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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639405

RESUMO

Abdominal congenital malformations are responsible for early mortality, inadequate nutrient intake, and infant biological dysfunction. Exposure to metallic elements in utero is reported to be toxic and negatively impacts ontogeny. However, no prior study has sufficiently evaluated the effects of exposure to metallic elements in utero on abdominal congenital malformations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between metallic elements detected in maternal blood during pregnancy and congenital abdominal malformations. Data from participants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study was used in the present study, and contained information on singleton and live birth infants without congenital abnormalities (control: n = 89,134) and abdominal malformations (case: n = 139). Heavy metals such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and trace elements of manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) were detected in maternal serum samples during mid- and late-gestation. Infant congenital abnormalities were identified from delivery records at birth or one month after birth by medical doctors. In a multivariate analysis adjusted to account for potential confounders, quartiles of heavy metals and trace elements present in maternal blood were not statistically correlated to the prevalence of abdominal congenital malformations at birth. This study is the first to reveal the absence of significant associations between exposure levels to maternal heavy metals and trace elements in utero and the prevalence of abdominal congenital malformations in a large cohort of the Japanese population. Further studies are necessary to investigate the impact of exposure to heavy metals and trace elements via maternal blood in offspring after birth.

2.
Reprod Toxicol ; 105: 221-231, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536543

RESUMO

Prenatal sex hormones affect fetal growth; for example, prenatal exposure to low levels of androgen accelerates female puberty onset. We assessed the association of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in maternal sera and infant genotypes of genes encoding enzymes involved in sex steroid hormone biosynthesis on cord sera sex hormone levels in a prospective birth cohort study of healthy pregnant Japanese women (n = 224) recruited in Sapporo between July 2002 and October 2005. We analyzed PFAS and five sex hormone levels using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17A1 (CYP17A1 rs743572), 19A1 (CYP19A1 rs10046, rs700519, and rs727479), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD3B1 rs6203), type 2 (HSD3B2 rs1819698, rs2854964, and rs4659175), 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1 rs605059, rs676387, and rs2676531), and type 3 (HSD17B3 rs4743709) were analyzed using real-time PCR. Multiple linear regression models were used to establish the influence of log10-transformed PFAS levels and infant genotypes on log10-transformed sex steroid hormone levels. When the interaction between perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) levels and female infant genotype CYP17A1 (rs743572) on the androstenedione (A-dione) levels was considered, the estimated changes (95 % confidence intervals) in A-dione levels against PFOS levels, female infant genotype CYP17A1 (rs743572)-AG/GG, and interaction between them showed a mean increase of 0.445 (0.102, 0.787), mean increase of 0.392 (0.084, 0.707), and mean reduction of 0.579 (0.161, 0.997) (Pint = 0.007), respectively. Moreover, a female-specific interaction with testosterone levels was observed. A-dione and T levels showed positive main effects and negative interaction with PFOS levels and the female infant CYP17A1 genotype.

3.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112093, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562483

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources and is transformed in the environment to its most toxicant form, methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies suggest that MeHg exposure can alter epigenetic modifications during embryogenesis. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and levels of cord blood DNA methylation (DNAm) by meta-analysis in up to seven independent studies (n = 1462) as well as persistence of those relationships in blood from 7 to 8 year-old children (n = 794). In cord blood, we found limited evidence of differential DNAm at cg24184221 in MED31 (ß = 2.28 × 10-4, p-value = 5.87 × 10-5) in relation to prenatal MeHg exposure. In child blood, we identified differential DNAm at cg15288800 (ß = 0.004, p-value = 4.97 × 10-5), also located in MED31. This repeated link to MED31, a gene involved in lipid metabolism and RNA Polymerase II transcription function, may suggest a DNAm perturbation related to MeHg exposure that persists into early childhood. Further, we found evidence for association between prenatal MeHg exposure and child blood DNAm levels at two additional CpGs: cg12204245 (ß = 0.002, p-value = 4.81 × 10-7) in GRK1 and cg02212000 (ß = -0.001, p-value = 8.13 × 10-7) in GGH. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with DNAm modifications that may influence health outcomes, such as cognitive or anthropometric development, in different populations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 544, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of maternal psychological distress on infant congenital heart defects (CHDs) has not been thoroughly investigated. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the combined effect of maternal psychological distress and socioeconomic status on infant CHDs. This study aimed to examine whether maternal psychological distress, socioeconomic status, and their combinations were associated with CHD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women between 2011 and 2014. Maternal psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale in the first trimester, while maternal education and household income were evaluated in the second and third trimesters. The outcome of infant CHD was determined using the medical records at 1 month of age and/or at birth. Crude- and confounder-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between maternal psychological distress and education and household income on infant CHD. RESULTS: A total of 93,643 pairs of mothers and infants were analyzed, with 1.1% of infants having CHDs. Maternal psychological distress had a significantly higher odds ratio in the crude analysis but not in the adjusted analysis, while maternal education and household income were statistically insignificant. In the analysis of the combination variable of lowest education and psychological distress, the P for trend was statistically significant in the crude and multivariate model excluding anti-depressant medication, but the significance disappeared in the full model (P = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of maternal psychological distress and lower education may be a possible indicator of infant CHD.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281019

