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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820799

RESUMO

The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

4.
Cancer ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light at night (LAN) inhibits nighttime secretion of melatonin and may cause circadian disruption, which may be a risk factor for cancer. Recent studies have linked high LAN exposure with elevated breast cancer risk. Given that breast cancer may share a common hormone-dependent etiology with thyroid cancer and that circadian rhythms play a role in regulating thyroid function, the authors hypothesized that exposure to LAN is positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence. METHODS: This study examined the association between LAN and thyroid cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. LAN exposure was estimated from satellite data and was linked to residential addresses at the baseline. Incident thyroid cancer cases were ascertained via linkage to state cancer registries. Cox regression was used to determine the relationship between LAN and thyroid cancer risk, with adjustments made for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. RESULTS: Among 464,371 participants, a positive association was found between LAN and thyroid cancer risk. Specifically, in comparison with the lowest quintile of LAN, the highest quintile was associated with a 55% increase in risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.02). The association was primarily driven by papillary thyroid cancer and was stronger in women (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.60) than men (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.86-1.94). In women, the association was stronger for localized cancer, whereas in men, the association was stronger for a more advanced stage. Results were consistent across different tumor sizes. CONCLUSIONS: LAN was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk. Future studies are needed to confirm this association and identify underlying biological mechanisms.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 94-105, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer tends to be diagnosed at a younger age (median age 51 years) compared with most other malignancies (such as breast cancer [62 years] or lung cancer [71 years]). The incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in women than men diagnosed from early adolescence. However, few in-utero and early life risk exposures associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer have been identified. METHODS: In this population-based nested case-control study we used registry data from four Nordic countries to assess thyroid cancer risk in offspring in relation to maternal medical history, pregnancy complications, and birth characteristics. Patient with thyroid cancer (cases) were individuals born and subsequently diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer from 1973 to 2013 in Denmark, 1987 to 2014 in Finland, 1967 to 2015 in Norway, or 1973 to 2014 in Sweden. Each case was matched with up to ten individuals without thyroid cancer (controls) based on birth year, sex, country, and county of birth. Cases and matched controls with a previous diagnosis of any cancer, other than non-melanoma skin cancer, at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis were excluded. Cases and matched controls had to reside in the country of birth at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the 2437 cases, 1967 (81·4%) had papillary carcinomas, 1880 (77·1%) were women, and 1384 (56·7%) were diagnosed before age 30 years (range 0-48). Higher birth weight (OR per kg 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]) and congenital hypothyroidism (4·55 [1·58-13·08]); maternal diabetes before pregnancy (OR 1·69 [0·98-2·93]) and postpartum haemorrhage (OR 1·28 [1·06-1·55]); and (from registry data in Denmark) maternal hypothyroidism (18·12 [10·52-31·20]), hyperthyroidism (11·91 [6·77-20·94]), goiter (67·36 [39·89-113·76]), and benign thyroid neoplasms (22·50 [6·93-73·06]) were each associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in offspring. INTERPRETATION: In-utero exposures, particularly those related to maternal thyroid disorders, might have a long-term influence on thyroid cancer risk in offspring. FUNDING: Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
6.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(12): 822-831, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cumulative occupational radiation dose response and haematopoietic malignancy mortality risks in the US radiologic technologist cohort. METHODS: Among 110 297 radiologic technologists (83 655 women, 26 642 men) who completed a baseline questionnaire sometime during 1983-1998, a retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess cumulative, low-to-moderate occupational radiation dose and haematopoietic malignancy mortality risks during 1983-2012. Cumulative bone marrow dose (mean 8.5 mGy, range 0-430 mGy) was estimated based on 921 134 badge monitoring measurements during 1960-1997, work histories and historical data; 35.4% of estimated doses were based on badge measurements. Poisson regression was used to estimate excess relative risk of haematopoietic cancers per 100 milligray (ERR/100 mGy) bone-marrow absorbed dose, adjusting for attained age, sex and birth year. RESULTS: Deaths from baseline questionnaire completion through 2012 included 133 myeloid neoplasms, 381 lymphoid neoplasms and 155 leukaemias excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Based on a linear dose-response, no significant ERR/100 mGy occurred for acute myeloid leukaemia (ERR=0.0002, 95% CI <-0.02 to 0.24, p-trend>0.5, 85 cases) or leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR=0.05, 95% CI <-0.09 to 0.24, p-trend=0.21, 155 cases). No significant dose-response trends were observed overall for CLL (ERR<-0.023, 95% CI <-0.025 to 0.18, p-trend=0.45, 32 cases), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (ERR=0.03, 95% CI <-0.2 to 0.18, p-trend=0.4, 201 cases) or multiple myeloma (ERR=0.003, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.16, p-trend>0.5, 112 cases). Findings did not differ significantly by demographic factors, smoking or specific radiological procedures performed. CONCLUSION: After follow-up averaging 22 years, there was little evidence of a relationship between occupational radiation exposure and myeloid or lymphoid haematopoietic neoplasms.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984898

