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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1302-1303, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488258
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intensive control of hypertension has been reported to decrease risk of cognitive decline. However, the effect of this in older adults with hypertension and comorbid depression is not well understood. We aim to identify whether intensive control of systolic blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) in a clinical population. METHODS: Using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, we conducted survival analyses in older adults with normal cognition at baseline and treated hypertension. We also examined those with comorbid depression, to determine if intensive control of systolic BP (≤120 mmHg) was associated with reduced risk of AD. RESULTS: In all older adults with treated hypertension (n = 4505), 298 (6.6%) developed AD during a median follow-up duration of 4.2 years. In the comorbid depression subgroup (n = 1327), 152 (11.5%) developed AD. Intensive control of systolic BP was not significantly associated with reduced risk of AD in the overall sample (HR 1.13, 95%, 0.79-1.64). However, in the comorbid depression subgroup, intensive control of systolic BP (≤120 mmHg) was associated with increased risk of AD (HR 1.49, 95%, 1.03-2.15) compared to standard control (121-139 mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: In a clinical population of older adults with hypertension and comorbid depression, we found that an intensive systolic BP target of ≤120 mmHg was associated with increased risk of AD. While these findings are preliminary, they suggest that a more cautious approach to hypertension treatment may be warranted in this vulnerable subgroup.

3.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(4): 189-196, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression and anxiety are under-addressed public health problems with numerous treatment access barriers, including insufficiently available mental health specialist providers. AIMS: To examine the effectiveness of nurse-delivered telephone interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for postpartum depression. Trial registration ISRCTN88987377. METHOD: Postpartum women (n = 241) with major depression (on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I)) from 36 Canadian public health regions in rural and urban settings were randomly assigned to 12 weekly 60 min nurse-delivered telephone-IPT sessions or standard locally available care. The primary outcome was the proportion of women clinically depressed at 12 weeks post-randomisation, with masked intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes examined included comorbid anxiety, self-reported attachment and partner relationship quality. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, 10.6% of women in the IPT group (11/104) and 35% in the control group (35/100) remained depressed (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46), with the IPT group 4.5 times less likely to be clinically depressed (SCID); 21.2% in the IPT group and 51% in the control group had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score >12 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.48), and attachment avoidance decreased more in the IPT group than in the control group (P = 0.02). Significant differences favoured the IPT group for comorbid anxiety and partner relationship quality at all time points, with no differences in health service or antidepressant use. None of the IPT responders relapsed by 36 weeks. Between-group SCID differences were sustained at 24 weeks, but not at 36 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse-delivered telephone IPT is an effective treatment for diverse urban and rural women with postpartum depression and anxiety that can improve treatment access disparities.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 686-694, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH) is among the strongest risk factors for eventual suicide death yet there are limited data on which interventions are most effective for treating SH in youth. METHODS: This single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial examined brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) for suicide prevention vs. minimally-directive supportive psychotherapy in youth (aged 16-26) hospitalized following SH. Both therapies included 10 acute sessions over 15 weeks with three booster sessions occurring at three month intervals thereafter. The primary feasibility outcome was ≥70% retention at study endpoint. Efficacy measures, including repeat SH, were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four subjects were enrolled (12 per group) with one BCBT subject and two controls dropping out prior to the first therapy session. Five (45%) of the remaining BCBT subjects and seven (70%) control subjects completed all 10 acute therapy sessions. All subjects who completed five sessions went on to complete 10. There were significantly fewer instances of repeat SH in BCBT subjects (7 of 62 weeks of acute follow-up; 11%) compared to control subjects (24 of 79 weeks; 30%)(OR 0.34, 95%CI:0.13-0.92). Three subjects, all in the control condition, made a total of five suicide attempts during the study. LIMITATIONS: This study had a modest sample size and retention rate. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to achieve its primary feasibility retention goal for BCBT. However, it did demonstrate that initial adherence to follow-up predicted study completion. Despite small numbers, it also found a significant reduction in repeat SH in the BCBT group, a finding which requires replication.

