia.Areas covered: In this review, the authors outline possible mechanisms that induce obesity in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics. The authors discuss the safety and effectiveness of three main approaches for attenuating antipsychotic-associated weight gain (AAWG), including lifestyle interventions, switching antipsychotics, and augmentation with other medications.Expert opinion: When selecting antipsychotics, effective treatment of psychotic symptoms should be highest priority but obesity and related metabolic comorbidities associated with antipsychotics should not be neglected. Further research into mechanisms of weight gain associated with antipsychotics will guide future treatments for AAWG and development of antipsychotics that produce minimal metabolic adverse effects. With current strategies only producing modest weight loss in already overweight and obese individuals, clinicians should transition to an approach where they aim to prevent weight gain when initiating antipsychotic treatment.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 98: 104170, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether child maltreatment is associated with attentional problems in adolescence (14 years) and young adulthood (21 years), and whether outcomes depend on the type of maltreatment (sexual vs non-sexual). METHODS: Data from a population based cohort study involving 3778 mother-child pairs were linked with data from the state child protection agency to examine associations between child abuse and neglect and attention problems, measured using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Achenbach Young Adult Self Report (YASR). RESULTS: 245 (6.5%) participants had been the subject of notification for non-sexual maltreatment (one or more of neglect, emotional or physical abuse) compared with only 54 (1.4%) who had been subject of notification for suspected sexual abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding variables including maternal, participant and sociodemographic factors, we found those exposed to non sexual maltreatment were likely to experience attentional problems at 14 years (p < .001) and 21 years of age (p = .044), compared with those participants who had not experienced non sexual maltreatment. By contrast, at age 14 years, sexual abuse was associated with attentional problems only as reported by the participant, not their carer. Results at 21 years of age for those exposed to sexual child maltreatment (p=.655) were again in contrast to the observed association between attentional problems and non sexual child maltreatment (p = .035). CONCLUSION: In this study, non-sexual maltreatment in childhood is associated with attentional problems at both 14 years and 21 years of age. These findings highlight the need for targeted research to better understand the longer term mental health outcomes for children exposed to non-sexual maltreatment. Potential implications for mental health services include the need for broader screening at presentation and importantly, greater collaboration with schools, general practitioners and paediatricians, given the greatest impact would arguably be within these settings.

18.
Lancet ; 394(10202): 900-902, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526722
19.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 23(4): 507-514, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dentistry students face a challenging academic and clinical curriculum that can result in depression and anxiety. While studies usually report sources of stress for dentistry students, there is less information on levels of stress. This study used the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), to report perceived levels of depression, anxiety and stress in a cohort of Australian undergraduate dentistry students. METHODS: Students enrolled in years 1-4 of the Bachelor of Dental Science (Honours) program at The University of Queensland were invited to complete the DASS-21 using an online questionnaire. Students completed the same questionnaire 1 year later. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean DASS-21 scores for this cohort (n = 179; females = 56%) were in the normal range for depression (4.69, SD 3.87) and stress (5.50, SD 3.65), and mild range for anxiety (4.25, SD 3.21). Overall, 24% (n = 42), 44% (n = 78) and 11% (n = 20) of students had moderate or above levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, DASS-21 scores were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Dental students have higher levels of depression, anxiety or stress than the general population, indicating they may be at risk for greater psychological distress. The information from this study should guide curriculum and learning environment design, as well as interventions to support students through this challenging degree.


Assuntos
Depressão , Estresse Psicológico , Ansiedade , Austrália , Odontologia , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Australas Psychiatry ; 27(6): 589-595, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness improves psychological outcomes. We examined whether greater mindfulness scores were associated with reduced injury rates in soccer players, as well as improved performance at both the individual and team level. METHOD: This was a parallel-group, pre- and post-test, randomised controlled pilot trial. Forty-five male amateur soccer players from Tehran, Iran, were randomly assigned into experimental (n=23) and control groups (n=22). Outcomes were scores on the mindfulness sport inventory, as well as injury rates and recovery as assessed by a physiotherapist using standardised criteria. Expert observers assessed the effect on individual and team performance. Data were analysed using mixed analysis of variance and, where indicated, its non-parametric alternative, the Friedman test. RESULTS: Significantly greater mindfulness scores in the intervention group were associated with both reduced injury and improved performance. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness training shows promise in preventing injury and improving performance. The intervention could be applied to other sports and be helpful in clinical settings given the importance of exercise in promoting psychological well-being.

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