RESUMO

Pets may play a role in the social-emotional development of children. In particular, some studies have suggested that family dog ownership is associated with better health outcomes. To date, no study has assessed child development in association with dog ownership of different time points. The purpose of the current study was primary to investigate whether "ever" family dog ownership was associated with early child development, and secondary to further examine whether associations between family dog ownership and early child development differ among family dog ownership of status, including "past only", "current only", and "always" groups, using the data of family dog ownership obtained at multiple time points. Associations between family dog ownership and infant development at 3 years of age were examined using data from a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (n = 78,941). "Ever" family dog ownership was categorized to "past only", "current only", and "always". We observed that children with "ever" family dog ownership showed a significantly decreased risk of developmental delay in the communication (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78, 0.96), gross motor (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92), problem-solving (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96) and personal-social (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92) domains compared to children with "never" family dog ownership. Furthermore, a significantly decreased risk of developmental delay in gross motor function was observed in association with living with dogs in the "past only" (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95) and "always" (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98). In addition, a decreased risk of developmental delay in the problem-solving domain was associated with "past" family dog ownership (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.97) and in the personal-social domain was associated with "always" family dog ownership (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.95). Given the possible positive association between early life child development and family dog ownership, living with dogs may be an important factor to be considered when assessing child development.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088984

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Japanese studies on the association between maternal alcohol consumption and fetal growth are few. This study assessed the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on fetal growth. METHODS: This prospective birth cohort included 95,761 participants enrolled between January 2011 and March 2014 in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Adjusted multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between prenatal alcohol consumption and infant birth size. RESULTS: Consumption of a weekly dose of alcohol in the second/third trimester showed a significant negative correlation with standard deviation (SD; Z) scores for body weight, body length, and head circumference at birth, respectively. Consumption of a weekly dose of alcohol during the second/third trimester had a significant positive correlation with incidences of Z-score ≤ -1.5 for birth head circumference. Associations between alcohol consumption in the second/third trimester and Z-score ≤ -1.5 for birth weight or birth length were not significant. Maternal alcohol consumption in the second/third trimester above 5, 20, and 100 g/week affected body weight, body length, and head circumference at birth, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy might affect fetal growth. Public health policies for pregnant women are needed to stop alcohol consumption during pregnancy. IMPACT: This study examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and fetal growth restriction in 95,761 pregnant Japanese women using the prospective birth cohort. Maternal alcohol consumption in the second/third trimester more than 5, 20, and 100 g/week might affect fetal growth in body weight, body length, and head circumference, respectively. The findings are relevant and important for educating pregnant women on the adverse health effects that prenatal alcohol consumptions have on infants.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9994, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976266

RESUMO

The effect of interactions between perfluorooctanesulfonic (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels and nuclear receptor genotypes on fatty acid (FA) levels, including those of triglycerides, is not clear understood. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to analyse the association of PFOS/PFOA levels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nuclear receptors with FA levels in pregnant women. We analysed 504 mothers in a birth cohort between 2002 and 2005 in Japan. Serum PFOS/PFOA and FA levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maternal genotypes in PPARA (rs1800234; rs135561), PPARG (rs3856806), PPARGC1A (rs2970847; rs8192678), PPARD (rs1053049; rs2267668), CAR (rs2307424; rs2501873), LXRA (rs2279238) and LXRB (rs1405655; rs2303044; rs4802703) were analysed. When gene-environment interaction was considered, PFOS exposure (log10 scale) decreased palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid levels (log10 scale), with the observed ß in the range of - 0.452 to - 0.244; PPARGC1A (rs8192678) and PPARD (rs1053049; rs2267668) genotypes decreased triglyceride, palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid levels, with the observed ß in the range of - 0.266 to - 0.176. Interactions between PFOS exposure and SNPs were significant for palmitic acid (Pint = 0.004 to 0.017). In conclusion, the interactions between maternal PFOS levels and PPARGC1A or PPARD may modify maternal FA levels.