5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(4): 1038-1046, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with good renal function receiving intermittent-infusion vancomycin (IIV) may require total daily doses ≥4 g to achieve trough concentrations of 15-20 mg/L, increasing the risk of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity. Continuous-infusion vancomycin (CIV) may be associated with a lower risk of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity compared with IIV, but studies comparing safety of both dosing strategies are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk of nephrotoxicity with CIV versus IIV when target concentration ranges were the same with both dosing modalities. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre matched cohort study of admitted patients between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016 was completed. Adult patients who received ≥48 h of vancomycin with at least one steady-state vancomycin concentration were eligible. The primary outcome was to compare the rates of nephrotoxic risk and renal injury, defined by the RIFLE criteria, between CIV and IIV. RESULTS: Of 2136 patients who received vancomycin during the study period, 146 CIV patients were eligible and matched to 146 IIV patients. After adjustment of potential confounders, CIV was found to have a lower odds of developing nephrotoxic risk (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21-0.98, P = 0.025) and renal injury (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.59, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: CIV is associated with a lower odds of nephrotoxicity compared with IIV when targeting the same concentration range and should be an alternative dosing strategy for patients who will receive prolonged therapy or require >4 g/day to achieve therapeutic levels.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e031545, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915160

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fracture healing can fail in up to 10% of cases despite appropriate treatment. While lithium has been the standard treatment for bipolar disorder, it may also have a significant impact to increase bone healing in patients with long bone fractures. To translate this knowledge into clinical practice, a randomised clinical trial (RCT) is proposed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre double blind, placebo-controlled RCT is proposed to evaluate the efficacy of lithium to increase the rate and predictability of long bone fracture healing in healthy adults compared to lactose placebo treatment. 160 healthy individuals from 18 to 55 years of age presenting with shaft fractures of the femur, tibia/fibula, humerus or clavicle will be eligible. Fractures will be randomised to placebo (lactose) or treatment (300 mg lithium carbonate) group within 2 weeks of the injury. The primary outcome measure will be radiographic union defined as visible callus bridging on three of the four cortices at the fracture site using a validated radiographic union score. Secondary outcome measures will include functional assessment and pain scoring. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Participant confidentiality will be maintained with publication of results. Research Ethics Board Approval: Sunnybrook Research Institute (REB # 356-2016). Health Canada Approval (HC6-24-C201560). Results of the main trial and secondary endpoints will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02999022.

7.
J Nutr ; 150(2): 331-339, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g) are unable to provide sufficient breast milk, and supplemental pasteurized donor human milk (donor milk) or preterm formula is required. The composition of donor milk differs from that of mother's milk and infants fed with donor milk often exhibit slower growth during hospitalization. The long-term impact of nutrient-enriched donor milk on growth, body composition, or blood pressure is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of nutrient-enriched donor milk compared with preterm formula on growth, body composition, and blood pressure of children born preterm and with VLBW. Associations with in-hospital mother's milk intake were explored. METHODS: This study was a follow-up of children at 5.5-y of age who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of nutrient-enriched donor milk (commencing at ≥120 mL·kg-1·d-1) or preterm formula fed as a supplement when mother's milk was unavailable. The trial intervention lasted 90 d or until hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. In this follow-up investigation, differences in total body fat percentage determined by using air displacement plethysmography (primary outcome), fat-free mass, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, BMI z scores, and blood pressure] were evaluated using linear regressions. RESULTS: Of 316 surviving infants from the earlier trial, 158 (50%) participated in the current study (53% male). Mean ± SD birth weight and gestational age were 1013 ± 264 g and 27.9 ± 2.5 wk. The median (IQR) intervention period was 67.5 d (52.0-91.0 d). Mean ± SD age and BMI z score at follow-up were 5.7 ± 0.2 y and -0.3 ± 1.2. Supplemental nutrient-enriched donor milk, compared to preterm formula, was not associated with growth, body composition, or blood pressure. In-hospital mother's milk intake was positively associated with height z score at 5.5 y (ß: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.1; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental nutrient-enriched donor milk and preterm formula during initial hospitalization results in comparable long-term growth and body composition in young children born VLBW. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759809 and at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35317141.