RESUMO

CONTEXT: US papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence recently declined for the first time in decades, for reasons that remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to evaluate PTC incidence trends, including by histologic subtype and size, and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). DESIGN: This descriptive study uses US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 cancer registry data (2000-2017). PATIENTS: Participants included individuals diagnosed with PTC (2000-2017) or NIFTP (2016-2017). RESULTS: During 2000 to 2015, PTC incidence increased an average 7.3% per year, (95% CI, 6.9% to 7.8%) during 2000 to 2009, and 3.7% per year (95% CI, 0.2% to 7.3%) during 2009 to 2012, before stabilizing in 2012 to 2015 (annual percentage change [APC] = 1.4% per year, 95% CI, -1.8% to 4.7%) and declining in 2015 to 2017 (APC = -4.6% per year, 95% CI, -7.6% to -1.4%). The recent declines were observed for all sizes of PTC at diagnosis. Incidence of follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) sharply declined in 2015 to 2017, overall (APC = -21.1% per year; 95% CI, -26.5% to -15.2%) and for all tumor sizes. Observed increases in encapsulated papillary carcinoma (classical PTC subtype) and NIFTP each accounted for 10% of the decline in FVPTC. Classical PTC incidence continuously increased (2000-2009, APC = 8.7% per year, 95% CI, 8.1% to 9.4%; 2009-2017, APC = 1.0% per year, 95% CI, 0.4% to 1.5%), overall and for all sizes except smaller than 1 cm, as did incidence of other PTC variants combined (2000-2017, APC = 5.9% per year, 95% CI, 4.0% to 7.9%). CONCLUSION: The reasons underlying PTC incidence trends were multifactorial. Sharp declines in FVPTC incidence during 2015 to 2017 coincided with clinical practice and diagnostic coding changes, including reclassification of noninvasive encapsulated FVPTC from a malignant to in situ neoplasm (NIFTP). Observed increases in NIFTP accounted for 10% of the decline in FVPTC.

8.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(11): 617-618, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895503
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e209660, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701159

RESUMO

Importance: The long-term health effects of radioactive iodine (RAI) and antithyroid drug (ATD) treatments compared with surgery for hyperthyroidism remain uncertain. Objective: To compare solid cancer mortality rates associated with RAI and ATD treatments vs surgical management for hyperthyroidism. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study assessed patients treated for hyperthyroidism from January 1, 1946, to December 31, 1964, with follow-up through December 31, 2014. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2019, to April 23, 2020. Exposures: Management with RAI, ATDs, surgical intervention, or combinations of these treatments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comparisons of solid cancer mortality rates in each treatment group with expected rates from the general population were assessed using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and internal comparisons were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, and underlying diagnosis (Graves disease or toxic nodular goiter). Results: Of 31 363 patients (24 894 [79.4%] female; mean [SD] age, 46.9 [14.8] years) included in the study, 28 523 (90.9%) had Graves disease. The median follow-up time was 26.0 years (interquartile range, 12.3-41.9 years). Important differences in patient characteristics existed across treatment groups at study entry. Notably, the drug-only group (3.6% of the cohort) included a higher proportion of patients with prior cancers (7.3% vs 1.9%-4.0%), contributing to an elevated SMR for solid cancer mortality. After excluding prior cancers, solid cancer SMRs were not elevated in any of the treatment groups (SMR for surgery only, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.66-1.00]; SMR for drugs only, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.74-1.09]; SMR for drugs and surgery, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.94]; SMR for RAI only, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.84-0.96]; SMR for surgery and RAI, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.52-0.85]; SMR for drugs and RAI, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-1.00]; and SMR for drugs, surgery, and RAI, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96]), and no significant HRs for solid cancer death were observed across treatment groups. Among RAI-treated patients, HRs for solid cancer mortality increased significantly across levels of total administered activity (1.08 per 370 MBq; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13 per 370 MBq); this association was stronger among patients treated with only RAI (HR, 1.19 per 370 MBq; 95% CI, 1.09-1.30 per 370 MBq). Conclusions and Relevance: After controlling for known sources of confounding, the study found no significant differences in the risk of solid cancer mortality by treatment group. However, among RAI-treated patients, a modest positive association was observed between total administered activity and solid cancer mortality, providing further evidence in support of a dose-dependent association between RAI and solid cancer mortality.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3130-3138, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506420