10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 59, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco. METHODS: The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures. RESULTS: The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Prevalência
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of mothers' and fathers' educational levels in separate evaluations of asthma has not been fully investigated. This study aims to examine the associations of the mother's and fathers' educational levels with childhood wheeze and asthma adjusting for crude and pre-and post-natal modifiable risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. The mother's and father's educational levels were surveyed by a questionnaire during the pregnancy, and childhood wheezing and doctor-diagnosed asthma were estimated using a 3-year questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the mother's and father's educational levels and childhood wheezing and asthma, adjusted for pre-and post-natal factors. RESULTS: A total of 69,607 pairs of parents and their single infants were analyzed. We found 17.3% of children had wheezing and 7.7% had asthma. In crude analyses, lower educational level of parents was associated with an increased risk of childhood wheezing and asthma. After full adjustment, a lower educational level of mothers was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma (junior high school (reference: high school); odds ratio (OR): 1.17, 95% CI, 1.01-1.36), and higher educational level, especially the mother's, was associated with an increased risk of childhood wheezing (technical junior college, technical/vocational college, or associate degree (ECD3); OR: 1.12, 95% CI, 1.06-1.18, bachelor's degree, or postgraduate degree; OR: 1.10, 95% CI, 1.03-1.18), and asthma (ECD3; OR: 1.13, 95% CI, 1.04-1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Parents' lower educational level was a crude risk factor for childhood wheezing and asthma. However, an increased risk of wheezing due to mothers' higher educational level was found after adjusting for pre-and post-natal factors.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Pais/educação , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 74, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We assessed whether DNA methylation differences may mediate the association between prenatal smoking exposure and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years. RESULTS: We selected 1150 mother-infant pairs from the Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's Health. Mothers were categorized into three groups according to plasma cotinine levels at the third trimester: non-smokers (≤ 0.21 ng/mL), passive smokers (0.21-11.48 ng/mL), and active smokers (≥ 11.49 ng/mL). The children's ADHD symptoms were determined by the ADHD-Rating Scale at the age of 6 years. Maternal active smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD symptoms (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.15) compared to non-smoking after adjusting for covariates. DNA methylation of the growth factor-independent 1 transcriptional repressor (GFI1) region, as determined by bisulfite next-generation sequencing of cord blood samples, mediated 48.4% of the total effect of the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms. DNA methylation patterns of other genes (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor [AHRR], cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 [CYP1A1], estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], and myosin IG [MYO1G]) regions did not exert a statistically significant mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that DNA methylation of GFI1 mediated the association between maternal active smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147035, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872906

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to phthalates negatively affects the offspring's health. In particular, epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation, may connect phthalate exposure with health outcomes. Here, we evaluated the association of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure in utero with cord blood epigenome-wide DNA methylation in 203 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Epigenome-wide association analysis demonstrated the predominant positive associations between the levels of the primary metabolite of DEHP, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), in maternal blood and DNA methylation levels in cord blood. The genes annotated to the CpGs positively associated with MEHP levels were enriched for pathways related to metabolism, the endocrine system, and signal transduction. Among them, methylation levels of CpGs involved in metabolism were inversely associated with the offspring's ponderal index (PI). Further, clustering and mediation analyses suggested that multiple increased methylation changes may jointly mediate the association of DEHP exposure in utero with the offspring's PI at birth. Although further studies are required to assess the impact of these changes, this study suggests that differential DNA methylation may link phthalate exposure in utero to fetal growth and further imply that DNA methylation has predictive value for the offspring's obesity.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Metilação de DNA , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Epigenoma , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808331