8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 84-91, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to prolong interscalene block (ISB) analgesia include the use of local anaesthetic adjuvants such as dexamethasone. Previous work showing prolonged block duration suggests that both perineural and intravenous (i.v.) routes can both prolong analgesia. The superiority of either route is controversial given the design of previous studies. As perineural dexamethasone is an off-label use, anaesthesiologists should be fully informed of the clinical differences, if any, on block duration. This study was designed to test whether perineural vs i.v. dexamethasone administration are equivalent. METHODS: We randomised 182 eligible patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery to receive low-dose ISB (0.5% ropivacaine 5 ml) with perineural or i.v. dexamethasone 4 mg. Subjects, anaesthesiologists, and research personnel were blinded. All subjects also received a standardised general anaesthetic and multimodal analgesia. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia analysed as an equivalence outcome (2 h equivalency margin) using the two one-sided test (TOST) method. RESULTS: For the primary outcome, duration of analgesia, and perineural and i.v. administration of dexamethasone were not equivalent. The upper and lower bounds of the 90% confidence interval were 1 h (P=0.12) and -2.5 h (P=0.01), respectively. The observed difference in mean block duration was not clinically relevant (0.75 h longer for i.v. dexamethasone). There were no other clinically significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: In the context of low-volume ISB with ropivacaine, perineural and i.v. dexamethasone were not equivalent in terms of their effects on block duration. However, there were no clinically significant differences in outcomes, and there is no advantage of perineural over intravenous dexamethasone. WWW.CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT02322242.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/farmacologia , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Plexo Braquial , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroscopia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ombro/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J ECT ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance aspects of memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), there has been wide variability in both the placement of tDCS electrodes and treatment response. This study compared the effects of bifrontal (anodal stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices), bitemporal (anodal stimulation over the temporal cortices), and sham tDCS on cognitive performance in MCI and AD. METHODS: Seventeen patients diagnosed with MCI or mild AD received 3 sessions of anodal tDCS (bifrontal, bitemporal, 2 mA for 20 minutes; and sham) in random order. Sessions were separated by 1 week. The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Word Recognition Task, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Word Recall Task, 2-back, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were used to assess cognition. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of stimulation condition on 2-back accuracy (F2,28 = 5.28 P = 0.01, ηp = 0.27), with greater improvements following bitemporal tDCS compared with both bifrontal and sham stimulations. There were no significant changes on other outcome measures following any stimulation. Adverse effects from stimulation were mild and temporary. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that improvements in specific memory tasks can be safely achieved after a single session of bitemporal tDCS in MCI and mild AD patients.