RESUMO

In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, risk of lung cancer has been shown to increase with greater acute exposure to ionizing radiation. Although similar findings have been observed in populations exposed to low-dose, protracted radiation, such studies lack information on cigarette smoking history, a potential confounder. In a cohort of 106 068 U.S. radiologic technologists, we examined the association between estimated cumulative lung absorbed dose from occupational radiation exposure and lung cancer mortality. Poisson regression models, adjusted for attained age, sex, birth cohort, pack-years smoked and years since quitting smoking, were used to calculate linear excess relative risks (ERR) per 100 mGy, using time-dependent cumulative lung absorbed dose, lagged 10 years. Mean cumulative absorbed dose to the lung was 25 mGy (range: 0-810 mGy). During the 1983 to 2012 follow-up, 1090 participants died from lung cancer. Greater occupational radiation lung dose was not associated with lung cancer mortality overall (ERR per 100 mGy: -0.02, 95% CI: <0-0.13). However, significant dose-response relationships were observed for some subgroups, which might be false-positive results given the number of statistical tests performed. As observed in other studies of radiation and smoking, the interaction between radiation and smoking appeared to be sub-multiplicative with an ERR per 100 mGy of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.01-1.15) for those who smoked <20 pack-years and -0.03 (95% CI: <0-0.15) for those who smoked ≥20 pack-years. Our study provides some evidence that greater protracted radiation exposure in the low-dose range is positively associated with lung cancer mortality.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

12.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 189(2): 163-171, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285115

RESUMO

The use of iodine-131 S values based on reference computational phantoms with fixed thyroid model may lead to significant dosimetric errors in patients who may have different thyroid location from the reference phantoms. In the present study, we investigated individual thyroid location variation by examining the computed tomography image sets of 40 adult male and female patients. Subsequently, the thyroid location of the adult male and female mesh-type reference phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was adjusted to match each the highest, mean and the lowest locations of the thyroid observed in this dataset. The thyroid-adjusted phantoms were implemented into the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate thyroid location-dependent iodine-131 S values (rT â† thyroid) for a total of 30 target regions. The maximum variation among the observed thyroid locations was 39 mm and 36 mm for male and female patients, respectively. The mean thyroid locations of both male and female patients showed a good agreement with the ICRP reference phantoms. The thyroid location-dependent Iodine-131 S values were significantly different from the reference phantoms for most target regions by up to a factor of 3. The use of thyroid location-dependent S values in dose reconstructions should help quantify the dosimetric uncertainty in epidemiologic investigations of patients receiving iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer.

13.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(4): 245-259, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045361

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to evaluate site-specific cancer risks associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. We performed a systematic review of observational studies reporting associations between hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and subsequent site-specific cancer incidence, in MEDLINE and the COCHRANE library (inception-28/01/2019) (PROSPERO: CRD42019125094). We excluded studies with thyroid dysfunction evaluated as a cancer biomarker or after prior cancer diagnosis and those considering transient thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy or severe illnesses. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Risk estimates were pooled using random-effects models when ≥5 studies reported data for a specific cancer site. Twenty studies were included, of which 15 contributed to the meta-analysis. Compared to euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism was associated with higher risks of thyroid (pooled risk ratio: 4.49, 95%CI: 2.84-7.12), breast (pooled risk ratio: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.04-1.38), and prostate (pooled risk ratio: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.05-1.74), but not respiratory tract (pooled risk ratio: 1.06, 95%CI: 0.80-1.42) cancers. Hypothyroidism was associated with a higher risk of thyroid cancer within the first 10 years of follow-up only (pooled risk ratio: 3.31, 95%CI: 1.20-9.13). There was no or limited evidence of thyroid dysfunction-related risks of other cancer sites. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction was associated with increased risks of thyroid, breast, and prostate cancers. However, it remains unclear whether these findings represent causal relationships because information on treatments and potential confounders was frequently lacking.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