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bisphenol A and phthalate have been found in the environment, as well as in humans. In this narrative review pre- and postnatal bisphenol A and phthalate exposures, their relationship to neurodevelopment, and the behavioral outcomes of children are elucidated, focusing in particular on the recent case-control, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies. This review also introduces some of the possible mechanisms behind the observed associations between exposures and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Although bisphenol A and phthalate exposure have been reported to influence neurobehavioral development in children, there are various kinds of test batteries for child neurodevelopmental assessment at different ages whose findings have been inconsistent among studies. In addition, the timing and number of exposure assessments have varied. SUMMARY: Overall, this review suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates may contribute to neurobehavioral outcomes in children. The evidence is still limited; however, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, especially among boys, constantly suggested association with both prenatal and concurrent exposure to bisphenol A. Although there is limited evidence on the adverse effects of prenatal and postnatal bisphenol A and phthalate exposures provided, pregnant women and young children should be protected from exposure based on a precautionary approach.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804885

RESUMO

Hypertension during pregnancy causes a greater risk of adverse birth outcomes worldwide; however, formal evidence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) in Japan is limited. We aimed to understand the association between maternal characteristics, HDP, and birth outcomes. In total, 18,833 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Hokkaido study on environment and children's health, Japan, from 2002 to 2013. Medical records were used to identify hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes, namely, small for gestational age (SGA), SGA at full term (term-SGA), preterm birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW). The prevalence of HDP was 1.9%. Similarly, the prevalence of SGA, term-SGA, PTB, and LBW were 7.1%, 6.3%, 7.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. The mothers with HDP had increased odds of giving birth to babies with SGA (2.13; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.57, 2.88), PTB (3.48; 95%CI: 2.68, 4.50), LBW (3.57; 95%CI: 2.83, 4.51) than normotensive pregnancy. Elderly pregnancy, low and high body mass index, active and passive smoking exposure, and alcohol consumption were risk factors for different birth outcomes. Therefore, it is crucial for women of reproductive age and their families to be made aware of these risk factors through physician visits, health education, and various community-based health interventions.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113724, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761429

RESUMO

The widespread commercial production and use of phthalates as plasticizers in consumer products have led to significant human exposure. Some phthalates are known to disrupt the endocrine system and result in adverse health outcomes. As such, they have been regulated in materials used for children's items and food packages. In this study, we examined the secular trend of urinary phthalate metabolites in children and the association between metabolites and building characteristics. In total, 400 first-morning spot urine samples of 7 years old children collected from 2012 to 2017 from an ongoing birth cohort study were examined. Parents provided information on demographics and building questionnaires. We analyzed 10 urinary phthalate metabolites from five phthalate diesters using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS): MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MECPP, MiNP, OH-MiNP, and cx-MiNP. A multivariable regression model with creatinine-corrected metabolite levels was applied to assess secular trends during 2012-2017. The association between metabolite levels and building characteristics was investigated using a mutual-adjusted linear regression. The metabolites MnBP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MECPP, and OH-MiNP were detected in all samples. The highest median concentration was for MECPP 37.4 ng/mL, followed by MnBP and MEHHP at concentrations of 36.8 and 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. Overall, DBP, BBzP, and DINP metabolite concentrations in this study were comparable to or lower than those in previous studies from Japan and other countries in a similar study period. Higher concentrations of DEHP metabolites were observed in this study than in children from the USA and Germany, as per previous reports. Despite updated phthalate regulations and reports of production volume change in Japan, all the measured metabolites showed a stable trend between 2012 and 2017. Higher phthalate metabolite levels were observed among children from households with low annual income, those who lived in old buildings, and those with window opening habits of ≥1 h than ≤1 h. In contrast, children in houses that vacuumed 4 or more days/week showed a lower level of MnBP than those in houses that vacuumed ≤3 days/week. This study demonstrates that the internal exposure level of phthalates in Japanese children was stable from 2012 to 2017. Our findings suggest that phthalate exposure in children is consistent. Thus, improvements in the indoor environment, such as frequent vacuuming, may reduce exposure. Biomonitoring of phthalates is critical for elucidating their possible health effects and developing mitigation strategies.