10.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155219876683, 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections commonly occur in acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy. In these patients with acute leukemia, posaconazole prophylaxis is recommended; however, voriconazole may be a less costly alternative. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of voriconazole prophylaxis in acute leukemia patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of inpatients at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre between 2005 and 2017 was completed. Hospitalized adult acute leukemia patients who received voriconazole prophylaxis (cases) were compared to patients who received fluconazole or no prophylaxis during chemotherapy (controls). Statistical analyses comparing baseline characteristics, safety, and efficacy outcomes between the study cohorts were completed. A posaconazole literature-based weighted mean risk was compared to the voriconazole risk of invasive fungal infection identified in this study. RESULTS: Of 490 acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, 83 controls and 92 cases were eligible. Case patients received an average of 24.4 ± 10.8 days of voriconazole prophylaxis. The incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal infections with voriconazole was 3.3% (3/92) versus 7.2% (6/83) in the control cohort (p > 0.05) and was comparable to the literature reported weighted incidence of invasive fungal infection with posaconazole (2.4 ± 2.1%; 95% CI 1.3%-3.4%; p > 0.05). Voriconazole was well tolerated by patients (91%; 84/91; seven discontinued due to asymptomatic elevated liver function tests). CONCLUSIONS: Voriconazole prophylaxis was found to be safe, effective, and comparable to literature-based efficacy data for risk of invasive fungal infection with posaconazole antifungal prophylaxis in patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy and could represent a significant cost advantage.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1384-1394, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on how baseline characteristics, acuity, morbidity, and nutrition work in combination to affect the growth of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants are limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine factors associated with in-hospital weight, length, and head circumference (HC) trajectories of VLBW infants. METHODS: VLBW infants (n = 316) from the GTA-DoMINO trial were included. Linear mixed-effects models assessed relations of baseline characteristics, acuity (at birth, across hospitalization), major morbidities, and nutrition (enteral feeding type, macronutrient/energy intakes) with changes in anthropometrics over hospitalization (days 1-8, 9-29, 30-75). RESULTS: Specific factors and the strength of their associations with growth depended on in-hospital time interval. Small-for-gestational-age infants experienced weight gain (4.3 g · kg-1 · d-1; 95% CI: 2.0, 6.5 g · kg-1 · d-1) during days 1-8, versus weight loss (-4.6 g · kg-1 · d-1; 95% CI: -5.6, -3.7 g · kg-1 · d-1) among appropriate-for-gestational-age infants (P < 0.001). Positive-pressure ventilation (versus oxygen/room air) was associated with slower weight (-1.8 g · kg-1 · d-1) and HC (-0.25 cm/wk) gain during days 9-29 (P < 0.001). Morbidities were negatively associated with growth after days 1-8, with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) showing negative associations with weight (-2.7 g · kg-1 · d-1), length (-0.11 cm/wk), and HC (-0.21 cm/wk) gain during days 9-29 (P < 0.001). Macronutrient/energy intakes were associated with weight across hospitalization (P ≤ 0.01), with greater weight gain (1.3-3.0 g · kg-1 · d-1) among infants achieving macronutrient/energy recommendations during days 9-29 and 30-75. Macronutrient/energy intakes were associated with HC during the first month (P = 0.013-0.003), with greater HC gain (0.07-0.12 cm/wk) among infants achieving protein, lipid, and energy recommendations during days 9-29. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline characteristics, acuity, morbidity, and nutrition factors were independently associated with VLBW infant growth. A focus on achieving macronutrient/energy recommendations and improving nutrient delivery to PDA-diagnosed infants may yield improvements to their growth. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35317141.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
12.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988719874118, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547752

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system has been a target of interest for agitation in Alzheimer disease (AD) because of potential behavioral effects and its potential impact on mechanisms implicated in AD such as oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation. We explored whether serum markers of OS and neuroinflammation were associated with response to the cannabinoid nabilone in agitated patients with AD (N = 38). All participants were enrolled in a 14-week, double-blind, cross-over trial comparing nabilone to placebo (6 weeks each) with a 1-week washout between phases. Samples were collected at the start and end of each phase. The cross-sectional relationship agitation (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory) and OS and inflammatory markers were investigated to select markers of interest. Significant markers were then explored for their relationship with response. The OS marker, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE; F1, 35 = 6.41, P = .016), and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; F1, 29 = 3.97, P = .06), were associated with agitation severity, and TNF-α remained significantly associated (F2, 25 = 3.69, P = .04) after adjustment for cognition. In the placebo phase, lower baseline 4-HNE was associated with decreases in agitation severity only (b = 0.01, P = .01), while lower baseline TNF-α was associated with decreases in agitation severity in the nabilone phase only (b = 1.14, P = .045). Changes in 4-HNE were not associated with changes in agitation severity in either phase. In the nabilone phase, lower baseline TNF-α was associated with decreases in agitation severity (b = 1.14, P = .045), and decreases in TNF-α were associated with decreases in agitation severity (b = 1.12, P = .006). These findings suggest that OS and neuroinflammation may be associated with agitation severity, while nabilone may have anti-inflammatory effects.