15.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 535-547, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log2 hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

16.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(1): 1-8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous analyses of cataract in radiation-exposed populations have assessed relative risk; radiogenic excess additive risk (EAR), arguably of more public health importance, has not been estimated. Previous analysis of a large prospective cohort of US radiologic technologists (USRT) quantified excess relative risk of cataract in relation to occupational radiation dose. We aim to assess EARs of cataract. METHODS: We estimated EARs of cataract/cataract surgery in the USRT cohort using generalised additive models in relation to occupational radiation exposure, and assessed risk modification by a priori-selected cataract risk factors (diabetes, body mass index, smoking, race, sex, birth-year, ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation exposure). RESULTS: There were 11 345 cataract diagnoses and 5440 of cataract surgery during 832 462 and 888 402 person-years of follow-up, respectively. Cumulative occupational radiation exposure was associated with self-reported cataract, but not with cataract surgery, with EAR/104 person-year Gy=94 (95% CI: 47 to 143, p<0.001) and EAR/104 person-year Gy=13 (95% CI: <0 to 57, p=0.551), respectively. There was marked (p<0.001) variation of EAR by age and by diabetes status, with risk higher among persons ≥75 years and diabetics. There were indications of elevated risk among those with higher UVB radiation (p=0.045), whites (p=0.056) and among those with higher levels of cigarette smoking (p=0.062). Elevated additive risk was observed for estimated occupational radiation eye-lens doses <100 mGy (p=0.004) with no dose-response curvature (p=0.903). CONCLUSIONS: The elevated additive risks associated with low-dose radiation, if confirmed elsewhere, have important public health and clinical implications for radiation workers as well as regulatory measures.


Assuntos
Catarata , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/complicações , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Catarata/epidemiologia , Catarata/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Thyroid ; 30(3): 389-395, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797741