17.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a cause of inpatient and outpatient care among children. Although orofacial clefts seem to be associated with LRTIs, epidemiological studies are scarce on this topic. This study aimed to examine whether infants with orofacial clefts were associated with LRTIs. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, whose baseline recruitment was conducted during 2011-2014. This study included 81,535 participants. The number of infants with cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft lip (CL), and cleft palate only (CP) was 67, 49, and 36, respectively. We defined history of LRTIs until 12 months' age reported by their mothers as the dependent variable. Accumulated breastfeeding duration was used as potential mediators. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of LRTIs among the control group was 6.0%. The incidence proportion among infants with CLP, CL, and CP were 11.9%, 14.3%, and 5.6%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, compared with the control group, infants with CLP and CL were associated with risk of LRTIs (incidence risk ratio [IRR] of CLP = 2.38 [95% confidence interval = 1.30, 4.36] and of CL = 2.73 [1.40, 5.33]) , but not ones with CP (1.08 [0.28, 4.15]). Accumulated breastfeeding duration decreased the IRR of CLP only (IRR of CLP = 2.16 [1.19, 3.93]). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with orofacial clefts aged 1 year have a potentially high incidence proportion of LRTIs. Accumulated breastfeeding duration might mediate the associations of CLP.

18.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(4): 645-655, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicated a significant association between small for gestational age (SGA) in infants and their parents' socioeconomic status (SES). Thus, this study aimed to examine if parental factors, such as maternal smoking, and the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) could mediate the associations between parental SES and SGA. METHODS: The participants of this study were pregnant women who enrolled in an ongoing birth cohort study, the Hokkaido study, during the first trimester of their pregnancies. A total of 14,593 live singleton births were included in the statistical analysis, of which 1011 (6.9%) were SGA. Two structural equation models were employed to evaluate the associations between parental SES, parental characteristics, and SGA. RESULTS: The effect of low SES on SGA was directly mediated by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during the third trimester, and alcohol consumption during the first trimester in the first model, which was based the assumption of independent associations between mediating factors. In the second model, which additionally considered the mediating factors from the first model, smoking during pregnancy mediated decline in parental SES, consequently increased SGA. Moreover, an increase in pregnancy smoking status increased the prevalence of lower maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and its effect on SGA. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this study, we observed the independent mediating effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on low SES and, consequently, SGA, with the additional mediating pathway of SES to smoking to low BMI on SGA.

19.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 58(3): 369-377, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined psychological status trajectories of mothers of infants with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in Japan. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. PARTICIPANTS: Infants with a nonsyndromic cleft (N = 148) including cleft lip and palate (CLP; n = 72), cleft lip (CL; n = 46), and cleft palate (CP; n = 30). The control group included unaffected infants (N = 84 454). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 15 weeks and 27 weeks of pregnancy and 12 months after birth, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (clinical cutoff ≥5) was used. At 1 month and 6 months after birth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (clinical cutoff ≥9) was used. RESULTS: Prenatal diagnosis rates were unavailable. Mothers of infants with CLP had higher psychological distress than controls at 27 weeks of pregnancy (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.74) and postnatal depression at 1 month after birth (PR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.53-3.19). Mothers of infants with CP showed heightened psychological distress at 27 weeks of pregnancy (PR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21-2.17) and postnatal depression 6 months after birth (PR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.01-3.43). There was no significant association between CL and maternal psychological status. At 12 months after birth, no differences in distress were found between mothers of infants with a cleft and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of infants with orofacial clefts may need psychosocial support, particularly during pregnancy and the first year after birth.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Epidemiol ; 31(4): 272-279, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population impact of modifiable risk factors on orofacial clefts is still unknown. This study aimed to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate only (CP) in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. We estimated the PAFs of maternal alcohol consumption, psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 and ≥25 kg/m2), and non-use of a folic acid supplement during pregnancy for nonsyndromic CL±P and CP in babies. RESULTS: A total of 94,174 pairs of pregnant women and their single babies were included. Among them, there were 146 nonsyndromic CL±P cases and 41 nonsyndromic CP cases. The combined adjusted PAF for CL±P of the modifiable risk factors excluding maternal alcohol consumption was 34.3%. Only maternal alcohol consumption was not associated with CL±P risk. The adjusted PAFs for CL±P of psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal BMI, and non-use of a folic acid supplement were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.7 to 15.1%), 9.9% (95% CI, -7.0 to 26.9%), 10.8% (95% CI, -9.9 to 30.3%), 2.4% (95% CI, -7.5 to 14.0%), and 15.1% (95% CI, -17.8 to 41.0%), respectively. We could not obtain PAFs for CP due to the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the population impact of the modifiable risk factors on CL±P, but not CP. This study might be useful in planning the primary prevention of CL±P.

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