13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(11): 2370-2375, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recognition of delirium in the emergency department (ED) is poor. Our objectives were to assess: (1) the diagnostic accuracy of the Predicting Emergency department Delirium with an Interactive Computer Tablet (PrEDICT) "serious game" to identify older ED patients with delirium compared to clinical recognition and (2) the feasibility of the PrEDICT application compared to existing tests of attention. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: ED of a Canadian tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: We included ED patients, aged 70 years and older, with a minimum 4-hour stay. We excluded anyone with critical illness, communication barriers, and visual impairment or those unable to use a computer tablet. None had prevalent delirium by ED clinicians' routine clinical assessment. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were asked to tap targets on a tablet at four difficulty levels. Time and accuracy were automatically recorded. Other measures included the Confusion Assessment Method, the Delirium Severity Index, the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT), and the Choice Reaction Test (CRT). RESULTS: We enrolled 203 patients. Their average age was 80.6 years, 49.8% were female, and their average ED length of stay was 15.9 hours. Sixteen subjects had clinically unrecognized delirium, and 14 of them completed the PrEDICT game (87.5%). We developed a threshold score with 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.8%-100.0%) and 59.7% specificity (95% CI = 52.3%-66.6%) to identify patients with clinically unrecognized delirium. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.77-0.94). Completion rates were 196/203 (96.6%) for the PrEDICT serious game compared to 128/203 (63.1%) for the CRT and 51/203 (25.1%) for the DVT. CONCLUSION: Older ED patients were able to use our serious game, including 87.5% of those with clinically unrecognized delirium. The PrEDICT application has potential to act as a sensitive screening tool to identify older ED patients with clinically unrecognized delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2370-2375, 2019.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(1): 21-31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agitation is a prevalent and difficult-to-treat symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been a target of interest for the treatment of agitation. However, ECS signaling may interact with AD-related changes in brain cholesterol metabolism. Elevated brain cholesterol, reflected by reduced serum 24-S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), is associated with reduced membrane fluidity, preventing ligand binding to cannabinoid receptor 1. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether 24S-OHC was associated with agitation severity and response to nabilone. METHODS: 24S-OHC was collected from AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial on nabilone at the start and end of each phase. This allowed for the cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation between 24S-OHC and agitation (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI). Post-hoc analyses included adjustments for baseline standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam (sMMSE), and analyses with CMAI subtotals consistent with the International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) definition for agitation (physical aggression and nonaggression, and verbal aggression). RESULTS: 24S-OHC was not associated with CMAI scores cross-sectionally or longitudinally, before and after adjusting for baseline sMMSE. However, 24S-OHC was associated with greater CMAI IPA scores at baseline (F(1,36) = 4.95, p = 0.03). In the placebo phase only, lower 24S-OHC at baseline was associated with increases in CMAI IPA scores (b = -35.2, 95% CI -65.6 to -5.0, p = 0.02), and decreases in 24S-OHC were associated with increases in CMAI IPA scores (b = -20.94, 95% CI -57.9 to -4.01, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: 24S-OHC was associated with agitation severity cross-sectionally, and longitudinally in patients with AD. However, 24S-OHC did not predict treatment response, and does not change over time with nabilone.