RESUMO

Background: Whether radiation-induced thyroid cancer affects survival rates has not been clearly elucidated. Survival could be affected by the thyroid cancer itself, its treatment, or by being a sign of susceptibility to other cancers. The objective of the current study was to determine if the development of thyroid cancer is associated with a differential survival in radiation-exposed individuals. Methods: We conducted a matched prospective cohort mortality follow-up study based on data from a cohort of 4296 individuals who were irradiated predominantly for enlarged tonsils during their childhood (between 1939 and 1962) and were prospectively followed since 1974. The study matched an irradiated subject who developed (was exposed to) thyroid cancer (a "case") and two irradiated subjects, who had not developed (were not exposed to) thyroid cancer ("controls") by the time of case incidence. The two controls were randomly matched to cases by sex, year of birth, age at radiation treatment, and radiation dose. Then, using a stratified Cox analysis, we compared survival time from the date of thyroid cancer diagnosis or time of selection to either date of death or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2016). Vital status and causes of death were determined using the National Death Index (1979-2016), the Social Security Death Index (1974-1979), and study files. Cause of death was categorized as cardiovascular, malignancy, or other. Results: A total of 1008 subjects were included in the analysis, including 353 thyroid cancer cases. At the end of the study period, 162 of 655 (24.7%) of individuals without thyroid cancer had died compared with 100 of 353 (28.3%) of the subjects with thyroid cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality, comparing the thyroid cancer cases to controls, was close to unity (HR = 1.01 [0.77-1.33]). HRs remained insignificant after eliminating matched sets with microcarcinomas, defined as tumor size <10 mm (HR = 1.39 [0.96-2.03]). Distribution of the causes of death taking into account age and the time of observation differed between cases and controls (p < 0.05). Neither increased cardiovascular-related nor malignancy-related mortality was associated with radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Conclusions: Among individuals irradiated for benign conditions in childhood, development of thyroid cancer was not associated with decreased all-cause survival.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101664, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While radiotherapy is a major risk factor for thyroid cancer after childhood cancer, factors contributing to increased thyroid cancer risk after adulthood cancer remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated second primary papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk among 3,175,216 ≥ 1-year adult survivors of non-thyroid malignancies from US population-based cancer registries (2000-2015), using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Because heightened surveillance may increase detection of indolent thyroid tumors and earlier detection of advanced tumors, we examined SIRs by PTC stage and time since first cancer (latency). RESULTS: SIRs for second primary PTC (N = 4333) were statistically-significantly 1.2-3.5-fold elevated overall and after 23/27 first cancer types evaluated, with generally similar risks for localized and regional/distant PTC. SIRs for regional/distant PTC (N = 1501) were highest after pancreatic (SIR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-6.5) and soft tissue (SIR = 4.2; 95%CI = 2.8-6.2) cancers, followed by melanoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and larynx, kidney, and brain/central nervous system (SIRs = 2.0-2.9) cancers. SIRs typically decreased with increasing latency but remained statistically-significantly elevated for regional/distant-PTC ≥5 years after diagnosis of cancers of the rectum, pancreas, lung/bronchus, soft tissue, female breast, uterine corpus, prostate, and kidney, and after melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, CLL/SLL, and follicular lymphoma. Neither total nor regional/distant PTC were clearly associated with initial course of radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: PTC risk was elevated after a range of first primary adult cancers but was not clearly related to treatment. Although surveillance may contribute to elevated short-term risks of PTC, longer-term elevations in regional/distant PTC may be attributable to shared risk factors.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 686-697, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether recommended amounts of leisure-time physical activity (ie, 7.5-15 metabolic equivalent task [MET] hours/week) are associated with lower cancer risk, describe the shape of the dose-response relationship, and explore associations with moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. METHODS: Data from 9 prospective cohorts with self-reported leisure-time physical activity and follow-up for cancer incidence were pooled. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of the relationships between physical activity with incidence of 15 types of cancer. Dose-response relationships were modeled with restricted cubic spline functions that compared 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 MET hours/week to no leisure-time physical activity, and statistically significant associations were determined using tests for trend (P < .05) and 95% CIs (< 1.0). RESULTS: A total of 755,459 participants (median age, 62 years [range, 32-91 years]; 53% female) were followed for 10.1 years, and 50,620 incident cancers accrued. Engagement in recommended amounts of activity (7.5-15 MET hours/week) was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of 7 of the 15 cancer types studied, including colon (8%-14% lower risk in men), breast (6%-10% lower risk), endometrial (10%-18% lower risk), kidney (11%-17% lower risk), myeloma (14%-19% lower risk), liver (18%-27% lower risk), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11%-18% lower risk in women). The dose response was linear in shape for half of the associations and nonlinear for the others. Results for moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity were mixed. Adjustment for body mass index eliminated the association with endometrial cancer but had limited effect on other cancer types. CONCLUSION: Health care providers, fitness professionals, and public health practitioners should encourage adults to adopt and maintain physical activity at recommended levels to lower risks of multiple cancers.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(8): 810-817, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the early 1980s, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) incidence rates and the prevalence of obesity, a risk factor for PTC, have increased substantially in the United States. We estimated the proportion of PTC incidence in the United States attributable to overweight and obesity during 1995-2015. METHODS: National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort data (n = 457 331 participants, 50-71 years and cancer-free at baseline) were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PTC across body mass index categories. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated using estimated hazard ratios and annual overweight and obesity prevalence estimates from the National Health Interview Survey. PAF estimates were combined with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-13 data to calculate annual percent changes in PTC incidence rates attributable (and unrelated) to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Overweight (25.0-29.0 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m2) were associated with 1.26-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05- to 1.52-fold) and 1.30-fold (95% CI = 1.05- to 1.62-fold) increased risks of PTC, respectively, and nearly threefold (HR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.25 to 6.87) and greater than fivefold (HR = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.24 to 13.1) increased risks of large (>4 cm) PTCs compared with normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2). During 1995-2015, PAF estimates for overweight and obesity increased from 11.4% to 16.2% for all PTCs and from 51.4% to 63.2% for large PTCs. Overweight or obesity accounted for 13.6% and 57.8% of the annual percent changes in total (5.9%/y) and large (4.5%/y) PTC incidence rates, respectively, during 1995-2015. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity may have contributed importantly to the rapid rise in PTC incidence during 1995-2015. By 2015, we estimate that one of every six PTCs diagnosed among adults 60 years or older, including nearly two-thirds of large PTCs, were attributable to overweight and obesity.

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