15.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171928

RESUMO

Background: With an increasing demand for mother's own milk to be viewed as a primary source of nutritional support in the care of very small and preterm infants, mothers of preterm infants may be at risk of expressing suboptimal amounts of milk. The use of a galactogogue is often considered when these mothers are still having challenges in breast milk production. Methods: For this analysis, the study participants were the 90 mothers who participated in the EMPOWER trial and, at the time of randomization, were stratified by days post-delivery, 8-14 days and 15-21 days. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of mothers in each of the days post-delivery groups who achieved a 50% increase in breast milk volume on day 14 of the study treatment period. Results: There was no significant difference in the proportion of mothers in the 8-14 days group (75.0%) who achieved a 50% increase in breast milk volume on day 14 of the study treatment period.compared to those in the 15-21 days group (60.9%), OR 1.93 (95% CI 0.78, 4.76; p = 0.15). Because comorbidities and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids between the groups of mothers were viewed as potential confounders, a logistic regression was performed after controlling for these two variables with the adjusted OR being 1.84 (0.73, 4.64; p = 0.19). Conclusions: This secondary analysis was able to demonstrate that mothers of very preterm infants, < 30 weeks gestation at birth, were able to respond to the study treatment in a similar fashion regardless of timing of entry and exposure to domperidone. In the presence of a suboptimal breast milk production by the end of the first week postpartum, below 250 ml/kg/d based on infant birth weight, a 14 day treatment of domperidone could be considered to augment breast milk production. Trial registration: EMPOWER has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT01512225) on January 10, 2012.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(11): 1161-1173, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of nabilone for agitation in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: This 14-week randomized double-blind crossover trial compared nabilone to placebo (6 weeks each) with a 1-week washout between phases. SETTING: Patients were recruited from a long-term care facility and geriatric psychiatry clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Patients had AD (standardized Mini-Mental State Examination [sMMSE ≤24]) and agitation (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version [NPI-NH]-agitation/aggression subscore ≥3). INTERVENTION: Nabilone (target 1-2 mg) versus placebo. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was agitation (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]). Secondary outcomes included NPI-NH total, NPI-NH caregiver distress, cognition (sMMSE and Severe Impairment Battery [SIB] or Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale of Cognition), global impression (Clinician's Global Impression of Change [CGIC]), and adverse events. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (mean ± SD age = 87 ± 10, sMMSE = 6.5 ± 6.8, CMAI = 67.9 ± 17.6, NPI-NH total = 34.3 ± 15.8, 77% male, nabilone dose = 1.6 ± 0.5 mg) were randomized. There were no crossover or treatment-order effects. Using a linear mixed model, treatment differences (95% CI) in CMAI (b = -4.0 [-6.5 to -1.5], t(30.2) = -3.3, p = 0.003), NPI-NH total (b = -4.6 [-7.5 to -1.6], t(32.9) = -3.1, p = 0.004), NPI-NH caregiver distress (b = -1.7 [-3.4 to -0.07, t(33.7) = -2.1, p = 0.041), and sMMSE (b = 1.1 [0.1-2.0], t(22.6) = 2.4, p = 0.026) all favored nabilone. However, in those who completed the SIB (n = 25) treatment differences favored placebo (b = -4.6 [-7.3 to -1.8], t(20.7) = -4.8, p = 0.003). CGIC improvement during nabilone (47%) and placebo (23%) was not significantly different (McNemar's test, exact p = 0.09). There was more sedation during nabilone (45%) compared to placebo (16%) phases (McNemar's test, exact p = 0.02), but treatment-limiting sedation was not significantly different (McNemar's test, exact p = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Nabilone may be an effective treatment for agitation. However, sedation and cognition should be closely monitored.

17.
Neuroimage ; 200: 275-280, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254646

RESUMO

MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) can temporarily permeabilize the blood-brain barrier (BBB), noninvasively, to allow therapeutics access to the central nervous system. However, its secondary and potential neuromodulation effects are not well understood. We aimed to characterize the functional impact of MRgFUS BBB opening in human subjects, based on the phase I trial in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed for changes in bilateral frontoparietal networks in resting state functional MRI from five subjects after BBB opening in the right frontal lobe. We found a transient functional connectivity decrease within only the ipsilateral frontoparietal network that was recovered by the next day. Additionally, baseline to month three comparisons did not reveal any significant differences from matched-controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Overall, MRgFUS may transiently affect neurologic function, but the functional organization is restored at one day and remains unchanged at three months. This first in human data has implications for the development of MRgFUS as a drug delivery platform to pathologic brain tissue and potential use for non-invasive neuromodulation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Barreira Hematoencefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
18.
CJEM ; 21(6): 789-792, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delays in triage processes in the emergency department (ED) can compromise patient safety. The aim of this study was to provide proof-of-concept that a self-check-in kiosk could decrease the time needed to identify ambulatory patients arriving in the ED. We compared the use of a novel automated self-check-in kiosk to identify patients on ED arrival to routine nurse-initiated patient identification. METHODS: We performed a prospective trail with random weekly allocation to intervention or control processes during a 10-week study period. During intervention weeks, patients used a self-check-in kiosk to self-identify on arrival. This electronically alerted triage nurses to patient arrival times and primary complaint before triage. During control weeks, kiosks were unavailable and patients were identified using routine nurse-initiated triage. The primary outcome was time-to-first-identification, defined as the interval between ED arrival and identification in the hospital system. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) time-to-first-identification was 1.4 minutes (1.0-2.08) for intervention patients and 9 minutes (5-18) for control patients. Regression analysis revealed that the adjusted time-to-first-identification was 13.6 minutes (95% confidence interval 12.8-14.5) faster for the intervention group. CONCLUSION: A self-check-in kiosk significantly reduced the time-to-first-identification for ambulatory patients arriving in the ED.

19.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 9518309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001362

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to identify neurostructural frontal lobe correlates of cognitive and speaking rate changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 17 patients diagnosed with ALS and 12 matched controls underwent clinical, bulbar, and neuropsychological assessment and structural neuroimaging. Neuropsychological testing was performed via a novel computerized frontal battery (ALS-CFB), based on a validated theoretical model of frontal lobe functions, and focused on testing energization, executive function, emotion processing, theory of mind, and behavioral inhibition via antisaccades. The measure of speaking rate represented bulbar motor changes. Neuroanatomical assessment was performed using volumetric analyses focused on frontal lobe regions, postcentral gyrus, and occipital lobes as controls. Partial least square regressions (PLS) were used to predict behavioral (cognitive and speech rate) outcomes using volumetric measures. The data supported the overall hypothesis that distinct behavioral changes in cognition and speaking rate in ALS were related to specific regional neurostructural brain changes. These changes did not support a notion of a general dysexecutive syndrome in ALS. The observed specificity of behavior-brain changes can begin to provide a framework for subtyping of ALS. The data also support a more integrative framework for clinical assessment of frontal lobe functioning in ALS, which requires both behavioral testing and neuroimaging.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fala
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 306, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is increasingly used to treat locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Improved response to NAC correlates with better survival outcomes. The dual purpose of this study is to report recurrence and survival outcomes for LABC patients treated with NAC, surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy and to correlate these outcomes with tumour response after NAC using multiple response assessment methods. METHODS: All LABC patients treated for curative intent with NAC, surgery, and adjuvant radiotherapy at our institute between January 2009 and December 2014 were included for analysis. NAC was mostly anthracycline and taxane-based; radiotherapy consisted of 50 Gy to the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Response to NAC was categorized using synoptic pathology reports, modified-RECIST and Chevallier scores. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: The cohort included 103 patients nearly equally divided between Stage II (n = 53) and Stage III (n = 50). Rates of locoregional control (LRC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were 99, 98, and 100% at 1 year and 89, 69 and 77% at 5 years, respectively. Responses to NAC did not correlate with LRC (p > 0.05) but did correlate with RFS and OS (p < 0.05), except that the Chevallier score did not predict RFS (p = 0.06). Using bivariate Cox modeling tumour size before (p = 0.003) and after (p < 0.001) NAC, stage group (p = 0.05), and response assessed by synoptic pathology (p = 0.05), modified-RECIST (p = 0.001), and Chevallier score (p = 0.015) all predicted for RFS. No factors predicted for LRC. CONCLUSION: Pathologic response by all tested methods correlated with improved survival but were not associated with decreased LRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Análise de Sobrevida
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